DRR DNA

Paternal ancestry

DRR Confirmed Haplogroup is R-BY31000 (formerly R-ZZ12_1 and R1b1a2a1a1b*)

Haplogroup R-P312 is the descendant of the major R-P25 (aka R-M343) lineage and is the most common in Central Europe, Spain, France, Portugal, and the British Isles.




(above) The Big Tree: R-BY31000 (familytreedna.com)



(above) Big Y-500 results (familytreedna.com)



(above) DRR ethnicity (familytreedna.com)



(above) DRR Y-DNA 12 marker matches: 33 (familytreedna.com)



(above) Push pin match colours (familytreedna.com)



(above) DRR ethnicity (ancestry.com)

(above) DRR ethnicity (myheritagedna.com)



(above) DRR ethnicity (23andme.com)



(above) DRR ancient European origins

The European continent has witnessed many episodes of human migration, some of which have spanned thousands of years. The most recent research into these ancient migrations on the European continent suggests that there were three major groups of people that have had a lasting effect on present day peoples of European descent: hunter-gatherers, early farmers, and metal age invaders. The image below displays the percentages of autosomal DNA that I still carry from these ancient european groups.

Metal Age Invader 9%

Following the Neolithic Era (New Stone Age), the Bronze Age (3,000 to 1,000 BCE) is defined by a further iteration in tool making technology. Improving on the stone tools from the Paleolithic and Neolithic Eras, tool makers of the early Bronze Age relied heavily on the use of copper tools, incorporating other metals such as bronze and tin later in the era. The third major wave of migration into the European continent is comprised of peoples from this Bronze Age; specifically, Nomadic herding cultures from the Eurasian steppes found north of the Black Sea. These migrants were closely related to the people of the Black Sea region known as the Yamnaya.

This migration of Bronze Age nomads into the temperate regions further west changed culture and life on the European continent in a multitude of ways. Not only did the people of the Yamnaya culture bring their domesticated horses, wheeled vehicles, and metal tools; they are also credited for delivering changes to the social and genetic makeup of the region. By 2,800 BCE, evidence of new Bronze Age cultures, such as the Bell Beaker and Corded Ware, were emerging throughout much of Western and Central Europe. In the East around the Urals, a group referred to as the Sintashta emerged, expanding east of the Caspian Sea bringing with them chariots and trained horses around 4,000 years ago.

These new cultures formed through admixture between the local European farming cultures and the newly arrived Yamnaya peoples. Research into the influence the Yamnaya culture had on the European continent has also challenged previously held linguistic theories of the origins of Indo-European language. Previous paradigms argued that the Indo-European languages originated from populations from Anatolia; however, present research into the Yamnaya cultures has caused a paradigm shift and linguists now claim the Indo-European languages are rooted with the Yamnaya peoples.

By the Bronze Age, the Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b was quickly gaining dominance in Western Europe (as we see today) with high frequencies of individuals belonging to the M269 subclade. Ancient DNA evidence supports the hypothesis that the R1b was introduced into mainland Europe by the Bronze Age invaders coming from the Black Sea region. Further DNA evidence suggests that a lactose tolerance originated from the Yamnaya or another closely tied steppe group. Current day populations in Northern Europe typically show a higher frequency of relatedness to Yamnaya populations, as well as earlier populations of Western European Hunter-Gatherer societies.

Farmer 42%

Roughly 8,000 to 7,000 years ago, after the last glaciation period (Ice Age), modern human farming populations began migrating into the European continent from the Near East. This migration marked the beginning of the Neolithic Era in Europe. The Neolithic Era, or New Stone Age, is aptly named as it followed the Paleolithic Era, or Old Stone Age. Tool makers during the Neolithic Era had improved on the rudimentary "standard" of tools found during the Paleolithic Era and were now creating specialized stone tools that even show evidence of having been polished and reworked. The Neolithic Era is unique in that it is the first era in which modern humans practiced a more sedentary lifestyle as their subsistence strategies relied more on stationary farming and pastoralism, further allowing for the emergence of artisan practices such as pottery making.

Farming communities are believed to have migrated into the European continent via routes along Anatolia, thereby following the temperate weather patterns of the Mediterranean. These farming groups are known to have populated areas that span from modern day Hungary, Germany, and west into Spain. Remains of the unique pottery styles and burial practices from these farming communities are found within these regions and can be attributed, in part, to artisans from the Funnel Beaker and Linear Pottery cultures. Ötzi (the Tyrolean Iceman), the well-preserved natural mummy that was found in the Alps on the Italian/Austrian border and who lived around 3,300 BCE, is even thought to have belonged to a farming culture similar to these. However, there was not enough evidence found with him to accurately suggest to which culture he may have belonged.

