Derivation of the Surname RAMSDALE

"The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" (1979) A. H. Smith, Volume V

Pickering Lythe, Whitby Strand and Langbargh East Wapentakes

Part 1 Index: Etymological & Teutonic Sources

  1. Derivation of the Surname RAMSDALE
  2. Etymology
  3. Teutonic Sources
  4. Viking Influence
  5. Danish or Norwegian Origin ?
  6. Topographical and Toponymic (habitation) Surnames
  7. Heraldry
  8. Notes
  9. Møre og Romsdal, Norway
  10. Romsdal to Ramsdale

Part 2 Index: Locative Sources

  1. Ramsdale Hamlet, Fylingdale's Parish, North Yorkshire
  2. Ramsdale Megalithic Standing Stones, North Yorkshire
  3. Lilla Howe Bronze Age Barrow, North Yorkshire
  4. Wade's Causeway, North Yorkshire
  5. Ramsdale Valley, Scarborough, North Yorkshire
  6. Ramsdale & Ramsdell Chapelries, Hampshire
  7. Lilla Howe Bronze Age Barrow, North Yorkshire
  8. Cuerdale Hoard, Preston, Lancashire
  9. Wade's Causeway, North Yorkshire

Part 3 Index: Danish or Norwegian Origin

  1. Danish or Norwegian Origin (published sources)
  2. Danish or Norwegian Origin (table of place-names)
  3. Viking Society Web Publications
  4. Molde Wind Roses
  5. "On dalr and holmr in the place-names of Britain", Dr. Gillian Fellows-Jensen
  6. "The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" (1979) A. H. Smith, Volume V [THIS PAGE]
  7. "Viking Age Yorkshire" (2014) Matthew Townend at pages 95 to 112

Part 4 Index: General

  1. Fylingdales: Geographical and Historical Information (1890), Transcript of the entry for the Post Office, Professions and Trades in Bulmer's Directory of 1890
  2. Fylingdales Parish: Victoria County History (1923) A History of the County of York North Riding Volume 2, Pages 534 to 537
  3. Ramsdale Mill, Robin Hood's Bay, Yorkshire - Postcard Views (circa 1917 to 1958)
  4. Ramsdale Valley, Scarborough, North Yorkshire: Edwardian Postcards (1901 to 1915)
  5. Scarborough, North Yorkshire: Bulmer's History and Directory of North Yorkshire (1890)
  6. Ramsdale Megalithic Standing Stones, Bronze Age Stone Circle, Fylingdales Moor, North Yorkshire
  7. Robin Hood's Bay - published articles regarding its origin
  8. Ramsdale Family Register - Home Page
  9. Whitby Jet - published articles


The area researched was originally confined to 'The Chapelry of Fylingdales' - see map above - first recorded as Figclinge in the 11th century, Figelinge and Fielinge in the 11th and 12th centuries and possibly as Saxeby in the 12th century. It was a parochial chapelry south of Whitby and contained the villages of Robin Hood's Bay and Thorpe, or Fylingthorpe (which was recorded as Prestethorpe in the 13th century) and the hamlets of Normanby, Parkgate, Ramsdale, Raw (Fyling Rawe, 16th century) and Stoupe Brow. Fylingdales Parish covers an area of 13,325 acres (53.92 km2, 20.82 miles2) of land and inland water.

The area researched was then extended beyond Fylingdales Parish to include 'The Liberty of Whitby Strand' comprising, in 1831, the parishes of Whitby, Hackness, Sneaton and the Chapelry of Fylingdales as taken from A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 2, ed. William Page (London, 1923) at pages 502 to 505 (see map below) and which now includes the parishes of Aislaby (1865), Ruswarp (1870) and Hawsker (1878).

The area researched has been further extended to include (1) Pickering Lythe Wapentake, (2) Whitby Strand Wapentake and (3) Langbargh East Wapentake, described in "The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" (1928) A. H. Smith, Volume V, at pages 74 to 157; in particular the littoral parishes comprising the North Yorkshire coast.

England 878 AD The Liberty of Whitby Strand

North Yorkshire Littoral - Parishes

Danish or Norwegian Origin ?

"Robin Hood's Bay lies in the ancient parish of Fylingdales. The name itself is believed to be derived from the Old English word 'Fygela' which meant 'marshy ground'. The first evidence of man in the area was 3000 years ago when Bronze Age burial grounds were dug on the high moorland a mile or so south of the village. These are known as Robin Hood's Butts. Some 1500 years later, Roman soldiers had a stone signal tower built at Ravenscar about the 4th century AD. The first regular settlers, however, were probably Saxon peasants, followed by the Norsemen. The main colonists of this coast were Norwegians who were probably attracted by the rich glacial soil and ample fish, and this is how they survived by a mixture of farming and fishing. The likely original settlement of the Norsemen was at Raw, a hamlet slightly inland, which helped to avoid detection by other pirates." See Robin Hood's Bay - its history and origins.

It is frequently impossible to decide whether a particular word or personal name is of Danish or Norwegian origin. However, place-names on the North Yorkshire coast ending in dale, by and thorpe are indicative of settlement by Norwegian adventurers in the 9th century AD who had joined Danish Vikings in subjugating the whole of northern England (the Danelaw) before settling there as farmers and traders and developing great mercantile cities such as York.

"It is only, I think, by comparison with other districts, and from the history of the old Danes and Norse - not merely as pirates, but as colonists - that we may hope to learn the facts and interpret the remains of the great Viking settlements." per "Norse Place-names in Wirral" (1896) W. G. Collingwood, Saga Book Vol. II at page 147

ON Origins: local place-name evidence

In the Pickering Lythe, Whitby Strand and Langbargh East Wapentakes there are some 8,731 examples of local place-names containing one or more of 502 ON original elements. Where a place-name has two or more ON original elements it is included under both so the total number of examples includes some double, triple and quadruple counting. Examples of such multiple ON element listings are:

In this regard see place-name element raw: hrar, bráð 'raw flesh' and rauðr 'red' with (seven) duplicate entries.

The table of local place-names can be found in Part 4 of "Derivation of the Surname RAMSDALE".

Old Norse is the language of Norway in the period circa 750 to 1350 (after which Norwegian changes considerably) and of Iceland from the settlement (circa 870) to the Reformation (circa 1550 - a date that sets a cultural rather than a linguistic boundary). Known in modern Icelandic as Norræna, in Norwegian as Norrønt and in English sometimes as West Norse or Old Icelandic, this type of speech is a western variety of Scandinavian.

Although Icelandic circa 870 to 1550 and Norwegian circa 750 to 1350 are here given the designation 'Old Norse', it would be wrong to think of this language as entirely uniform, without variation in time or space. The form of Scandinavian spoken in Norway around 750 differed in a number of important respects from that spoken around 1350, and by the latter date the Norwegian carried to Iceland by the original settlers had begun to diverge from the mother tongue. Nevertheless, in the period circa 1150 to 1350, when the great mediæval literature of Iceland and Norway was created, there existed an essential unity of language in the western Scandinavian world.

Old English is the name given to the language spoken by the Anglo-Saxons in the 5th to 11th centuries.

Basic Pronunciation of Norrœnt mál (Old Norse)

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a as in far dagr 'day'
á as in father ár 'year'
e as in red ek 'I'
é as in said vér 'we'
i short, as in pit fiskr 'fish'
í long, as in eat íss 'ice'
ǫ as in hot ǫl 'ale'
o as in oat stormr 'storm'
ó as in rode sól 'sun'
ø as 'e' in her døkkr 'dark'
ö as 'e' in her björk 'birch'
u as in root sumar 'summer'
ú as in rude fúss 'eager'
y as in rue yfir 'over'
ý as in feuille ýr 'yew'
aa as in awe Thorsaa 'Thor's rivulet'
au as in now brauð 'bread'
æ as in mad sær 'sea'
œ as in feu, lengthened œrr 'mad'
ei as in rain bein 'bone'
ey ON e + y (red rue) ey 'island'
b as in buy bíta 'bite'
bb the same sound, lengthened gabb 'mockery'
c as in keep köttr 'cat'
d as in day dómr 'judgement'
dd the same sound, lengthened oddr 'point'
ð as in this jörð 'earth'
f (1) as in far 'money'
f (2) as in very haf 'ocean'
ff as in far, but long offr 'offering'
g (1) as in goal gefa 'give'
g (2) as in loch lágt 'low'
g (3) as in loch, but voiced eiga 'own'
gg (1) as in goal, lengthened egg 'edge'
gg (2) as in loch gløggt 'clear'
h as in have horn 'horn'
j as in year jarl 'earl'
k as in call köttr 'cat'
kk the same sound, lengthened ekki 'nothing'
l as in leaf nál 'needle'
ll the same sound, lengthened hellir 'cave'
m as in home frami 'boldness'
mm the same sound, lengthened frammi 'in front'
n (1) as in sin hrinda 'push'
n (2) as in sing hringr 'ring'
nn as in sin, but long steinn 'stone'
p as in happy œpa 'shout'
pp the same sound, lengthened heppinn 'lucky'
r rolled gøra 'do'
rr the same sound, lengthened verri 'worse'
s as in this reisa 'raise'
ss the same sound, lengthened áss 'beam'
t as in boat tönn 'tooth'
tt the same sound, lengthened nótt 'night'
v as in win vera 'to be'
þ th, but as in thin þing 'assembly'
x as in lochs øx 'axe'
z as in bits góz 'property'

"The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" (1979) A. H. Smith, Volume V at pages xvii, xvii, xviii, xix, xx, xxv, xxvi, xxvii, xxviii, xxix & 74 to 157: (1) Pickering Lythe Wapentake (pages 74 to 111), (2) Whitby Strand Wapentake (pages 111 to 128) and (3) Langbargh East Wapentake (pages 128 to 157)

Introduction (at pages xvii to xxii)

… From this and other evidence it would seem that the Anglian settlement of Bernicia was at least a century later than that of the south and east of England. The settlement of Deira had apparently begun before the middle of the sixth century, and archaeological evidence, such as urn-burials found at Saltburn, points to a date about 500. Heathen burial-grounds which must be earlier than the reception of Christianity after the baptism of Edwin in 627 occur in the North Riding at Hob Hill near Saltburn and Robin Hood's Bay not far from Fylingdales, both on the coast, and finds of early sixth century brooches suggest that they once existed at Bulmer, and at Thornbrough near Catterick. In the rarity of heathen Anglian burial-places the North and West Ridings stand in contrast to the East Riding, where such sites are numerous. It is safe to argue from this that the Angles did not advance to occupy the north and west of Yorkshire until they were well established in the east.

The distribution of names in -ing and -ingaham suggests the same conclusion. The existence of these names should not be rigorously interpreted in Yorkshire as proving settlement before the year 600. The first Anglian settlement in Airedale, represented by names like Bowling, Cowling and Manningham, could not have taken place before the fall of the kingdom of Elmet during the reign of Edwin. This suggests that names in -ing and -ingaham were still living types in Yorkshire in the first half of the seventh century.

The distribution of these names throws some light on the extent of the original Anglian settlement of the North Riding … On the coast is Fylingdales, near the Robin Hood's Bay burial-ground … These and the burial-ground at Thornbrough are all on or near the great Roman road, known as Leeming Lane or Watling Street, which passes through the Riding. The burial-grounds at Saltburn and Robin Hood's Bay and the name Fylingdales are probably due to settlers entering the country immediately from the North Sea, but most of the settlements in the Derwent valley should be regarded as extensions of the early Anglian settlements in the northern parts of the East Riding … To a certain extent, too, this rarity of ancient Anglian names may be explained by the thorough nature of the Scandinavian settlement … Few Anglian names have survived in Whitby Strand, for, though Fylingdales, and the ancient Hackness and Streonæshalch occur here, Scandinavian names outnumber Anglian by two to one. A similar proportion is found in the wapentakes of Langbargh East and Langbargh West.

… This distribution shows that Anglian names were most persistent in the fertile river valleys and along the central Roman road. Here, as indicated by names in -ing and -ingaham and heathen burial-grounds, the original settlements took place. From such centres the settlers expanded into the surrounding districts, chiefly by clearing forest land, as in Wensleydale or in the district round Hackness, where there are two well-defined groups of names containing OE leah 'forest clearing'.

Scandinavian raiders had touched the Northumbrian coast before the end of the eighth century, but it was not till 867 that Northumbria was invaded in force. In that year "the marauding army (here) crossed the Humber estuary from East Anglia to York in Northumbria" (Anglo Saxon Chronicle s.a. 867), and captured York. These invaders were undoubtedly of Danish origin. The great Scandinavian army which had landed in the previous year came from Denmark under the leadership of the sons of the famous Danish Viking, Ragnarr Loðbrók. This is important, for it points to the Danish origin of the army which was to colonise Yorkshire in the next decade.

