R1b (previously known as Hg1 and Eu18) is the most prolific haplogroup in Europe and its frequency changes in a cline from west (where it reaches a saturation point of almost 100% in areas of Western Ireland) to east (where it becomes uncommon in parts of Eastern Europe and virtually disappears beyond the Middle East). A R1b haplotype (a set of marker scores indicative of the haplogroup) is very difficult to interpret in that they are found at relatively high frequency in the areas where the Anglo-Saxon and Danish “invaders” originally called home (e.g. 55% in Friesland), and even up to 30% in Norway. Thus an R1b haplotype makes it very challenging to determine the origin of a family with this DNA signature.
During the Last Glacial Maximum, about 18,000 years ago, the people bearing the R1b haplogroup over wintered in Northern Spain. After the glacial retreat about 12,000 years before present, R1b began a migration to the north in large numbers, and to the east in declining numbers.
R1b probably arrived in Spain from the east 30,000 years ago among the paleolithic or “old stone age” peoples considered to be aboriginal to Europe. It is believed that everyone who is R1b is a descendant in the male line from an individual known as “the patriarch” since his descendants account for over 40% of all the chromosomes of Europe. This haplogroup is characteristic of the Basques whose language is probably that of the first R1b, and who are genetically the closest to the original R1b population (which probably amounted to only a few thousand individuals).
SNP markers U106 and U152 appear to have arisen over 5,000 years ago (probably much longer) and are found in all the descendants of the man in which each first appeared. To date it appears that U106 in Britain marks “Anglo-Saxon”. Norway is about two thirds U106+; and the surrogate for the Anglo - Saxon homeland (Friesland) is about 75% U106+.
U152 is seen further east and in England only in what is known as the “Danelaw” which appears to mark Danish Viking in those who possess it. It also seems to be characteristic of the Danish Isles (although this has yet to be conclusively demonstrated) and the Danish people migrated north from Southern Sweden to Norway. Thus, some Norse will be U152+ but based on research samples only from the South-eastern part of Norway - although a larger sample may locate a more widespread distribution.
Another SNP was identified in 2008 which links all of the downstream R1b1c subclades which are derived (positive) on S116 except R1b1c9 (negative on S116). About 50% of R1b1c will be S116* meaning negative on all SNPs downstream of S116. To date individuals with this motif tend to cluster along the Atlantic facade including Denmark and Norway.
A recent mutation from DYS390=24 to 23 could explain the pattern better than a geographical attribution. A few aboriginal Shetland surnames have haplotypes that are identical to those that are overwhelmingly most frequent in certain regions of Norway (according to the YHRD database). In these instances a tentative attribution can be made that the ancestor was from Western or Northern Norway - to date the only two locations where this pattern can be observed - and which fits with the probable location of the R1b emigrants from Norway in the 800s. The only pattern so far seen to have a geographical link is DYS390=23, DYS391=11 which points to a Germanic or Scandinavian origin.
DNA analysis have been made on skeletons from Viking tombs. The mtDNA haplogroups found were the same as those found today in Europe, but with a much higher percentage of the now very rare haplogroups I and X which are each found in only 1% of the modern European population. Haplogroup I has been found in over 10% of the bodies tested from Viking cemeteries. Other studies also found mtDNA haplogroup X in Anglo-Saxon skeletons, suggesting a possible Germanic origin.
Ancient Norse appeared to belong mostly to Y-DNA haplogroups I, R1a and R1b (U106+). However, there are great disparities between the regions of Scandinavia. Denmark, along with Friesland, northern Germany and the Netherlands, have the highest incidence of haplogroup R1b. Over 40% of Swedes belong to haplogroup I1a, and another 10% to haplogroup I1c. In Norway, the three haplogroups have about the same share, but with stronger R1b concentration in the South-West and R1a in the North.
It appears that Scandinavia already shared this variety of haplogroups 2,000 years ago. The only thing that has changed over time is the increased blending between the original ethnic groups that converged in northern Europe.