Although farming populations were dispersed across the European continent, they all show clear evidence of close genetic relatedness. Evidence suggests that these farming peoples did not yet carry a tolerance for lactose in high frequencies (as the Yamnaya peoples of the later Bronze Age did); however, they did carry a salivary amylase gene, which may have allowed them to break down starches more efficiently than their hunter-gatherer forebears. Further DNA analysis has found that the Y-chromosome haplogroup G2a and mitochondrial haplogroup N1a were frequently found within the European continent during the early Neolithic Era.

Hunter-Gatherer 48%

The climate during the Pleistocene Epoch (2.6 million to 11,700 YA) fluctuated between episodes of glaciation (or ice ages) and episodes of warming, during which glaciers would retreat. It is within this epoch that modern humans migrated into the European continent at around 45,000 years ago. These Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH) were organized into bands whose subsistence strategy relied on gathering local resources as well as hunting large herd animals as they travelled along their migration routes. Thus these ancient peoples are referred to as Hunter-Gatherers. The timing of the AMH migration into Europe happens to correspond with a warming trend on the European continent, a time when glaciers retreated and large herd animals expanded into newly available grasslands.

Evidence of hunter-gatherer habitation has been found throughout the European continent from Spain at the La Brana cave to Loschbour, Luxembourg and Motala, Sweden. The individuals found at the Loschbour and Motala sites have mitochondrial U5 or U2 haplogroups, which is typical of Hunter-Gatherers in Europe and Y-chromosome haplogroup I. These findings suggest that these maternally and paternally inherited haplogroups, respectively, were present in the population before farming populations gained dominance in the area.

Based on the DNA evidence gathered from these three sites, scientists are able to identify surviving genetic similarities between current day Northern European populations and the first AMH Hunter-Gatherers in Europe. The signal of genetic sharing between present-day populations and early Hunter-Gatherers, however, begins to become fainter as one moves further south in Europe. The hunter-gatherer subsistence strategy dominated the landscape of the European continent for thousands of years until populations that relied on farming and animal husbandry migrated into the area during the middle to late Neolithic Era around 8,000 to 7,000 years ago.