Editor's note: Ragnar Loðbrók or Lothbrók (ON Ragnarr Loðbrók, "Ragnar Hairy Breeches") was a legendary Norse ruler, king, and hero from the Viking Age being mentioned in several Icelandic sagas and ON skaldic poems.

"The Vikings" (1913) Professor Allen Mawer at pages 23, 24, 52 and 53

Chapter III - The Vikings in England to the death of Harthacnut

The figure of Ragnarr Loðbrók himself belongs to an earlier generation, and great as was his after-fame we unfortunately know very little of his actual career. He would seem to have been of Norwegian birth, closely connected with the south of Norway and the house of Guðröðr, but like that prince having extensive interests in Denmark. He probably visited Ireland in 831, for we read in Saxo of an expedition made by Ragnarr to Ireland when he slew king Melbricus and ravaged Dublin, an event which is pretty certainly to be identified with an attack made on the Conaille district (county Louth) by foreigners in 831 when the king Maelbrighde was taken prisoner.

He led the disastrous Seine expedition in 845 (vide supra, page 21).

The next glimpse of him which we have is probably that found in certain Irish annals where he is represented as exiled from his Norwegian patrimony and living with some of his sons in the Orkneys while others were absent on expeditions to the British Isles, Spain and Africa, and a runic inscription has been found at Maeshowe in the Orkneys confirming the connexion of the sons of Loðbrók and possibly of Loðbrók himself with those islands. The expeditions would be those mentioned above and the yet more famous one made to Spain, Africa and Italy by Bjorn Ironside in the years 859-62 (vide infra, pp. 46-7).

Ragnarr Loðbrók's later history is uncertain. According to the Irish annals quoted above, his sons while on their expedition dreamed that their father had died in a land not his own and on their return found it to be true. This agrees with Scandinavian tradition according to which Ragnarr met his death at the hands of Aelle, king of Northumbria, by whom he was thrown into a snakepit, while the capture of York by Ivarr the Boneless in 866-7 (vide infra) is represented as part of a great expedition of vengeance undertaken by the sons of Ragnarr. This tradition (apart from certain details) is probably historical, but we have no definite confirmatory evidence.

At pages 52 and 53

Chapter IV - The Vikings in the Frankish Empire to the founding of Normandy (911)

The story of the foundation of Normandy is obscure: still more obscure is the origin and history of the leader of the Northmen at this time. Norse tradition, as given by Snorri Sturluson, makes Rollo to be one Hrólfr, son of Rögnvaldr earl of More, who was exiled by Harold Fairhair and led a Viking life in the west. Norman tradition, as found in Dudo, made him out the son of a great noble in Denmark, who was expelled by the king and later went to England, Frisia and Northern France. Dudo's account of the founding of Normandy is so full of errors clearly proven that little reliance can be placed on his story of the origin of Rollo.

The Heimskringla tradition was recorded much later, but is probably more trustworthy, and it would be no strange thing to find a man of Norse birth leading a Danish host. Ragnarr Loðbrók and his sons were Norsemen by family but they appear for the most part as leaders of Danes. How Rollo came to be the leader of the Danes in France and what his previous career had been must remain an unsolved mystery.

The ancestral links of Ragnarr Loðbrók to Norway include the following:

  1. his first wife and shieldmaiden (ON skjaldmær), Lathgertha (ON Hlaðgerðr), was "a ruler from what is now Norway" who lived in the Gaula valley in southern Norway;
  2. his third wife, Aslaug Sigurdsdottir (765-842), was born and died in Ringerike, Buskerud, Norway;
  3. the Norwegian King Siward was Ragnarr's grandfather;
  4. his mother, Álfhildr Gandálfsdóttir, born circa 735 in Alvheim, (Bohuslän), Västra Götalands län (Norway), was Queen of Norway and Denmark. She was the daughter of Gandalf Alfgeirsson (ON Gandálf Álfgeirsson), King of Vingulmark (a Viking age petty kingdom in Norway) and Gauthild Alfsdotter, Queen of Vingulmark (ON Vingulmörk, which is the old name for the area in Norway which today makes up the counties of Østfold, western parts of Akershus (excluding Romerike), and eastern parts of Buskerud (Hurum and Røyken municipalities), and includes the site of Norway's capital, Oslo).

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson at page 188, entry 45

GANDR, m.: the exact sense of this word is somewhat dubious; it is mostly used in poetry and in compounds, and denotes anything enchanted or an object used by sorcerers, almost like zauber in German, and hence a monster, fiend; thus the Leviathan of northern mythology is called Jörmun-gandr, the great 'gand'; or Storðar-gandr, the 'gand' of the earth: a snake or serpent is by Kormak called gandr or gandir, Kormaks Saga chapter 8: wildfire is hallar gandr, a worrier of halls, and selju gandr, a willow-worrier, Lexicon Poëticum (1860) Sveinbjörn Egilsson: the wolf Fenrir is called Vonar-gandr, the monster of the river Von, vide Edda. Compounds: Gand-álfr, m. a proper name, a wizard, bewitched demon …

"A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic" (1910) G. T. Zoëga at page 159

gandr (-s, -ar), m. magic staff; renna gondum, to ride a witch-ride.

gand-reið, f. witch-ride.

The Norse myth in the world of Tolkien (2014) Francini, Sanacore and Saibene (2014) at pages 40 and 41

The choice of the names of the dwarves by Tolkien should also be mentioned. Many of the names listed in the so called Dvergatal 144 (see section 5.2) have been used by Tolkien for his dwarves. The list of the name of the dwarves who accompany Bilbo in his journey has already been mentioned; to that list should be added the name 'Oakenshield', associated with the dwarf Thorin. In fact, the last name found in the Dvergatal is 'Eikinskialdi', which is 'Oakenshield' (or 'with the oak shield') in English.

Among the names of the Dvergatal is also the name 'Gandalfr', which has been used by Tolkien for the grey wizard and not for a dwarf, unlike the other names listed above. Tom Shippey's hypothesis is that Tolkien regarded it with some suspicion since it ends with -alfr , which is the ON form for 'elf'; so what was doing a compound with 'elf' in it among the names of the dwarves? And what does 'Gandalfr' mean? The Old Icelandic Dictionary of R. Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson reports that the meaning of 'gandr' is "anything enchanted or an object used by sorcerers" 145 (Cleasby & Vigfusson, 1963). Nevertheless, this definition is dispreferred by Shippey and 'gandr' is more likely to mean 'wand' or 'staff'. Völuspá in its verses mentions the stick of the prophecy calling it spágandr 146 (Völuspá stanza 29). Therefore the Gandalf of Tolkien turns out to be not a name but a description, as with Beorn (which is the Old English word for 'bear') and Gollum (which comes from the horrible swallowing sound he makes with his throat) 147 (Shippey, 2005, page 110).

"Harald Fairhair and his Ancestors", Sir Henry H. Howorth, Saga-Book of the Viking Club (1920) Volume IX Part I at pages 60, 68, 79, 90, 133, 134 & 168 and 134

References to Ragnar Lodbrog

At page 60

… In the latter we read that "when Sigurd was very old, he happened to be in West Gothland in autumn, dispensing justice among his people, when the sons of King Gandalf i.e., his brothers-in-law, went to ask his assistance against King Eystein of Westfold … on the death of his wife Alfhilda, the mother of Ragnar Lodbrog, Sigurd (Ring) determined to find himself a fresh wife …

At page 68

The interval between the years 797 and 804 is a blank in the Frankish Chronicles as far as the Northmen is concerned, and it no doubt corresponds with great changes among them. Sigurd's great victory over his uncle Harold Hildetand had no doubt prostrated all rivals. According to all the traditions he left an only son, Ragnar Lodbrog, whose story is one of the great enigmas of early Northern history. He probably succeeded to only a small part of his father's kingdoms, and became famous not as a great territorial ruler, but as the greatest of the Vikings.

Meanwhile, his relatives, the sons of Harald Hildetand, asserted their pretentions. One of them, Eystein, became King at Upsala and in the Saga of Ragnar Lodbrog, the latter is made to have a struggle with him.

At page 79

Ella seems to have been a generic name for English kings among some Icelandic Saga-tellers, and its occurrence causes difficulty as is well a known in explaining the Sagas about Ragnar Lodbrog.

At page 90

Godfred's sons meanwhile retired to an island three miles off the mainland (Kruse suggests the island of Alsen, op. cit. 74; he follows Leibnitz, but Simson, Dummler, etc., suggest more probably, Funen). There they assembled a large army and a fleet of 200 ships. The Franks dared not cross arms with them, and contented themselves with ravaging the districts around, carried off forty hostages, and then returned to the Emperor, who was at Paderborn. Dahlmann makes out that the camp of the invaders was at Snogoi, opposite the town of Middlefart, in Funen, where the Belt is very narrow (op. cit., i. 27.) * It would seem from the confused account in the Icelandic annals that Ragnar Lodbrog was thought to have been opposed to Harald on this occasion (Kruse, 75).

At page 133

… They make him marry Ragnhild, a daughter of Sigurd Hiort (i.e., Sigurd, the hart or deer), king in Ringariki, who was, according to the Heimskringla, the son of Helge the Sharp and Aslaug, a daughter of Sigurd the Wormtongued, son of Ragnar Lodbrog … Sigurd the Worm-tongued, son of Ragnar Lodbrog could hardly have been a grandfather at this time.

At page 134

The motive of the sophistication, as well as of the introduction of Sigurd the Worm-tongued into the story, is probably due, as Munch says, to the wish of the Northern genealogists to connect the Norwegian kings with the famous stock of Ragnar Lodbrog, and also with that of the Danish Royal family.

At page 168

His (Harald's) pretensions were still greater for he claimed that he intended to appropriate all the lands in "The Wik" which he alleged had been ruled over by his great ancestor Sigurd Ring and his son Ragnar Lodbrog. This included Raumariki and Westfold as far as Grenmar (now Langesundsfjorden), with Vingulmark and the country to the South, that is to say, the very kernel of Harald's dominions.

"Ragnarr Lothbrók and his sons" (1909) Professor Allen Mawer, Saga Book VI at pages 68, 69 and 75

… materials for reconstructing the life of Ragnar Lothbrók and his sons are as follows:

  1. Ragnar Loðbróks Saga and the Tháttr af Ragnarssonum …
  2. The poem known commonly as "Krákumál" …
  3. The story as found in the ninth book of Saxo's history …
  4. … Sven Aggeson's Danish history of the 12th century, the lost Skjöldunga Saga … and occasional references in other sagas
  5. English, Irish, and Continental annals are full of references to the activities of the sons of Ragnar Lothbrók …

… Before proceeding to discuss these stories we may note that in these three traditions, while Ragnar Lothbrók is represented as king in Denmark, he and his family are very closely connected with Norway. According to Saxo, Regnerus was brought up in Norway, while the Ragnarr of the Saga has many relatives and friends in Norway, and in the Tháttr his realm is made to extend as far as the Dovrefield and the Naze, while his son rules in all Víkinn as well as in Agthir, both of which are in South Norway.

In 875 this army, which had wintered at Repton in Derbyshire, divided its forces. One part under Guthrum moved southwards to Cambridge, and the other under Healfdene returned to the north. After spending the winter by the Tyne Healfdene proceeded to attack the Picts and the kingdom of Strathclyde. There can be little doubt that the enterprise was intended, as Lindkvist suggests (Middle English Place-Names of Scandinavian Origin, 1912), to secure a peaceful colonisation of Yorkshire in the following year.

"In 876 Healfdene portioned out the land of the Northumbrians and they (the Danes) tilled it and made a livelihood by it." (A.S.C.)

This is the first recorded settlement of Scandinavians in England and, as already pointed out, it was effected by a Danish army. Its extent was limited on the north by the broken country which forms the modern county of Durham, for it is only in the extreme south of this county, in Upper Teesdale, that place-names point to a Scandinavian settlement. In Yorkshire, place-names (see note) indicate that the Danish settlement was confined to the most fertile parts of the county, including the East Riding, the eastern parts of the West Riding, and the central and southern parts of the North Riding.

Editor's note: "… the Danish settlement was confined to … the central and southern parts of the North Riding" but not the eastern and coastal areas which include Whitby Strand, Robin Hood's Bay and Fylingdales Parish settled by Norse vikings.