Subclade R1b1b2 is defined by the presence of SNP marker M269. It has been found at generally low frequencies throughout central Eurasia and with relatively high frequency among Bashkirs of the Bashkortostan and Perm region (84.0%).
This subclade is defined by the presence of the M269 marker. From 2003 to 2005 what is now R1b1b2 was designated R1b3. From 2005 to 2008 it was R1b1c.
R-M269 Long-hand: R1b1b2 (formerly R1b1c, R1b3) Defining SNP: M269 Parent Clade: R-P297 Subclades: R-P311
The members of R1b3 (or R-M269, formerly known as R1b) are believed to be the descendants of the first modern humans who entered Europe about 35,000-40,000 years ago (Aurignacian culture). Those R1b3 forebears were the people who painted the beautiful art in the caves in Spain and France. They were the modern humans who were the contemporaries - and perhaps exterminators - of the European Neanderthals.
In articles published around 2000 it was proposed that this subclade came into existence in Europe before the last Ice Age (i.e. aka Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), approximately 20,000 years ago), but more recently this scenario is no longer receiving much mainstream attention. A much newer estimate for R1b1b2 arising is around 5,000 to 8,000 years ago. It also appears increasingly to be the case that Western European R1b is dominated by R-P310, also known as R-L11. It is this Western European branch which is in turn dominated by U106 and P312, and the typical most common STR Y-DNA signature for Western Europe, the so-called Atlantic Modal Haplotype, which is also sometimes referred to as “Haplotype 15”. Haplotype 15 is contrasted with “Haplotype 35”, which has long been noted as a distinct type of R1b1b2, more common towards the southeast of Europe.
67 Y-chromosome Short Tandem Repeat (STR) markers for David R Ramsdale Locus 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 DYS# 393 390 19* 391 385a 385b 426 388 439 389-1 392 389-2 Alleles 13 23 14 11 11 14 12 13 11 13 13 28
Locus 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 DYS# 458 459a 459b 455 454 447 437 448 449 464a** 464b** 464c** 464d** Alleles 17 9 10 11 11 25 14 19 30 15 15 15 18
Locus 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 DYS# 460 GATA H4 YCA II a YCA II b 456 607 576 570 CDY a CDY b 442 438 Alleles 11 11 19 23 16 15 18 17 36 38 12 12
Locus 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 DYS# 531 578 395S1a 395S1b 590 537 641 472 406S1 511 Alleles 12 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10
Locus 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 DYS# 425 413a 413b 557 594 436 490 534 450 444 481 520 446 Alleles 12 21 23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13
Locus 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 DYS# 617 568 487 572 640 492 565 Alleles 12 11 13 11 11 12 12
*Also known as DYS 394
**On 5/19/2003, these values were adjusted down by 1 point because of a change in Lab nomenclature.
***A value of “0” for any marker indicates that the lab reported a null value or no result for this marker. All cases of this nature are retested multiple times by the lab to confirm their accuracy. Mutations causing null values are infrequent, but are passed on to offspring just like other mutations, so related male lineages such as a father and son would likely share any null values.
Allele: one of the different forms of a gene that can exist at a single locus. Since mutations in the allele value occur very slowly with time, one should see the same allele value for a male and his great-grandfather for example.
DYS (DNA Y-Chromosome Segment): a nomenclature system which assigns DYS numbers to newly discovered markers. They are the "names" of each marker.
Locus (plural-loci): a specific spot in the genome. A variable locus will have several possible alleles.
Test results of a deep clade test have determined my exact subclade or branch of the haplogroup to be:
R1b1a2a1a1b*: P312+ M269+ L21- L48- M153- M65- SRY2627- U106- U152- L176.2- L165- DF19- L238- Z196-
(above) DNA Migration Route Map for Haplogroup R1b
(above) DNA Y-Haplotree for Subclade R1b1b2 R-M269 (NB: tested negative for U106 & L48)
(above) DNA Migration Route Map for Haplogroup R1b
(above) DNA Frequency Map for Haplogroup R1b
(above) My mtDNA Haplogroup (K1c2) CRS Differences
"Katrine", the founding mother of mitochondrial DNA haplogroup K, was one of the "Seven Daughters of Eve" as listed in the 2001 book of that title by Bryan Sykes. A lot has happened since 2001, but the book is still valuable. Katrine lived about 16,000 years ago. Perhaps the oldest known K descendant was Oetzi the Iceman whose frozen body was discovered in the Alps in 1991. Estimated at 5000 years old, the Iceman proved to have the basic mutations for a K: 16224C and 16311C. Every K is a cousin of Oetzi.