(above) DRR Y-DNA



(above) DRR DNA Haplogroup

SNP Tests Taken
SNP Name Positive Test
L21 False Deep Clade-R
L48 False Deep Clade-R
M153 False Deep Clade-R
M269 True Deep Clade-R
M65 False Deep Clade-R
P312 True Deep Clade-R
SRY2627 False Deep Clade-R
U106 False Deep Clade-R
U152 False Deep Clade-R
L165 False L165
L176 False L176.2
DF19 False DF19
Z196 False Z196
L238 False L238
BY11750 True Big Y-500
BY12045 True Big Y-500
BY22302 True Big Y-500
BY27761 True Big Y-500
BY3070 True Big Y-500
BY31000 True Big Y-500
BY31001 True Big Y-500
BY31002 True Big Y-500
BY31003 True Big Y-500
BY31004 True Big Y-500
BY31005 True Big Y-500
CTS10834 True Big Y-500
CTS11985 True Big Y-500
CTS12478 True Big Y-500
CTS2664 True Big Y-500
CTS3063 True Big Y-500
CTS3358 True Big Y-500
CTS3575 True Big Y-500
CTS3654 True Big Y-500
CTS4244 True Big Y-500
CTS4368 True Big Y-500
CTS623 True Big Y-500
F115 True Big Y-500
F1209 True Big Y-500
F1329 True Big Y-500
F1704 True Big Y-500
F1714 True Big Y-500
F1753 True Big Y-500
F1767 True Big Y-500
F2048 True Big Y-500
F2142 True Big Y-500
F2155 True Big Y-500
F2402 True Big Y-500
F2587 True Big Y-500
F2688 True Big Y-500
F2837 True Big Y-500
F2985 True Big Y-500
F3111 True Big Y-500
F313 True Big Y-500
F3136 True Big Y-500
F3335 True Big Y-500
F3556 True Big Y-500
F3692 True Big Y-500
F47 True Big Y-500
F719 True Big Y-500
F82 True Big Y-500
L1090 True Big Y-500
L11 True Big Y-500
L132 True Big Y-500
L136 True Big Y-500
L15 True Big Y-500
L150 True Big Y-500
L16 True Big Y-500
L23 True Big Y-500
L265 True Big Y-500
L278 True Big Y-500
L350 True Big Y-500
L388 True Big Y-500
L389 True Big Y-500
L407 True Big Y-500
L468 True Big Y-500
L470 True Big Y-500
L478 True Big Y-500
L482 True Big Y-500
L483 True Big Y-500
L498 True Big Y-500
L500 True Big Y-500
L502 True Big Y-500
L506 True Big Y-500
L51 True Big Y-500
L52 True Big Y-500
L585 True Big Y-500
L747 True Big Y-500
L752 True Big Y-500
L754 True Big Y-500
L761 True Big Y-500
L768 True Big Y-500
L773 True Big Y-500
L779 True Big Y-500
L82 True Big Y-500
M168 True Big Y-500
M173 True Big Y-500
M207 True Big Y-500
M213 True Big Y-500
M235 True Big Y-500
M269 True Big Y-500
M294 True Big Y-500
M299 True Big Y-500
M306 True Big Y-500
M343 True Big Y-500
M415 True Big Y-500
M42 True Big Y-500
M45 True Big Y-500
M526 True Big Y-500
M74 True Big Y-500
M89 True Big Y-500
M9 True Big Y-500
M94 True Big Y-500
P128 True Big Y-500
P131 True Big Y-500
P132 True Big Y-500
P133 True Big Y-500
P134 True Big Y-500
P135 True Big Y-500
P136 True Big Y-500
P138 True Big Y-500
P139 True Big Y-500
P14 True Big Y-500
P140 True Big Y-500
P141 True Big Y-500
P143 True Big Y-500
P145 True Big Y-500
P146 True Big Y-500
P148 True Big Y-500
P149 True Big Y-500
P151 True Big Y-500
P157 True Big Y-500
P158 True Big Y-500
P159 True Big Y-500
P160 True Big Y-500
P161 True Big Y-500
P163 True Big Y-500
P166 True Big Y-500
P187 True Big Y-500
P207 True Big Y-500
P224 True Big Y-500
P225 True Big Y-500
P226 True Big Y-500
P228 True Big Y-500
P229 True Big Y-500
P230 True Big Y-500
P231 True Big Y-500
P232 True Big Y-500
P233 True Big Y-500
P234 True Big Y-500
P235 True Big Y-500
P236 True Big Y-500
P237 True Big Y-500
P238 True Big Y-500
P239 True Big Y-500
P242 True Big Y-500
P243 True Big Y-500
P244 True Big Y-500
P245 True Big Y-500
P280 True Big Y-500
P281 True Big Y-500
P282 True Big Y-500
P283 True Big Y-500
P284 True Big Y-500
P285 True Big Y-500
P286 True Big Y-500
P294 True Big Y-500
P295 True Big Y-500
P297 True Big Y-500
P310 True Big Y-500
P311 True Big Y-500
P312 True Big Y-500
P316 True Big Y-500
PAGES00026 True Big Y-500
PAGES00081 True Big Y-500
PAGES00083 True Big Y-500
PF2591 True Big Y-500
PF2608 True Big Y-500
PF2611 True Big Y-500
PF2615 True Big Y-500
PF2643 True Big Y-500
PF2745 True Big Y-500
PF2747 True Big Y-500
PF2748 True Big Y-500
PF2749 True Big Y-500
PF2770 True Big Y-500
PF3561 True Big Y-500
PF5471 True Big Y-500
PF5869 True Big Y-500
PF5871 True Big Y-500
PF5882 True Big Y-500
PF5886 True Big Y-500
PF5888 True Big Y-500
PF5953 True Big Y-500
PF5956 True Big Y-500
PF5957 True Big Y-500
PF5964 True Big Y-500
PF5965 True Big Y-500
PF5982 True Big Y-500
PF6246 True Big Y-500
PF6249 True Big Y-500
PF6250 True Big Y-500
PF6263 True Big Y-500
PF6265 True Big Y-500
PF6270 True Big Y-500
PF6271 True Big Y-500
PF6272 True Big Y-500
PF6409 True Big Y-500
PF6425 True Big Y-500
PF6430 True Big Y-500
PF6432 True Big Y-500
PF6434 True Big Y-500
PF6438 True Big Y-500
PF6443 True Big Y-500
PF6463 True Big Y-500
PF6464 True Big Y-500
PF6469 True Big Y-500
PF6470 True Big Y-500
PF6477 True Big Y-500
PF6479 True Big Y-500
PF6494 True Big Y-500
PF6495 True Big Y-500
PF6498 True Big Y-500
PF6500 True Big Y-500
PF6506 True Big Y-500
PF6507 True Big Y-500
PF6509 True Big Y-500
PF6520 True Big Y-500
PF6524 True Big Y-500
s3 True Big Y-500
V168 True Big Y-500
V186 True Big Y-500
V189 True Big Y-500
V205 True Big Y-500
V221 True Big Y-500
V241 True Big Y-500
V250 True Big Y-500
V52 True Big Y-500
V9 True Big Y-500
YSC0000075 True Big Y-500
YSC0000082 True Big Y-500
YSC0000186 True Big Y-500
YSC0000191 True Big Y-500
YSC0000224 True Big Y-500
YSC0000225 True Big Y-500
YSC0000269 True Big Y-500
YSC0000288 True Big Y-500
Z2065 True Big Y-500
DF27 True DF27
A2145 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
A2146 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
A431 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
A432 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
A433 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
A434 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
A4658 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
A4659 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
A4670 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
A6456 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
A6458 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
A7014 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
A7380 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
A7385 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
BY2285 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
BY3232 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
BY3233 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
BY3235 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
BY3286 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
BY3287 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
BY3288 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
BY3289 No call or heterozygous call R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
BY3290 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
BY3291 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
BY3292 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
BY3327 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
BY3328 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
BY3329 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
BY3330 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
BY3331 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
BY3332 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
BY653 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
BY834 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
CTS1090 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
CTS11567 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
CTS1643 No call or heterozygous call R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
CTS416 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
CTS5885 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
CTS6578 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
CTS7768 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
CTS9952 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
DF17 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
DF27 True R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
DF79 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
DF81 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
DF83 No call or heterozygous call R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