Professor Smith's note reads: "(place-names) such as those containing thorp, boð, hulm, brink, personal names such as Esi, Eskell, Frithi, Malti, etc., and place-names such as Danby. vide "Introduction to the Survey of English Place-Names", 1923, PN 6o ff" which reads in material part as follows:

"The majority of the elements enumerated and also of the personal names found in place-names are common to Danish and Norwegian. But some may be looked upon as fairly safe indications of either a Danish or Norwegian provenance as the case may be. thorp is very rare in Norway and Iceland, and a frequent occurrence of names in thorp is a sign of Danish colonisation. böth is a Danish form. So is hulm, a rarer side-form of holm, which is both Danish and Norwegian. toft is rather Danish than Norwegian. Norwegian test-words are breck, buth (ON búð), gill, scale, slack, also ergh (compare supra, 34). But by, as has already been pointed out, is not a safe criterion. Also thwaite has been held to be a Norwegian test-word. No doubt the element is most common in districts that were probably colonised by Norwegians, but the element was also used in Denmark. The personal names had better be used with some caution, especially as the early Danish personal names have not been collected sufficiently fully."

A few only of these Danish-derived place-names can be found in Whitby Strand and Fylingdales Parish:

  1. böth (0)
  2. hulm (0)
  3. thorp (14) - rare in Norway
  4. toft (15) - more Danish than Norwegian

The incidence of the Norwegian test-words cited by professor Smith in place-names in Whitby Strand and Fylingdales Parish is as follows:

  1. breck (brekka) 'hill, slope' (4)
  2. booth (búð) 'shelter' (0)
  3. ergh (erg) 'shieling, hill or summer pasture' (5)
  4. gill (gil) 'ravine, cleft, deep narrow gully (with a stream)' (31)
  5. scale, scole (skáli) 'temporary hut, shieling' (7)
  6. slack (slakki) 'shallow valley, hollow in the ground' (51)
  7. thwaite (þveit, þvait,) 'a clearing in woodland, used as meadowland' (15)

Additional Norwegian test-words occurring in place-names in Whitby Strand and Fylingdales Parish include (but are not limited to) the following:

  1. barn, laithe, leath (hlaða) 'barn' (9)
  2. beck (bekkr) 'brook, stream' (132)
  3. cliff (kleif) 'cliff, rock' (14)
  4. fell (fjell) 'rough hill, mountain, fell' (9)
  5. force (foss) 'waterfall' (9)
  6. gais, goose (gás) 'goose' (2)
  7. garth (garðr) 'enclosure' (19)
  8. holm (holmr) 'higher dry ground amidst marshes' (15)
  9. howe (haugr) 'barrow, sepulchral mound, cairn, tumulus' (80)
  10. knip (gnúpr) 'hill, peak' (1)
  11. Ra (rauðr) 'red' (0)
  12. Rea (refr) 'fox' (4)
  13. ross (hross) 'horse' (0)
  14. satt(er), seat, sett, side, -ster (sætr) 'shieling' (8)
  15. stoupe (staup) 'a steep declivity or slope, a pitch, precipice' (10)
  16. swart (svartr) 'black, dark' (2)
  17. tarn (tarn) 'enclosed body of water' (1)

Since the Danes and Norwegians were not natural bed-fellows, plotting on a map of North Yorkshire the place-names derived from professor Smith's seven Norwegian test-words and some or all of the above 17 additional Old Norse test-words (179 in all identified), could and should reveal distinct Danish and Norwegian areas of settlement.

Early in the next century a new Scandinavian invasion began, this time of Norwegians from Ireland. There had been intimate association between the Irish and the Norwegian settlers. The Irish had adopted a number of Scandinavian words and names such as Glunieran, and the Norwegians had borrowed Irish names (infra xxvi ff.) and words such as Middle English kapall 'horse' and perhaps cros, and their sculpture frequently betrays the influence of Irish fashions. The Norwegian settlements in Northumbria had probably begun before 915. There is evidence of piratical descents on the North-West during the episcopate of Cuthheard, Bishop of Chester le Street (circa 899 - 915), and this movement culminated in 915 in the capture of York by Ragnall mac Bicloch, who was the first of a series of Irish Viking kings of York which lasted for thirty-five years, during which intercourse must have been maintained between Ireland and Yorkshire. The evidence of place-names (see note) goes far to show that the Norwegians entered Yorkshire from the North-West. Names of Irish-Norwegian type are especially well represented in Craven in the West Riding, the western dales of the North Riding and in Lower Teesdale, and in the Cleveland district, where the Scandinavian place-names strikingly resemble those of the Lake District through which most of these new settlers presumably came.

[1] Editor's note: in common with many other such works on this subject, the Norse settlement of the North Riding coast and hinterland is questionably attributed to 'Irish Vikings' who left Ireland in 902 to settle on the Wirrall but who subsequently invaded Lancashire, Westmorland and Cumberland and, having reached Strathclyde, turned east to travel by foot with carts and their families across the entire width of England for some 84 miles through hostile territory culminating in 919 in the capture of York by Ragnall mac Bicloch. Although there is evidence of 'Irish Viking' settlement in the West Riding there is virtually none to be found in the North Riding "coastal fringe":

Fig. 39 North Riding: regional subdivisions
Y indicates the city of York
"The Domesday Geography of Northern England" (1962) at page 160

It is unlikely that these 'Irish Vikings' travelled further east beyond the Howardian Hills and Vale of Pickering in any numbers - certainly there is scant evidence in the place-names of the North Riding coastal region that they did so. The coastal region of the North Riding was colonised by Norse settlers from Norway. A detailed description of these events can be found in "The Origin of English Place Names" (1960) by P. H. Reaney at pages 185 to 190 (see above).

"… the first Scandinavian raiders who touched the English coast undoubtedly came from Norway. Between 786 and 802 three ships' companies from Horthaland put into shore at Portland, and killed the Reeve of Dorchester who rode up to ask their business. In 793 Lindisfarne was plundered by raiders from the north, and Jarrow was visited in the following year." per Sir Frank Stenton in Chapter VII of "Anglo Saxon England" (1971) at page 239.

Professor Smith's note reads as follows:

"(place-names) such as those which contain brekka, slakki, foss, gil, or skáli; types such as Normanby, Irby; place-names in which the order of the elements is reversed according to Irish methods of nomenclature; names containing erg and Old Irish personal names such as Colman, Finegal, Maelmuire, etc. vide "Introduction to the Survey of English Place-Names", 1923, 32 ff., 6o ff., and more especially in relation to Yorkshire vide "Revue Celtique", XLIV. 34 ff."

  • Firstly, the editor's research of place-names in Whitby Strand and Fylingdales parish has identified 8,764 examples of local place-names containing one or more of 503 Old Norse original elements (a) not one of which contains an Old Irish personal name and (b) only five of which (somewhat doubtful) containing an element considered by Professor Smith to be a test word for 'Irish Viking' place-names, namely erg - Airy Hill, Airy Hill Farm, Cober, Cober Hill and Heater Plantation - none of which is particularly persuasive. In any event, ergh is not "a test word for 'Irish Viking' place-names" but is an Old Norse place-name element and test word: "Norwegian test-words are breck, buth (Old Norse búð;), gill, scale, also ergh" per Eilert Ekwall (see below).
  • Secondly, the place-name elements contained in Professor Smith's note, namely "those which contain brekka, slakki, foss, gil, or skáli", are Old Norse place-name test words and are not specifically indicative of 'Irish Viking' place-name derivation - see "Introduction to the Survey of English Place-Names" (1924) Eilert Ekwall, Chapter IV The Scandinavian Element at page 60: "Norwegian test-words are breck, buth (Old Norse búð;), gill, scale, also ergh."
  • Thirdly, regarding Professor Smith's reliance on "types such as Normanby, Irby", according to the first of Eilert Ekwall's two contributory chapters to the "Introduction to the Survey of English Place-Names" (1924), namely, Chapter II The Celtic Element, at page 35: "Names such as Ireby, Ireton no doubt point to a certain amount of Irish immigration, but it is by no means certain that these names always mean 'the village of the Irish'. Iri was used as a personal name in Iceland. Also Iri might have been used as a sort of nickname of a Scandinavian who had come from Ireland." Normanby (YN nr Whitby [Normanebi DB]) according to Eilert Ekwall in "The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names" (1960) at page 343, derives from Old Scandinavian Norðmannabyr 'the BY of the Northmen or Norwegians'.

In conclusion, the Yorkshire North Riding "coastal fringe" was settled by Norse Vikings who arrived by sea from Norway, the journey taking - with a prevailing easterly wind - approximately 36 hours by longship, possibly stopping en route to reprovision at the Shetland archipelago, a Norse colony.

Introduction (at pages xxiv & xxv)

The general distribution of Danish and Norwegian settlements is clearly marked by the distribution of place-names. The settlement of the Danes was far greater in the south of the Riding than in the north … (xxiv)

… In Ryedale and Pickering Lythe, however, there are very definite examples of Norwegian influence and other Scandinavian place-names may be Danish or Norwegian in origin. In Whitby Strand it is known traditionally that the Danes Ingwar and Ubba destroyed the monastery of Streonæshalch (Whitby Cartulary, 1), but the Danes do not seem to have settled there to any great extent. Silpho in the south of the wapentake and Sneaton and Wragby contain Danish personal names. Danby in Cleveland, the only other name pointing to Danish settlement, though in Langbargh East, belongs to the geographical district of Eskdale, and if the name Danby has any racial significance it suggests that the Danes were only present there in small numbers. In Whitby Strand, therefore, the very high proportion of Scandinavian names must be due to Norwegian influence. (xxv)

Editor's note: regarding the likely derivation of the place-names Silpho, Sneaton and Wragby:

  • Silpho is possibly derived from Old Norse silfr, 'silver' but Eilert Ekwall is of the view that Silpho is "most probably" derived from Old English Scylf-hoh 'ridge with a peak or with a plateau', scandinavianized … The first element is really Old English scylfe … 'rock, crag', no doubt also 'ledge' and 'bank of a river', is a common element in place names. There was also Old English scylfe, scilfe 'ledge, shelf', but probably used in other senses too. The two are not always easy to keep apart. The exact meaning of the elements in place names is often difficult to determine … Old English scylfe, scilfe is the first element of … SILPHO … see "The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names" (1960) at pages 409 and 428. See also "Words and Places" Isaac Taylor (1936) at page 138 where the author attributes the derivation of the Norse place-name Silver How (ON haugr) as probably the burial-place of the forgotten hero Sölvar.
  • Sneaton, according to Eilert Ekwall in "The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names" (1960) at page 428, derives from Old English Snæd-tūn 'tun by a piece of woodland', which assessment is shared by Gillian Fellows Jensen in "Scandinavian Settlement Names in Yorkshire" (1972) at page 259: "Sneaton … The second element is the Old English appellative tun 'enclosure'. It has been suggested that the first element is the Scandinavian personal name Snjó, Snær … but a more satisfactory explanation is that it is the Old English appellative snæd 'detached piece of land'."
  • Wragby, according to Harald Lindkvist (Middle-English Place-Names of Scandinavian Origin, (1912) at page 208), is perhaps derived from the Old West Scandinavian man's name Ragi (Wragi), Old Danish Wraghi, which is found in the Lincolnshire place-name Wragheby … or Wrag- might possibly be an orthographical error for Wrang-, in which case it is to be explained as in Wrangeflat

In summary, the derivation of these three place-names - Silpho, Sneaton and Wragby - is probably a source other than Danish personal names.

Introduction (at pages xxvi, xxvii, xxviii & xxix)

From this survey it will be seen that the Danish settlements in the North Riding were in three groups, the first and most extensive stretching from east to west across Pickering Lythe, the south of Ryedale, and Bulmer wapentake, and terminating in the wapentake of Hang East in a few sporadic settlements, the others being isolated settlements in Whitby Strand including Eskdale, and in Cleveland. The first is probably due to Healfdene's apportionment of the land of Northumbria in 876 and is inseparable from the Danish settlement in the East Riding; the others are probably independent settlements made by Danes who invaded the respective districts directly from the sea.

The material available for determining the presence of Norwegian settlements is more complete than that for the Danes, because the tests of Norwegian influence are more numerous. In Bulmer wapentake there is no trace of Norwegian influence either in place-names or archaeological material. In Ryedale there are many names of Norwegian and Irish-Norwegian origin, including Laskill Pasture which contains Old Norwegian skáli, Dowthwaite, Appleton le Moors, and Colthmanelandes which contain Irish personal names, and Normanby, all north of the river Rye. Airyholme, the lost Ircroft (Old Norse fri) in Helmsley, and Oswaldkirk, which in early forms sometimes has its elements reversed according to the Irish fashion, point to a small Norwegian settlement on the south of the river, in a district which had already been populated by Angles and Danes (supra xix, xxiv). Many of the Scandinavian names in the upper part of the valley are probably Norwegian, though there is nothing to prove it except the entire absence in these parts of names of specifically Danish origin. Irish influence has been observed on the crosses at Stonegrave, Amotherby, Hovingham, Lastingham, Kirkdale, Kirkby Moorside, and Helmsley.