Although the "defining motifs" for K are unusually shown as Hyper Variable Region 1 (HVR1) mutations 16224C and 16311C, virtually all K's have 16519C in HVR1 plus 073G, 263G and 315.1C in HVR2. Those K's not shown as having those mutations likely have not been tested for them, although "back mutations" do occur. The FamilyTreeDNA mtDNAPlus test should find them all. Virtually every K will also have other mutations as part of a subclade or as personal mutations. All mutations are differences from the Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS). There is at present no K subclade test publicly available.
Haplogroup determination using the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism test shows that David R. Ramsdale is positive for the following SNPs:
19 February 2016
Haplogroup R-P312 is the descendant of the major R-P25 (aka R-M343) lineage and is the most common in Central Europe, Spain, France, Portugal, and the British Isles.
111 Y-DNA - Standard Y-STR Values for David R. Ramsdale PANEL 1 (1-12) Marker DYS393 DYS390 DYS19** DYS391 DYS385 DYS426 DYS388 DYS439 DYS389I DYS392 DYS389II*** Value 13 23 14 11 11-14 12 13 11 13 13 28 PANEL 2 (13-25) Marker DYS458 DYS459 DYS455 DYS454 DYS447 DYS437 DYS448 DYS449 DYS464 Value 17 9-10 11 11 25 14 19 30 15-15-15-18 PANEL 3 (26-37) Marker DYS460 Y-GATA-H4 YCAII DYS456 DYS607 DYS576 DYS570 CDY DYS442 DYS438 Value 11 11 19-23 16 15 18 17 36-38 12 12 PANEL 4 (38-47) Marker DYS531 DYS578 DYF395S1 DYS590 DYS537 DYS641 DYS472 DYF406S1 DYS511 Value 12 9 15-16 8 10 10 8 10 10 PANEL 4 (48-60) Marker DYS425 DYS413 DYS557 DYS594 DYS436 DYS490 DYS534 DYS450 DYS444 DYS481 DYS520 DYS446 Value 12 21-23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 PANEL 4 (61-67) Marker DYS617 DYS568 DYS487 DYS572 DYS640 DYS492 DYS565 Value 12 11 13 11 11 12 12 PANEL 5 (68-75) Marker DYS710 DYS485 DYS632 DYS495 DYS540 DYS714 DYS716 DYS717 Value 34 15 9 16 12 25 26 19 PANEL 5 (76-85) Marker DYS505 DYS556 DYS549 DYS589 DYS522 DYS494 DYS533 DYS636 DYS575 DYS638 Value 13 11 13 12 10 9 12 12 10 11 PANEL 5 (86-93) Marker DYS462 DYS452 DYS445 Y-GATA-A10 DYS463 DYS441 Y-GGAAT-1B07 DYS525 Value 11 30 12 13 24 13 10 10 PANEL 5 (94-102) Marker DYS712 DYS593 DYS650 DYS532 DYS715 DYS504 DYS513 DYS561 DYS552 Value 20 15 18 14 24 17 12 15 24 PANEL 5 (103-111) Marker DYS726 DYS635 DYS587 DYS643 DYS497 DYS510 DYS434 DYS461 DYS435
Note: consolidation of the 111 markers results in only 102 markers being shown:
- 385 = 385a + 385b
- 459 = 459a + 459b
- 464 = 464a + 464b + 464c + 464d
- YC11 = YC11a + YC11b
- CDY = CDYa + CDYb
- DYF395S1 = 395S1a + 395S1b
- 413 = 413a + 413b