DF84 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC11369 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC11414 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC11419 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC13109 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC13110 No call or heterozygous call R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC13125 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC14113 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC14114 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC14115 No call or heterozygous call R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC14124 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC14126 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC14934 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC14951 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC17099 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC17102 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC17112 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC17114 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC20556 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC20747 No call or heterozygous call R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC20748 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC20755 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC20761 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC20764 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC20767 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC20816 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC21115 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC21124 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC21129 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC23066 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC23071 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC23074 No call or heterozygous call R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC23079 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC23083 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC30918 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC30962 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC30964 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC30993 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC30994 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC31068 No call or heterozygous call R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
FGC8127 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
L617 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
L881 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
M225 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
M756 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
P312 True R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
PH133 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
PH2047 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
S1041 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
S400 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
S7432 No call or heterozygous call R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
SK2109 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Y13115 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Y14084 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Y14468 No call or heterozygous call R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Y14469 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Y15636 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Y15637 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Y15639 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Y15924 No call or heterozygous call R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Y15926 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Y16018 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Y16863 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Y17221 No call or heterozygous call R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Y17446 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Y17787 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Y4865 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Y4867 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Y5058 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Y5072 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Y5077 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Y6949 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Y6951 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Y7363 No call or heterozygous call R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Y7364 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
YP4295 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z1513 No call or heterozygous call R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z1899 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z195 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z196 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z198 No call or heterozygous call R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z209 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z20907 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z220 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z223 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z225 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z226 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z229 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z2543 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z2545 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z2547 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z2556 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z2560 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z2563 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z2564 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z2566 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z2567 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z2571 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z2573 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z268 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z274 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z296 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z29614 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z29624 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z29875 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z29878 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z29884 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z32156 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z32164 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z34609 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
Z37492 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
ZZ12_1 True R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
ZZ12_2 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
ZZ19_1 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack
ZZ20_1 False R1b - DF27 SNP Pack

Maternal ancestry



(above) DRR maternal haplogroup migrations (23andme.com)



(above) DRR maternal haplogroup K1c2 (23andme.com and familytreedna.com)

Origin and Migrations of Haplogroup K1

Haplogroup K1 is a relatively old branch of haplogroup K that traces back to a woman who lived approximately 22,000 years ago. She and her early descendants likely lived in the Middle East, where the K haplogroup traces its origins and continues to have a strong presence. Then, about 12,000 to 15,000 years ago, some women carrying K1 likely joined early migrations that moved west into Europe. The Ice Age was ending and temperate forests spread over the previously frigid continent. Human populations that had been blocked by massive ice sheets now expanded into the interior. Others came later, entering Europe with the spread of agriculture from the Middle East about 8,000 years ago. Today, members of K1 can be found throughout Europe, the Middle East, and even in Central Asia.



(above) DRR mtDNA HVR1 matches: 206 (familytreedna.com)



(above) DRR mtDNA Haplogroup K1c2 (familytreedna.com)