In the adjacent parts of Pickering Lythe there are many Norwegian names, such as Scarf Hill and West Gill, Mulfoss (Norse foss) in Hartoft, Westslak (Norse slakki) in Kingthorpe and Hyndeslak in Thornton Dale. Ghilander (compare Gaelic Gilleandrais) is the name of a local tenant in 1066 and crosses at Sinnington, Ellerburn, and Levisham show Irish influence. (xxvi)

At page xxvii

In the extreme east of the wapentake the name Irton points to a small Norwegian colony amid the Danish thorps, whilst Scarborough was founded by the Norseman Thorgils Skarthi (infra 105-6).

In Whitby Strand, where there was little Danish settlement (supra xxv), place-names show many Norwegian features, such as Burstadgile (Norse gil) in Suffield and Waterslakgille (Norse slakki, gil) in Thirley Cotes, Breck, Normanby and Airy Hill. Many of the common Scandinavian names like Whitby and Gnipe How, should, therefore, probably be ascribed to the Norwegians.

In Langbargh East and Langbargh West, where Danish influence was not extensive, there are indications of a thorough settlement by Norwegians, especially round Guisborough and the district to the west. Norwegian influence is evident in such names as Scalebec in Liverton, Burnolfscales in Guisborough, Raufscales in Kildale, Scalestedes in Tocketts, Stainschale in Upleatham, Scale Foot and Scaling (all containing skáli), Endebrec in Guisborough, Bakestanbrec in Tocketts and Likkebreke in Coatham (containing brekka); Coldman Hargos (erg) and Commondale contain the Irish personal name Colmán. Patricius (Old Irish Patric) and Magbanet are the names of early tenants, and crosses at Easington and Skelton exhibit Irish forms of decoration. A little to the west occur Normanby, Airy Holme, Lackenby, and Hillbraith, whilst Dunlangabrotes in Great Broughton contains the Old Irish personal name Dunlang, and Colman is the name of an early tenant. The series is continued further west in the northern parts of Allertonshire and Birdforth, by Fowgill, Blow Gill, Irby and Irton. Sawcock is an Irish-Norwegian inversion compound (v. supra xxii, n. 1), and Birkby probably refers to a village of Britons or Brito-Scandinavians who had joined the Norwegians as they were passing through Cumberland. Melmidoc, Gilemicel, Dughel, and Malgrin are Irish names borne by local landholders in 1066. Irish forms of carving are found on crosses at Birkby, Northallerton, Brompton, and Osmotherley all in the north of Allertonshire, and at Crathorne and Kirk Leavington in the adjacent part of Langbargh West. (xxvii)

In Richmondshire Norwegian influence was very strong, and the large proportion of local Scandinavian names, not in themselves distinctive, must be due almost entirely to Norwegians, for, except in the wapentake of Halikeld and the east of Hang East, there are no definite traces of Danish influence. In Halikeld, the great Danish colonisation seems to have ended; we find Gatenby, the lost Normanby, mention in Domesday Book of a man called Sudan (Old Irish Suthan), and at Pickhill a cross bearing traces of Irish influence. These few pieces of evidence seem to show that Halikeld was the eastern limit of the very strong Norwegian colonisation of Hang wapentake. In Hang East, south of Catterick, there was a large settlement, as indicated by such names as Scalerig in Hudswell and Scaleflath in Colburn (containing skáli), Leveracgille near Miregrim, Thieves Gill, Helegile and Wythegile (containing gil), all near Hipswell. Patrick Brompton, Arrathorne, Oran, and Miregrim are examples of Irish influence, whilst Ghille (Old Irish Gilla) was the name of a local tenant in 1066. In Hang West there are far more Scandinavian than English names, and as many of these are certainly Norwegian in origin it is probable that most of the others are Norwegian also. Specifically Norwegian are Gammersgill, Scalestedes in Wensley, and Skell Gill (containing skáli), Ulegile in Wensley, Wantegile in Castle Bolton, Thwertlanggille in West Bolton, High and Low Gill, Howgill, Achegile and Stiwardgile in Widdale, and Hell Gill (containing gil), Hungrebrekes in West Bolton (brekka), Fossdale (foss), and the river-name Bain (from Old Norwegian beinn 'short, quick'). Cragdale possibly contains Old Irish creag, which must have been introduced by Norwegians from Ireland, and Irish personal names are found in Paterik-keld in Harmby, Melmerby and Carperby, and as the names of early tenants such as Glunier, Gilmychel, Ghilpatric, Colman, and Meriaduc. At Finghall, Thornton Steward, Middleham and Wensley crosses have been found which show Irish influence. In Swaledale the traces of Scandinavian settlement are not so frequent as in Wensleydale, but in Swaledale the evidence of Anglian settlement is stronger. Crin is the Irish name of a local landowner in 1066, and Skaleflat (Norse skáli) is found in Feetham. The few traces of Scandinavian influence in south and upper Swaledale suggest that the Scandinavian settlement of those parts was slight compared with that on the north side of the valley, but that the few Scandinavians who did settle were Norwegians rather than Danes.

In Gilling East the Norwegian settlement seems to be closely connected with that of the north of Allertonshire and Cleveland. Brekelandes (Norse brekka) in Jolby, Eryholme, Brettanby, and the Irish name Finegal borne by a local tenant are all in the north of the wapentake. In Gilling West there are many Norwegian names, including Priest Gill, Faggergill, Waltergille in Arkengarthdale, William Gill, and Easegill in Swaledale, and Scargill and Wemmergill in Teesdale (all containing gil), Scales, Hang Bank (which in one of its forms contains brekka), Melsonby and Finegalgraft (Old Irish Finngail) in Easby, both containing Irish personal names. Kilmond in upper Teesdale is an interesting name of Gaelic origin and was perhaps introduced at this time. Irish influence has been noticed on the crosses found at Croft, Stanwick, and Wycliffe.

The general conclusion as to the distribution of the Scandinavian element in the North Riding is that the Danes settled chiefly in the south of the Riding in the level fertile valleys of the Derwent, Rye, Ouse, in the lower parts of the Ure valley and in Birdforth in the central Vale of York. The Norwegians settled chiefly in Ryedale, Whitby Strand, Cleveland and Teesdale and in Richmondshire. Whereas the Danes and Norwegians indifferently occupied districts already settled by Angles, the distribution of place-names suggests that the Norwegian settlers tended to avoid the districts occupied by the Danes in the previous century. Most of the Danes undoubtedly moved out from the centre of their kingdom at York; others entered the Riding independently. The Norwegians as a whole came over the Pennines from Cumberland, occasionally bringing with them Britons from that district, although the name Scarborough points to incursions of Norwegians from the North Sea, which probably explains the settlements in Pickering Lythe, Ryedale and Whitby Strand.

Norwegian settlement in the North Riding

Ryedale (II), Pickering Lythe (III), Whitby Strand (IV) and Langbargh East (V) Wapentakes

Click here for a larger map of the North Yorkshire Wapentakes.


  • Dic wapentac 1086 DB
  • Pikiringelit 1135-55 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 377
  • Pikeringelid, -lith 1158 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 403, 1252 (Calendar of Charter Rolls)
  • Pykeringlidh, Pykerynglyth circa 1169-85 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 196 et freq to 1485 (Testamenta Eboracensia)
  • wap' (wapentacco) de Picheringe 1166 (Pipe Rolls) et passim to 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy 1301)
  • Pikringlith 1172-9 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 379
  • Pikaringalith 1176-9 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 406, 1201 (Rotuli Chartarum)

vide Pickering 85 infra and hlið. The original name of the wapentake, Dic, probably refers to one of the numerous dykes in the district which would be the wapentake meeting-place, vide dic. Dykes were frequently the sites of the meeting-places of the hundreds, as in Wrangdike Hundred (Rutland), Flendish Hundred (Cambridgeshire), D13 Flamingdic, and Abdich Hundred (Somerset).

The later name of the wapentake is taken from some slope near Pickering, but this cannot now be identified.

Kirby Misperton


  • Berg(a) 1086 DB, 1170 (Pipe Rolls), 1285 (Kirkby's Inquest)
  • Berch 1086 DB, (magna, parua) circa 1200 (Forest Proceedings)
  • Bergh(e) 1219 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls) et passim to 1409 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • (Great) Bargh(e) 1526 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

'The hill' vide beorg.


  • Habetun, Ab(b)etune 1086 DB
  • (parva) Habeton circa 1163-85 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 781, circa 1200 (Forest Proceedings), 1201 (Rotuli Chartarum), 1219 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Habbeton 13th (Malton Cartulary) 97, 1231 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls), 1285 (Kirkby's Inquest), 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy 1301), 1333 (Rievaulx Cartulary)
  • Habbenton 1231 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Great, parva Habton 1365 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Great Hapton 1368 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

'Hab(b)a's farm' vide tun. The first element is a hypocoristic personal name Hab(b)a from some OE personal name such as Heah-beorht or Heardbeorht. Compare Hapton (Norfolk), Habetuna DB. A personal name Habe is recorded (Lincolnshire) in Danelaw Charters 573, possibly derived from ON Hábjörn, which would also suitably explain the first element of Habton.


In DB survey Kirby and Misperton are separate manors. In all later records they are joined together under the common name of Kirby Misperton.

  • Chirchebi 1086 DB
  • Ki-, Kyrkeby, -bi 1094-9 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 601 et passim to 1408 (Forest Proceedings)
  • Kirkabi 1308 (Calendar of Charter Rolls)
  • Kirkby 1414 (Testamenta Eboracensia)
  • Kirby 1665 (Heraldic Visitations of Yorkshire)
  • Mispeton 1086 DB
  • Mi-, Mysperton(a) 1137-61 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 602 et passim

In the 16th and 17th centuries it is also called

  • Kirkebye Overkare 1549 (Yorkshire Chantry Surveys)
  • Kyrkby Overcarr 1573 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

'Farm by the church' vide kirkja, by.

The first element in Misperton is not clear but Dr O. K. Schram suggests that there may have been an OE word mispel or mispeler denoting the medlar-tree. LL mespila is found in LG and HG as mespel (OHG mespila) and there is a side-form mispel from MHG mispel(e). Both forms are found in the LG dialects, and Frisian mispel (beam) is well-evidenced.

LL mespilarius var. mispilarius appears in Dutch and Flemish as mespelare and is found in the Belgian place name Mespelaere in the form Mespilarios in 899. (Vincent, Les noms de lieux de la Belgique, § 181.)

Hoops (Waldbäume 606) suggests that there may have been an ME form of LG mespila. The word actually occurs in late ME as mespile, by the side of mespiler (New English Dictionary sub verbo) but these are probably late borrowings from Latin itself.

OE mespiler-tun might readily become misp(l)erton and if that is the history the name means 'farm with the medlar-tree'. Such might well grow in the low-lying ground, or carr, from which the place takes its alternative appellation. vide kjarr.

4. RYTON 22 H 13

  • Ritun, Ritone 1086 DB
  • Ri-, Ryton 1282 (Malton Cartulary) 102 et passim
  • Rihtona circa 1145 (Rievaulx Cartulary)
  • Rictona 1189 (Rievaulx Cartulary)
  • Rigeton circa 1200 (Forest Proceedings)

'Farm by the river Rye' vide Rye, River 5 supra and tun.


  • Lund(e) 1176-9 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 406 et passim
  • Lond' 1184 (Pipe Rolls)
  • Loundhouse 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire)

vide lundr. There is now no wood at Lund, but in 1335 Richard de Breaus had enclosed his wood at Lund (Pleas of the Forest) 251 d.


1. LITTLE EDSTONE (6") 90 NE 7

  • Parva Edestun 1086 DB
  • Edenton' 1167 (Pipe Rolls)

For meaning and further forms vide Great Edstone 58 supra.

2. MARTON 22 E 11

  • Martun, Martone 1086 DB
  • Marton' 1167 (Pipe Rolls), circa 1200 (Forest Proceedings) (on Syuen) 1290 (W.P. Baildon Monastic Notes) et passim

vide Marton le Forest 28 supra. Marton is on the river Seven.


  • Siuenintun, Sevenictun 1086 DB
  • Siuerinctune 1086 DB
  • Siuilinton' 1167 (Pipe Rolls), circa 1200 (Forest Proceedings)
  • Sivilington 1183-93 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 595, 1201 (Rotuli Chartarum)
  • Si-, Syvelington, -thun 1185-1205 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 597 et passim to 1327 (De Banco Rolls)
  • Synnyngton 1580 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Sinington 1665 (Heraldic Visitations of Yorkshire)

This place-name is probably derived from the name of the river on which it stands, vide Seven, R. 6 supra. One would have expected ME Siueningetune, with inflexional e, at least in a few forms, going back to OE Syfeningatūn, 'farm of the dwellers on the Seven' (vide ing). The forms as they are actually on record point to OE Syfeningtun, 'farm having to do with or belonging to the R. Seven'. For this general sense, vide ingtun, and for a similar use of ing compare Tavistock (Devon), Tauistoce (Kemble, Codex Diplomaticus Aevi Saxonici 629), Tefingstoce (997 Anglo Saxon Chronicle), which is on the Tavy.


  • Tornitun, Tornentun 1086 DB
  • Torinton' 1167 (Pipe Rolls)
  • Torneton sub Riseberg circa 1200 (Forest Proceedings)
  • Torenton (voc. Riseberge) 1310 (Calendar of Charter Rolls)
  • Thornton under Isbergh 1406 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

vide þorn, tun and Riseborough infra. It is interesting to compare the form under Isbergh with the later forms of Roseberry and Newton under Roseberry 163-4 infra.


  • Ri-, Ryseberg(h)' , -berch circa 1200 (Forest Proceedings), (in Aselakeby) 1260 (Calendar of Charter Rolls) et passim to 1318 (Calendar of Charter Rolls)
  • Reysebergh 1293 (Placita de quo Warranto)

Lindkvist (Middle English Place-Names of Scandinavian Origin, 1912 at page 134) on the evidence of the (Placita de quo Warranto) spelling derives the first element from ON hrøysi 'cairn'. It should, however, be noted that in the other cases of ON hrøysi cited by Lindkvist there is not a single instance of ON hrøysi appearing as ME rise. More probably the name should be connected with Risborough (Place-Names Buckinghamshire 170) and a lost place called Riseberga 1158 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 419 from OE hris 'brushwood' and beorg.


1. AISLABY 22 E 12

  • Aslache(s)bi 1086 DB
  • Aselacbi circa 1160 (Rievaulx Cartulary)
  • Aslakebi, -by 1167 (Pipe Rolls) et passim to 1303 (Knights' Fees 1303)
  • Aselakeby circa 1200 (Forest Proceedings), 1244 Fees, circa 1250-63 (Malton Cartulary) 1260 (Calendar of Charter Rolls)
  • Aslakesby 1253 (Calendar of entries in Papal Registers)
  • Aslacby 1285 (Kirkby's Inquest), 1299 (W.P. Baildon Monastic Notes), 1316 (Nomina Villarum, 1316), 1519 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Asle-, Asleyby 1536 YChant
  • Aslabye 1572 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

'Aslak's farm' vide by. The ON personal name Aslákr is found in the similar Norwegian place-name Aslaksby Rygh (Norske Gaardnavne i. 30, GP 17), in Aislaby (Durham) and Aslackby (Lincolnshire), Aselachebi 1086 DB, locally called [eizalbi].

2. CAWTHORN 22 D 12

  • Caltorn(e), -torna 1086 DB, circa 1200 (Forest Proceedings)
  • Calthorn(e) 1175 (Pipe Rolls) (p), circa 1190 (Guisborough Cartulary) et passim to 1572 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Kaldthorn 1202 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Cawlthorne 1561 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Cawthorne 1571 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

'Cold thorn' vide cald, þorn. OE cald is coupled with a tree-name in Chold Ash (Devonshire). Cawthorne (Yorkshire West Riding), for which Moorman suggests OE calu, is probably identical with this name. OE calu 'bare' would however give ME Caluethorn from the dative calwe.

3. CROPTON 22 D 12

  • Croptun(e) 1086 DB, 1167 (Pipe Rolls)
  • Cropton(a) circa 1200 (Forest Proceedings) et passim
  • Cropetun circa 1260 (Malton Cartulary) 3
  • Croppeton 1260 (Calendar of Charter Rolls)

Cropton is near the summit of a hill, and probably the meaning of the name is 'hill-top farm'. The earliest spellings of the name do not suggest any connexion with Cropthorne (Worcestershire), which contains the OE personal name Croppa, found also in OE Croppanhulle (Birch, Cartularium Saxonicum 112) now Crapnell (Hampshire). We should rather compare it with Crofton in Orpington (Kent), OE Croptunes gemæro (Kemble, Codex Diplomaticus iii. 465), which stands on a well-marked hill, and Cropwell (Nottinghamshire), Crophille 1086 DB. vide tun.


  • (le) Bekhus early 13th (Malton Cartulary) 98, 1260 ibidem 3



  • Lefehowe 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 224

The name of a tumulus, vide haugr. The first element is probably a personal name, such as ODan Lefi (Nielsen).


  • Suterlund 1334 (Pleas of the Forest) 304
  • Soter-, Souterlund, Suterlundbek 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 218 d, 219 d

'Sutari's wood' vide lundr. The first element is the ON by-name Sútari from Latin sutor 'shoe-maker'; the word was borrowed in ME from ON (vide Stratmann-Bradley sub verbo sūtare). The change of intervocalic t to th is seen in other place-names, e.g. Catterick 242 infra, and Souther Scales (Yorkshire West Riding), Suterscales 1214 (Placitorum Abbreviatio), which contains the same element.

4. HARTOFT 22 B 11

  • Haretoft 1316 (Nomina Villarum, 1316), 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 246, 1349 (Inquisitiones post mortem)
  • Hartoft 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 244, 1408 (Forest Proceedings)

vide topt. For the first element vide Harome 70 supra. 'Messuage by the stony or rocky place'.


  • Grunstan Wath 1334 (Pleas of the Forest) 304
  • vadum de Grindstone wath 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

'Ford made of ground-stones' vide vað. The first element is OE grund-stān, glossing Latin cementa, i.e. petre which is well evidenced and survives in North-East Dialect ground-stone 'foundation stone'.


  • Anchou 1210 (Dugdale's Monasticon) iv. 317

Possibly 'Haneca's spur of land' vide hoh. The OE personal name Haneca is not found in independent use in OE, but it is the first element of Hankerton (Wiltshire), Hanekyntone (Birch, Cartularium Saxonicum) 589, Hannakin (Ekwall, Place-Names Lancashire 218), and OE Hanecanham (Birch, Cartularium Saxonicum) 821-2, now Hankham (Sussex). One may also note the Anglo-Scandinavian personal name Hanke, Hanc.

5. MIDDLETON 22 E 13

  • Mid(d)eltun(e) 1086 DB

vide middel, tun. Middleton is the centre of other Anglian farmsteads in the district, such as Edstone, Nunnington, Salton, Sinnington and Wrelton.

6. ROSEDALE 22 A 11

  • Russedal(e) 1130 - circa 1158 (1201) (Rotuli Chartarum), 1155-70 (Cartulary of St. Mary's York) 179
  • Rossedal(e) 1186-95 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 694 et passim to 1541 (Dugdale's Monasticon) iii. 570
  • Rossdale 1328 (Calendar of Charter Rolls)
  • Rosedale, -dall 1376, 1390 (Testamenta Eboracensia), 1408 (Yorkshire Inquisitions), 1420 (Testamenta Eboracensia)
  • Rosedaile 1561 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Rosdale 1416 (Yorkshire Inquisitions), 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire)

'Russi's valley' from the ON by-name Russi (Lind, Norsk-Isländska Personbinamn, 1920-1); most of the dale-names in this part of the Riding have a personal name as their first element. The long vowel in Rose- is quite a late phenomenon and is due to folk-etymology, as in Roseden (Place-Names Northumberland Durham sub nomine). vide dæl.

Editor's note: ON dalr ?


  • Ellerker 1537 (Dugdale's Monasticon) iv. 319


AYMOT (lost)

  • Amoth 1210 (Dugdale's Monasticon) iv. 317

'River-meet' vide a, mot. Compare Beckermonds (WRY), Beckermotes 1241 (Percy Cartulary), and the ONorw Bekkiarmote "Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" (1912) Harald Lindkvist at page 6, note 2. The streams referred to are the river Seven and Northdale Beck.


  • Hamclife 1201 (Rotuli Chartarum)
  • Hamcliuebek 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 211 d

Possibly 'scarred cliff' vide hamel, clif, bekkr. For the change from clif to -ley compare Crunkly 133 infra, Cronkley, Aycliffe (Place-Names Northumberland Durham sub nomine), Hockliffe (Place-Names Bedfordshire Huntingdonshire 126).

LOOSE HOWE (tumulus)

  • Lushov, -hou circa 1200 (Guisborough Cartulary), 1223 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), (Guisborough Cartulary)
  • Lowsohowes 15th (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Lowsehowes 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

Compare OE lusebyrge (Herts) (Birch, Cartularium Saxonicum) 745, Lusabeorg (Birch, Cartularium Saxonicum) 699, and lusdun (Birch, Cartularium Saxonicum) 1020, which all contain OE lūs 'louse'. vide haugr. 'Louse mound'. One should also note the ON name Lúsi (Lind, Norsk-Isländska Personbinamn, 1920-1) from ON lūs. Perhaps here a personal name would give the better sense.


  • Middelheued 1334 (Pleas of the Forest) 304

'Middle hill' vide middel, heafod.


  • Westgill 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 205 d

vide west, gil.


  • Willelmi howes 15th (Whitby Cartulary)

vide haugr. Compare William Beck 70 supra.

7. WRELTON 22 E 12

  • Wereltun 1086 DB
  • Wrelton 1282 (Yorkshire Inquisitions), 1285 (Kirkby's Inquest) et passim
  • Wherlton 1316 (Feudal Aids)
  • Wrelleton' 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy 1301), 1303 (Knights' Fees 1303), 1416 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Wrielton 1526 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

This is a difficult name but, as Professor Ekwall suggests, the first element may be OE wearg-hyll, 'felon-hill', found in Wreighill (Place-Names Northumberland Durham sub nomine), pronounced [ri.hil]. The whole name would mean 'farm by or on the gallows-hill'.



  • Godeland(ia) 1108-14 (Whitby Cartulary), 1109-14 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 396, 1201, 1205 (Rotuli Chartarum), 1240 (Calendar of Liberate Rolls)
  • Golanda circa 1170-88 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 393
  • Gotheland(e) circa 1180 Add 4715 f 98 et freq to 1408 (Forest Proceedings)
  • Gothe-, Goþelaund' 1297 (Yorkshire Inquisitions), 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy 1301)
  • Goodland 1497 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Gotland 1576 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Goteland 1577 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series), 1612 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 1st series)
  • Goutland 1613 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 1st series)

'Goda's land' vide land. The OE personal name Gōda here appears to have undergone a Scandinavian sound-change from d to ð vide "Introduction to the Survey of English Place-Names" 65. For the form Golanda vide "Introduction to the Survey of English Place-Names" 110.


  • Aleinetoften 1204 (Rotuli Chartarum); -toftes 1286 (Pleas of the Forest) 194
  • Al(l)antoftes 1408 (Forest Proceedings), 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

'Allen's enclosures' vide topt. The name Allen, earlier Alain, was brought into England by the Normans; its origin is OFr Alain. It enters also into Alain Seat (near Barnoldswick, Yorkshire West Riding), Alainesete 13 Kirkst. Allan Tops is the name of a hill on the top of which are a number of ancient enclosures. The alteration of toft to top is due to the fact that these enclosures are on the top of the hill.


  • Blawath 1334 (Pleas of the Forest) 304
  • Blawoth 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

'Dark or black ford' vide blar, vað, bekkr.


  • Braghtwaht 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 223 d

'Broad enclosure' vide breiðr, þveit.


  • Brocholebec(h) 1109-14 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 865

'Badger hole stream' vide brocc-hol, bekkr.


  • Helrebec 1201 (Rotuli Chartarum)
  • Ellerbe(c)k 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 204 d, 205, 217 d, 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

'Alder stream' vide elri, bekkr. The initial h- of the first spelling is inorganic.


  • Howghton Hill 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

vide hyll. Hawthorn is a corruption of the common Hutton or Hoton 'farm on the hoh or hill'.


  • Huntereshuses 1252 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

vide hus. The first element is ME huntere, 'hunter'.


  • Rotemur 1334 (Pleas of the Forest) 304
  • Rotymyr 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 223

From ON rotinn 'rotten, putrid,' and myrr, later replaced by mor. ON myrr would normally become [mor] in the dialect.


  • Si-, Sylehou 1108-14, a. 1133, 1154-89, 1199 (Whitby Cartulary), 1204 (Rotuli Chartarum), 134 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Silhou 1308 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Sill howes 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

OE syle 'miry place' would hardly suit topographically. We should rather connect the first element with ODan Sile (Nielsen) and OSwed Sil (Lundgren-Brate). 'Sile's mound' vide haugr.


  • Simondeshou 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 206

'Sigemund's mound' vide haugr.


  • dom' le Weyte 1296 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Whaytes 1322 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

The name probably means 'watch house' from NFr *wait 'watch'; compare New English Dictionary wait used in the sense of 'watch' and Waytail Gate 142 infra. vide hus. The form dom' = Latin domus.


  • Chinetorþ 1086 DB
  • Ki-, Kynthorþ(e) 1139 (Magnum Registrum Album, Dean and Chapter of York, circa 1300) ii. 11 d, 1198 (Book of Fees) et passim to 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire)
  • Ki-, Kyntorþ 1176 (Pipe Rolls) (p), circa 1200 (Forest Proceedings), early 13th (Malton Cartulary) 96 d, 1226-8 (Book of Fees)
  • Kynestorþ 1205 (Rotuli Chartarum)
  • Kynethorþe 1322 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

'Cyna's village' from the OE personal name Cyna (Redin, Uncompounded Personal Names in OE 47), or 'royal village' from OE cyne 'royal'. The change from Kin- to King- is due to folk-etymology and parallels are found in Kingthorpe (Lincolnshire) DB Chinetorþ and Kingsbury (Warwickshire) DB Chinesburie, 1322 (Index to the Charters and Rolls in the British Museum) Kinesbury. vide þorp.

3. MARISHES 22 G 14

Marishes parish includes a great part of the very low-lying land in the south of the wapentake and takes its name from the extensive marshes which it embraced till the land was drained. vide mersc. These probably included Aschilesmares, Aschelesmere 1086 DB (from ON Áskell), Chiluesmares, Chiluesmarsc 1086 DB, Kilverdesmersh 1152-6 (Rievaulx Cartulary), Culverthesmersch 1160 (Rievaulx Cartulary) (compare Killerby 103 infra), Maxudesmares, Maxudesmersc 1086 DB (first elements possibly being, as suggested by Dr Lindkvist, the ON personal name Mákr (Lind, Norsk-Isländska dopnamn och fingerade namn) and wudu), Odulfesmare, Ouduluesmersc (from ON Auðulfr) and Theokemarais 1189 (Rievaulx Cartulary), 1252 (Calendar of Charter Rolls), -mar 1201 (Rotuli Chartarum), in which the first element is perhaps an unrecorded ON by-name þjokka (genitive þjokku) 'thick'; vide (Lind, Norsk-Isländska Personbinamn, 1920-1) sub nomine þjokkubeinn 'thick leg'. The suffix in some of these forms has been influenced by OFr marais.


  • Bellyfaxe (pasturis) 1538 (Rievaulx Cartulary)

This name is of peculiar interest as apparently it contains the same final element as Halifax (Yorkshire West Riding). This, as Mr Goodall (Place-Names SWY sub nomine) suggests, is OE feax 'hair', used of '(a place covered with) shrubs and rough grass', a meaning paralleled by Norwegian dialect faks 'coarse-grass' and South German fachs 'poor mountain grass'. This is probably the meaning also in OE to feaxum (Birch, Cartularium Saxonicum) 880. The material is insufficient to allow of any explanation of the first element.


  • Kekemar(r)ays 1206, 1241 (Rievaulx Cartulary), 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy 1301)
  • Kekmar(r)eys 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 216, 260, 1369 (Rievaulx Cartulary)
  • Kekmaresse 1538 (Rievaulx Cartulary)

'Kekkja's marsh' vide mersc. The first element is probably the ON by-name Kekkja (Lind, Norsk-Isländska Personbinamn, 1920-1).

4. NEWTON 22 C 13

  • Neuton, Newetone, Newetun(e) 1086 DB, 1242 (Pipe Rolls)

'New farm' vide niwe, tun.


  • Holgate 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 235

'Road through the hollow' vide hol, gata.


  • Neutonebekke 1240 (Rievaulx Cartulary)
  • Neuton(e)dale 1322 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)


  • le Ridding 1262 (Malton Cartulary) 4 d

'The clearing' vide hryding. Compare Ruswarp 125 infra.


  • Scarthougill 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 205 d

'Ravine near the mound in the mountain pass' vide skarð, haugr, gil. For the f compare Earswick 12 supra.

5. PICKERING 22 E 13


5. PICKERING 22 E 13

  • Pichering(a) 1086 DB 1086; 1165 P (p); 1173-88 Riev
  • Pic(h)rinch 1109-14 YCh 397
  • Pikeringes 1109-14 RegAlb ii. 12, 1120-5 ibidem ii. 10 d, 1138 ibidem ii. 11 d; 1234 CI; Pykerynges 13 Leon 10 d
  • Picaringes 1119-35 RegAlb circa 1300) ii. 5 d
  • Pikering(a-m, -e) 1157 YCh 401, 1157-89 ibidem 408, 1160 Riev et passim
  • Pekeryng 1579 FF

'The settlement of Picer and his dependants' from OE Piceringas. The base of the place-name is an OE personal name Picer, not adduced in independent use in OE. It is found also as the first element of Pixham (Place-Names Worcestershire 225). vide ing. In the name Pickering there is some evidence for the survival in ME of the OE plural -ingas.


  • Burghgate 1408 (Forest Proceedings)

'Road to the stronghold' (i.e. Pickering Castle). vide burh, gata.


  • Blandebi, -by 1086 DB et passim to 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 219
  • Blaundeby, -bi 1251 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series), 1297 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Blandesby 1408 (Forest Proceedings)
  • Blansby 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire)

'Blanda's farm' vide by. The ON by-name Blanda (genitive Blöndu) is adduced by Lind (Norsk-Isländska Personbinamn, 1920-1) and means 'one who mixes his drinks'. For Blaundebi compare Spaunton 61 supra. For Blansby compare Baldersby 182 infra.


  • Brootes, Brottes 1538 (Rievaulx Cartulary)

The name occurs elsewhere in the North Riding, in Broats in Dalton 183 infra and as a field-name, and it is the same as the Norwegian place name Braaten (Rygh, Norske Gaardnavne) Indledning 45 and (Rygh, Norske Gaardnavne) passim and particularly i. 17, ii. 116) which is derived from ON broti 'a heap of trees felled in a wood' and so 'a clearing in a wood'. Compare Fenbrotes, Lang(e)brotes, Morbrotes, Smalbrotes, Dunlangabrotes as 13th century field-names.


  • Eduiemersh, -mersc circa 1160, 1189 (Rievaulx Cartulary)
  • Ediue-, Edyuemersc(h) 1238 (Malton Cartulary) 38
  • Edeuemerske 1333 (Rievaulx Cartulary)
  • Edymarsh 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

'Edive's marsh' from the OE woman's name Eadgifu and mersc.


  • Ferwath 1334 (Pleas of the Forest) 304
  • farr-, farewath(e) 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

Possibly 'distant ford' from OE feor 'far' and vað. Professor Ekwall would take the first element to be ON færr, 'easily passable'.


  • Freredik 1334 (Pleas of the Forest) 304
  • Freeredike 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

ME frere 'friar' and dic.


  • Grenegate 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 212

'Green road' vide grene, gata.


  • Gundale 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 206 d, 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Gonddale 1503 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

'Gunni's valley' vide dæl. ON Gunni is found also in Gunby (Yorkshire East Riding), Gunnebi DB.


  • Killyngnebbesker 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 213 d

On the first element vide Lindkvist. The probability is that Killing is a personal name derived from ON Kyle (Lind, Norsk-Isländska Personbinamn, 1920-1). Nab is ME nebbe, nab 'projecting point of a hill' (ultimately from OE nebb 'beak'). The final element is ON sker 'rock'.


  • Liteldale circa 1180-1212 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 394



  • Midsic(h), -syk circa 1160, 1189 (Rievaulx Cartulary)

'Middle stream' from OE midd and sic.


  • aqua de Pykeringe circa 1180-1212 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 394, etc.

vide bekkr.


  • valle de Pykerynge 1248 (Whitby Cartulary)

Vale is from OFr val 'valley' (compare Rievaulx supra).


  • Potterhill 1408 (Forest Proceedings)

OE potere 'potter' and hyll.


  • Rouclif, -clyff 1334 (Pleas of the Forest) 304, 1408 (Forest Proceedings)
  • Rocliffe 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

This is probably the same as Rawcliffe (Bulmer Wapentake) 15 supra.


  • Centoftdikes 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 213 d, (-heued) ibidem 235
  • Sentoftheued 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 254

Probably 'clearing caused by burning' vide topt. The first element is identical with that of Sundridge (Kent), OE sænget hryg (Birch Cartularium Saxonicum) 506, Syntley (Place-Names Worcestershire 36) and St Chloe (Gloucestershire), being a noun-derivative of OE sengan 'to burn'.


  • Waldalerigg 1252 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

Possibly 'ridge above the valley of the Welshmen' vide w(e)ala, dæl, hrycg.


  • Wadelespole 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 211 d

'Wædel's pool' vide pol. This contains an OE personal name Wædel recorded in the form Wadell as the holder (Tempus Rex Edwardii) of Wadelscota, now Waddlestone (Devonshire) in Lew Trenchard. It is found also in Woodluston (Shropshire), Wadelestun DB, and in a weak form in Wattlehurst (Surrey), earlier Wadelehurst. The modern spelling is due to folk-etymology.

YATTS (6")

  • Yates 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 237 d
  • Yattes 1497 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

vide geat.

Thornton Dale


  • Torentun(e), Torentona 1086 DB
  • Thornetun, -ton 1157-8 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 402, (in vallem de Pykerynge) 1248 (Whitby Cartulary) et passim

With the same run of forms and meaning as Thornton Bridge 24 supra. The suffix Dale refers to the valley in which the village stands.


  • Dalbi, -by 1086 DB, 1408 (Forest Proceedings), (rivulum de) 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Daleby 1251 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series), 1279 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Dawby 1500 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

'Valley farm' vide dæl, by and Dalby (Bulm) 29 supra.


  • Elreburne 1086 DB, 1225 (Registers of the Archbishops of York)
  • Elrebrune 1086 DB
  • Elraburna 1145-53 (Registrum Cartarum Hospit. St Leonardi Ebor) 35
  • Alrebrune 155-67 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 38o, Hy 2 (Registrum Cartarum Hospit. St Leonardi Ebor) 4 d
  • Ellebrone circa 1200 (Forest Proceedings); -burn(e) 1227 (Calendar of Patent Rolls), 1231 (Registers of the Archbishops of York)
  • Ellerburn(e) 1252 (Registers of the Archbishops of York), 1275 (Yorkshire Inquisitions) et passim

'Alder stream' vide elri, burna. There is indecision in the early forms between OE alor and ON elrir and between OE burna and ON brunnr. All these forms have their parallels in Yorkshire. In the light of the early forms quoted this place cannot be identical with OE æt Helaþyrnum (Anglo Saxon Chronicle 778 E). Compare Brandl Festschrift i. 48 on this identification.


  • Helaghker 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 208

'Marsh near the high forest-clearing' vide kjarr and compare Healey 232 infra.


  • Farmanesbi 1086 DB
  • Farmanebi, -by 1155-65 (Whitby Cartulary), 1210 (Dugdale's Monasticon) iv. 318
  • Farmanby Hy 2 (Registrum Cartarum Hospit. St Leonardi Ebor) 4 d, 1155-67 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 380 et passim
  • Feremannebi 1170 (Pipe Rolls)
  • Farmanneby 1225 (Registers of the Archbishops of York), 1242 (Pipe Rolls), 1280 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls)
  • Faremanby 1231 (Registers of the Archbishops of York)

'Farman's farm' vide by. The ON personal name Farmann, ODan Farman appears in OE as Færeman, the name of the priest who glossed the Rushforth Gospel of St John, and in ME as Fareman (12 Easby 13).


  • Flaxdale 1334 (Pleas of the Forest) 252 d
  • Flaxedale 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

'Flak's valley' or 'valley where flax is grown' vide fleax, dæl. On the first element vide Flaxton 37 supra.


  • Ekkedale 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 252 d

vide dæle. The first element is probably ME hekk. vide hæcc.


  • Chetelestorþ 1086 DB, circa 1250 (Malton Cartulary) 118

'Ketill's village' vide þorp. A common Scandinavian personal name.


  • Lydeyate 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 222 d
  • Lidgate 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

vide hlid-geat.


  • Neustede 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 260
  • Newstede in lez Marres 1534 (Rievaulx Cartulary)

'New place' vide niwe, stede. Newstead is in Pickering Marishes. Marres is from French marais 'marsh'.


  • Rozebi, Rosebi 1086 DB
  • Roucesby 1250 (Book of Fees) (p), 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy 1301), 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 207, 253 d, 1408 (Forest Proceedings)
  • Roxbie 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire)

'Rauth's farm' from the ON personal name Rauðr (Lind, Norsk-Isländska dopnamn och fingerade namn) and by. Compare Roxby (Langbargh East Wapentake) 139 infra. The spelling Rox- is due partly to influence of genuine Roxbys (from ON Hrókr) and partly to an inverted spelling arising from the change of ME x to z, which has confused the spelling of z from other sources in the dialect, compare Moxby 29 supra and Coxwold 191 infra.


  • Selibrigg 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy 1301)
  • Selybrygge 1349 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

'Bridge by the willows' vide brycg. The first element is ON selja 'willow'. A field in this district was called Seliflat in 1201 (Rotuli Chartarum).


  • Thorntonebech 1167-79 (Rievaulx Cartulary), etc.

2. WILTON 23 F 1

  • Wiltun(e) 1086 DB, 1247 (Dugdale's Monasticon) iv. 276, 1247 (Calendar of Charter Rolls)
  • Wi-, Wylton(am) 1167 (Pipe Rolls), 1180 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 610 et passim
  • Willeton 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy 1301)

There is another Wilton in Langbargh West Wapentake 159 infra, which is found in DB as Wiltuna and Widtuna. Bishop's Wilton in Yorkshire East Riding also has a form Widtone in DB. These forms suggest that the true form of the name at the time of DB was Wildetuna, in which presumably the first element is the common adjective wild, referring to the original state of the site. Compare Wildon (193 infra) and the use of Wildbrook (twice in Sussex) to describe marshy uncultivated land, a name going bacli to medieval times.


1. LOCKTON 22 C 14

  • Lochetun 1086 DB
  • Loketon 1167 (Pipe Rolls) et passim to 1303 (Knights' Fees 1303)
  • Lokeintun 1170-88 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 398
  • Lokin-, Lokynton(e) 1198, 1250 (Book of Fees), 1322 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Loquinton 1226-8 (Book of Fees)
  • Locatun circa 1250 (Malton Cartulary) 118
  • Lok-, Locton(e) 1285 (Kirkby's Inquest) et passim to 1577 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

'Loca's farm' vide ingtun. The name Loca is a weak form of the OE personal name Loc adduced by Ekwall (Place-Names in -ing 70). Derivation from a personal name explains the forms Lokinton (from an OE by-form Locingtun, by the side of Locantun). Compare also Lockington (Yorkshire East Riding), Lochetun DB, Lokyngton 1285 (Kirkby's Inquest), 1316 (Nomina Villarum, 1316).


  • Crossedale 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 216, 253

Self-explanatory. vide cros, dæl.


  • Hotcumbe circa 1250 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Holcumbe 1322 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Horcumbe, Horcombe 1326, 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Horkome 1500 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

The first two spellings are probably erratic; the first is not supported by the later forms and the second would have become modern [aukam]. The first element is probably identical with that of Urra 70 supra. vide horh, cumb. Horcum is at the head of a very deep valley.


  • Saltergate 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 211, 214, 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

vide gata. The road referred to is that over the moors from Pickering to (Whitby Cartulary). The first element is OE saltere 'a salter' which occurs in other place-names. Compare the full account of these names in Place-Names Worcestershire 4 ff. Note also Saltergate near Harrogate (Yorkshire West Riding) and Salterhebble near Halifax (compare "River Names of Yorkshire", 1925 sub nomine Hebble). Mr W. B. Crump suggests to me that many of the Salter- names in Yorkshire West Riding and Lancashire probably indicate roads along which salt was carried from the Cheshire mines. In the North Riding the name is possibly connected with the salt (or alum) mined in the Cleveland district (compare Saltburn, etc. 143 infra).


  • Staindal 1185-95 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 392

'Rocky valley' vide steinn, dæl.


  • Taksyk 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 204 d
  • Thaksyk 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 205

vide sic. The first element is ON þakk 'thatch' (compare Thackthwaite Beck 266 infra) 'stream by which thatching material grew'.


1. LEVISHAM 22 C 14

  • Leuecen, Lewecen 1086 DB
  • Leuezham 13th (Malton Cartulary) 116 d, c. 1230 ibidem 117, 1226-1257 (Calendar of Charter Rolls), circa 1250 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Leuezam, Leuesam 1231 (Malton Cartulary) 29 d
  • Leu-, Levesham 1242 (Pipe Rolls) et passim to 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Leuescem 1250 (Malton Cartulary) 118
  • Leueshaim circa 1250 (Malton Cartulary) 118
  • Levest-, Leveszham 1252 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Levisham 1289 (Registers of the Archbishops of York), 1297 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Levesam 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy 1301)
  • Leveysham, Lewsam 1577 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Leas(h)am 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire), 1610 (Speed's Map of Yorkshire)

The DB spellings and others with z, sc, st, and sz show that the name is of the same origin as Ledsham (Cheshire), Leuetesham DB, 'Lēofgēat's homestead' vide ham. The spelling Leueshaim has been influenced by ON heimr.


  • Haghdale 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 223 d

'Enclosure-valley' vide haga, dæl.


  • Undernesheued 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 223 d

'Under the promontory head' vide næs, heafod.


  • Rumboldlyngeweit 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 255

The þveit must have been near the snout. The first element is a personal name Rumbeald and the second is lyng.


  • Yorcfal 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 255

Yorfalls was an enclosure in the Forest of Pickering. The second element is ON fall, 'place where trees have been felled'. The first is possibly adopted from the city of York or, as Dr Lindkvist (Middle English Place-Names of Scandinavian Origin, 1912) suggests, may be the ON personal name Jórekr.



  • Alurestan, -stain, Aluristan 1086 DB
  • Alvestain, -stein 1154-74 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 387, 1160 (Rievaulx Cartulary), 1167 (Pipe Rolls), 1227 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), 1233 (Calendar of Close Rolls)
  • Al(l)verstain, -stayn, -steyn, -stein 1086 DB, circa 1190-1214 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 389, et freq to 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 252
  • Alverstan(e) 1219 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls), et freq to 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 214 d
  • Auverstan 1259 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls)
  • Alvestane 1322 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

Some of the early spellings have tun in the second element:

  • Aluestune 1086 DB
  • Alveston, -tun 1160 (Rievaulx Cartulary), 1218 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

Later forms include:

  • Allerstane 1285 (Kirkby's Inquest), 1408 (Forest Proceedings)
  • Alistan 1316 (Nomina Villarum, 1316)
  • Allestan 1329 (Calendar of Charter Rolls)
  • Allerston, Allarston 1518 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), 1577 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series), 1665 (Heraldic Visitations of Yorkshire)
  • Ollerston 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire)

The original form of the name seems to have been OE Ælfheresstān 'Ælfhere's stone' vide stan. Forms like Alve- (with loss of -r-) may represent a pet form Ælf or a substitution of ON Alfr (Lind, Norsk-Isländska dopnamn och fingerade namn).

The second element fluctuates between OE stan and ON steinn. OE tun in the second element appears to be of early origin. The best explanation of this is to suppose that at an early date a farmstead was built in the neighbourhood of the stan and Ælfhere's name was applied to it also. vide tun.


  • Alvestain(e)bec 1189 (Rievaulx Cartulary)
  • Aluerstanbek 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 26o, etc.


  • Blakehau 1223 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Blakhouloundes 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 210 d
  • Blakay more 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire)

'Black mound' vide blaec, haugr, lundr.


  • Crakethorn 1218 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

'Crow thorn' vide kraki, þorn and compare Crakethirn 13 (Percy Cartulary) in Rainton.


  • Crosseclif, -clyff 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 205, 217 d

vide cros, clif. The reference may be to some cross used as a boundary mark.


  • Derewentspring(es) 1201 (Rotuli Chartarum), 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 213

'The source(s) of the river Derwent vide spring.


  • Gindala 1160 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 386, circa 1160 (Rievaulx Cartulary)
  • Geveldale 1227 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy 1301) (p)
  • Geuendale 1231 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Gyvendale 1323 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Gyndale 1500, 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Geyndell al. Gyuendale 1536 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

This name possibly derives from a lost river Gifle found in Ivel (Place-Names Bedfordshire Huntingdonshire 8), with Northern velar g. Compare Zachrisson in Namn och Bygd xiv. 52 f. on Givendale (Yorkshire East Riding). If so, we must explain the numerous n-forms as due to common Anglo-Norman confusion of n and l (compare "Introduction to the Survey of English Place-Names" 108).


  • Loctemares, -mersc 1086 DB
  • Loftmarays 1241 Magnum Registrum Album (Dean and Chapter of York, circa 1300) ii. 13
  • Loftmarreys 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 260
  • Loftemarrays 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy 1301)

'Marsh near the loft' vide lopt, mersc. The DB Locte- probably indicates that the bilabial quality of ON þ (=f) was preserved to a certain extent in the Anglo-Scandinavian dialect of Y.


  • Mawemose 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 205 d

vide mos 'a peat bog'. The first element is perhaps the ON by-name Magi (Lind, Norsk-Isländska Personbinamn, 1920-1), which appears in ME as Mawe circa 1100 Danelaw (Calendar of Charter Rolls) 37 and Maue circa 1245 (Selby Cartulary) i. 374.


  • Morhou 1154-74 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 387

vide mor, haugr.


  • Flaskes 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 204 d

'Water pools' vide flasshe.


  • Yarnolfbek 1324 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series), 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 216 d
  • Yorney beck 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

'Yarnolf's stream' from ON Járnólfr (Lind, Norsk-Isländska dopnamn och fingerade namn) and bekkr.



  • Edbriztun(e) 1086 DB
  • E-, Ædbri(c)hteston 1163, 1167 (Pipe Rolls) (p), 1167, 1187 (Pipe Rolls)
  • Edbriston 1185-95 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 390, 1219 (Malton Cartulary) 130 d, 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy 1301)
  • Edbreston 1254 Magnum Registrum Album (Dean and Chapter of York, circa 1300) ii. 17, 1259 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls)
  • Ebreston(a) 1114-9 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 371, et freq to 1359 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Ebriston(e) 1202 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), 1322 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Eberston 1316 (Nomina Villarum, 1316), 1408 (Forest Proceedings)

'Eadbriht's farm' from OE Eadbriht and tun.


  • Biggelea 1185 (Pipe Rolls)
  • Bickele 1326 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Bikle 1335 ForP 252
  • Byklay 1408 (Forest Proceedings)
  • Byckley 1566 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

'Bica's forest clearing' vide leah. The first element is the OE Bica (Redin, Uncompounded Personal Names in OE 85). For -gg- compare Wigginton 14 supra.


  • Depedale 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 215 d



  • Littlemersk 1247 (Dugdale's Monasticon) iv 276

vide lytel, mersc.


  • Sto(c)k(e)lund 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 219 d, 257 d

'Wood from which trees have been cut (leaving only the stocks)' vide stocc, lundr.


  • Queldale 1322 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Weledale 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 291

vide hweol, dæl. The sense in which OE hweol is here used is not clear. In Wheeldale 131 infra it certainly refers to the circular course which the valley takes. There are in this neighbourhood a number of dikes and the meaning of hweol may be 'circular dike' (compare Ekwall, Place-Names Lancashire 132, sub nomine Wheelton).


1. BROMPTON 23 F 4

  • Bruntun(e) 1086 DB, circa 1170 (Rievaulx Cartulary)
  • Brunton 1086 DB, et freq to 1665 (Heraldic Visitations of Yorkshire)
  • Birunton' 1167 (Pipe Rolls)
  • Brumton' 1219 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls), 1245 (Malton Cartulary) 4.1 d, 1301 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Brumpton(e) 1253 (Calendar of Charter Rolls), et freq to 1399 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Brompton(e) 1285 (Kirkby's Inquest) et passim

The name Brompton occurs elsewhere in the Riding and in Yorkshire East Riding as Potter Brompton, Bruneton DB, (Potter)-brumton 1285 (Kirkby's Inquest), 1306 (Bridlington Cartulary). Most of the early spellings have Brun- and to explain this we must suppose either that the ME nasal sign ' or - should be interpreted as m and not n (as is usually done) or that n later became m, a change which is unlikely before t. The reverse process is more probably correct and if we take the first element as being originally Brum- we can explain the n forms as due to the influence of the following t. A similar change of m to n at an early date is found in Bromley (Kent), OE Bromleag (Birch, Cartularium Saxonicum) 506, Brunlei in DB, and Bromley (Staffordshire), OE Bromleage, circa 1096 FW, but Brunlege DB.

The origin and meaning of the first element are open to speculation, but the most likely explanation is the OE word brom 'broom', which enters with certainty into many English place-names, such as the two Bromleys already noticed, Brumdon (Dorsetshire), Bromdun (Kemble, Codex Diplomaticus Aevi Saxonicum) 1322, Broomhope, Broomley (Place-Names Northumberland Durham sub nomine), etc. The word seems to have become brum at an early date, as shown by the spellings of Broomley (Northumberland, Brumleg 1255) and the two Bromleys. If this is correct Brompton means 'enclosed piece of land overgrown with gorse' vide brom, tun and compare Brampton 180 infra.


  • Ruchou circa 1242 (Malton Cartulary) 141

'The rough mound' vide ruh, haugr.


  • Salden(e) early 13 (Malton Cartulary) 138 d, et passim to 1562 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Sawden 1569 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Sawdon 1570, 1578 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Saudon 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire)

'Willow valley' vide s(e)alh, denu.

2. SNAINTON 23 F 3

  • Snechintun(e), -ton(e) 1086 DB
  • Snechint' 1166 (Pipe Rolls) (p)
  • Sneing-, Sneyngton 13th (Percy Cartulary), 1237 (Malton Cartulary) 41
  • Snain-, Snaynton 13th (Malton Cartulary) 137, 1204 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls) et passim
  • Sneynton 1304 BM, 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 252
  • Snenton 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire)

No satisfactory solution of this name can be offered.


  • Dernecombe 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 252

'Hidden valley' vide d(i)erne, cumb. This is quite apt.


  • Fuchebruge 1178 (Pipe Rolls)
  • Fuchkebrige 1179 (Pipe Rolls)
  • Fulkebrig(g)e 1182, 1184 (Pipe Rolls)
  • Fukbrigg 1285 (Kirkby's Inquest), 1325 (Calendar of Inquisitions post mortem)
  • Foukebrigge 1301 (Registers of the Archbishops of York)
  • Foulbridg 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire)

vide brycg. The local pronunciation of the name presupposes an original -ul- in the first element (vide Introduction xxxii), which is probably the personal name Fulk. This is O.E.Scand Fulke (Lundgren-Brate), cognate with O.W.Scand Folki (Lind, Norsk-Isländska dopnamn och fingerade namn). If the original form were ON Folki it has been influenced by the Norman name Fulk (1124 Anglo Saxon Chronicle), which was a loan from OHG Fulco. The name enters also into Folkton (Yorkshire East Riding), Fulcheton DB, and Fulkeholm 1208 (Rotuli Chartarum), in Thornton le Beans.


  • Wyddale circa 1242 (Malton Cartulary) 141

'Wood-valley' vide viðr, dalr, and compare Widdale 267 infra.


  • Truzstal 1086 DB
  • Trucedal(e) 1314 (Percy Cartulary), 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 206 d, 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Trowt(t)esdale, Troutesdale 1497 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series), 1562 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series), 1665 (Heraldic Visitations of Yorkshire)

'Trut's valley' vide dæl. It is reasonable to suppose that Trut is from the ON by-name Trútr, genitive Trúts (Lind, Norsk-Isländska Personbinamn, 1920-1). The early spellings with z, c represent the ON genitive form -s (vide Haxby 14 supra).


  • Baklaus 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 252

The forms are too few for any satisfactory explanation.


  • crucem Willelmi 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 207 d

vide cros and William Howes 81 supra.


1. WYKEHAM 23 E 4

  • Wicam 1086 DB
  • Wic-, Wi-, Wykham 1086 DB, circa 1125-35 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 762 et passim to 1408 (Forest Proceedings)
  • Wicheham circa 1180 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Wi-, Wyckham 1201 (Dugdale's Monasticon) v. 670, 1286 (Registers of the Archbishops of York), 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy), 1665 (Heraldic Visitations of Yorkshire)
  • Wykkam 1244 (Book of Fees)
  • Wickeham 1295 (Yorkshire Deeds)
  • Wykeham 1285 (Kirkby's Inquest), 1375 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Wyc-, Wykam 1328 (De Banco Rolls), 1423 (Testamenta Eboracensia)

vide wicham. The significance of the first element here is not clear.


  • Berlagh 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 209 d, 210, 210 d

'Forest clearing used for growing barley' vide bere, leah.


  • Boddale circa 1153 (Dugdale's Monasticon) v. 670
  • Bodale 1259 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls)
  • Budells 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

The phonetic history of the name is parallel to that of Beadlam 67 supra, and the original vowel must have been ō. The first element is perhaps ODan boð. Hence, 'booth-valley'.


  • Hepperle', Hiperle 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 210, 210 d

The first element of this name is undoubtedly identical with the place name Hipperholme (YVVR), Hy-, Hiperum DB, 1266 (Yorkshire Inquisitions), 1286 (Wakefield Court Rolls). There is a dialect word hipper 'osiers used in basket making' adduced from Lancashire, but its origin is obscure. vide leah.


  • Lang(e)dale 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 207

'Long valley' vide lang, dæl.


  • Ludeparc circa 1190-9 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 381

'Luda's park' vide p(e)arroc. Compare the personal name Luda (Redin, Uncompounded Personal Names in OE 67).


  • Rostun(e) 1086 DB, 1208 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls) (p)
  • Ruston 1167 (Pipe Rolls), 1393, 1450 (Testamenta Eboracensia)
  • Roston(a) circa 1190-9 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 381, 1226-8 (Book of Fees) et passim to 1408 (Forest Proceedings)
  • Royston 1287 (Calendar of Inquisitions post mortem)

Professor Ekwall suggests that this name contains OE hrōst, 'roof-beam', but the sense of the compound is obscure. vide tun.


  • Woulfhow 13th (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Wolfhow 1446 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Wulhow, North-, Southewulfehow 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

'Wolf-mound' vide wulf, haugr.

Hutton Buscel

1. WEST AYTON 23 E 5

  • Atun(e) 1086 DB
  • Aton(e, -a) 1200-10 (Whitby Cartulary) et passim to 1385 (Yorkshire Deeds)
  • Vestheton 1393 (Testamenta Eboracensia)
  • Ayton 1555 (Index to the Charters and Rolls in the British Museum), 1562 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

'River-farm' vide a, tun, and compare Norw Aaby (Rygh, Norske Gaardnavne) ii. 158). West Ayton, like East Ayton 101, infra, is on the river Derwent: Aton' ex parte occident. aque (1408 Forest Proceedings).


  • Preste-enge 1323 (Whitby Cartulary)

vide preost, eng. The land here was in the possession of Whitby Abbey. The modern form arises from association with the neighbouring Preston Hill 101 infra.


  • Yedmundale 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 209 d

vide dæl. The first element is the OE personal name Eadmund. On the y- form vide Yearsley 193 infra.


  • Hotun'(e) 1086 DB, and with the same run of forms as for Sheriff Hutton 31 supra. The suffix appears as
  • Bussalle 1280 (Registers of the Archbishops of York)
  • Bussel(l) 1282 (Registers of the Archbishops of York)
  • Buscel(l) 1284 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Bus(s)hell 1493 (Testamenta Eboracensia)

vide hoh, tun. It was held in the 12th and 13th centuries by the family of Bushell (vide Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters 371, Whitby passim).


  • Presteton, Prestetune 1086 DB
  • Preston 1259 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls) et passim

'Priests' farm' vide preost, tun.


  • Westcroft 1135-55 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 373



1. EAST AYTON 23 E 5

  • Atun(e) 1086 DB

Forms as for West Ayton 100 supra.


  • Ildegrip 1086 DB
  • Hildegrip(e) 1086 DB, 1303 (Percy Cartulary)
  • Hildegrippe circa 1260-70 (Yorkshire Charters (unpublished) in the Bodleian Library) 123.

The DB names have usually been identified with Hilla Green in Hackness but the other references here given and the fact that in DB Hildegrip is mentioned between Iretune (Irton infra) and Atune (East Ayton) seem to show that the place referred to was in East Ayton. Hill Grips is, therefore, more likely. The first element is OE Hild (f). The second element is probably connected with ME grip 'furrow, ditch', compare OE grype and MDu grippe.

2. IRTON 23 E 6

  • Iretun(e) 1086 DB, 1170 (Pipe Rolls)
  • I-,Yrton(a) circa 1223 (Whitby Cartulary) et passim
  • Hi-, Hyrton(a) circa 1223 (Whitby Cartulary), 1244 (Percy Cartulary), 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy 1301)

'The Irishman's or Irishmen's farm' vide tun. The first element is the ON Íri, genitive singular or plural Ira, used of a Scandinavian who had been in Ireland. vide Introduction xxvii.

3. SEAMER 23 E 6

  • Semær 1086 DB
  • Semer(e) 1086 DB et passim to 1534 (Yorkshire Charters (unpublished) in the Bodleian Library) i. 84.
  • Samara, -mara 1090-6 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 855, 13 (Percy Cartulary), circa 1200 (Whitby Cartulary), 1224 (Calendar of Patent Rolls)
  • Semar(e, -a) 1155-65 (Whitby Cartulary), circa 1160 (Byland Cartulary, Egerton) 22 d et passim to 1529 (Wills of the Northern Counties)

Compare Seamer (Langbargh West Wapentake) 172 infra, and Semer (Suffolk), Semere (Norfolk), always with mere. The first element is OE 'sea, lake'. The second is OE mere 'pool'. The significance of the name is not clear; in fact there is some doubt as to the meaning of the individual elements and apparently there is some confusion between OE mere 'pool' and ON marr. But it seems possible that, as Gothic saiws meant 'marsh' (besides 'sea') and the cognate OHG gi-sig meant 'ponds, marshes', the OE word could also mean 'marsh' in addition to 'sea, lake'. What makes it likely that the element is OE mere is the fact that a piece of land south-west of the village is called The Mere and judging from the number of drains running in various directions across it it has every appearance of having formerly been a pool. If we start with ON marr as the original form it is hardly possible to explain the -mere forms which appear in the 13th century. Whereas if we start with mere, the earlier -mær, -mar forms can be explained as due to an ONb by-form mær (vide Chief Elements in English Place-Names sub verbo mere). 'Marshy pool', probably indicating 'a partially drained pool'.


  • Crumbker 1337 (Percy Cartulary)

'Crooked marsh' vide crumb, kjarr.


  • Ramescliua 1170-80 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 412
  • Ravenesclif(fe) 13th (Percy Cartulary), 1252 (Calendar of Patent Rolls); -clive 1252 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Raveneclyff circa 1250 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Ravenclif 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 209 d, 1337 (Percy Cartulary)
  • Rancleiff 1405 (Calendar of Patent Rolls)
  • Reyn-, Raynclyf(f) 1461, 1475 (Calendar of Patent Rolls)

'Raven's cliff' vide clif. The ON personal name Hrafn had various forms for the genitive, Hrafns, Hramnes, Hrams (Lind, Norsk-Isländska dopnamn och fingerade namn), and it is from the latter that the first spelling Rames- is derived.

Cayton (a detached part of Whitby Strand Wapentake

1. CAYTON 23 E 7

  • Caitun(e), Cainton(a) 1086 DB
  • Chaituna about 1087 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • C-, Kaiton(a), C-, Kayton 12 (Dodsworth's MSS in the Bodleian Library) vii. 146 et passim

'Caega's farm' vide tun. For the OE personal name Cæga vide "Introduction to the Survey of English Place-Names" 180 and Place-Names Bedfordshire Huntingdonshire 15, 147. Compare also Cayton (Yorkshire West Riding), Caitun etc. 12 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) (passim).


  • Depedale (-am) 1086 DB et passim to 1572 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Dipedall' 1242 (Pipe Rolls)
  • Deepdale 1555 (Index to the Charters and Rolls in the British Museum

'Deep valley' vide deop, dæl.


  • Chilvertebi, Chiluertesbi 1086 DB
  • Kilverdebi, -by 1155-65 (Whitby Cartulary), 1231 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls)
  • Kiluerdby 13th (Byland Cartulary, Egerton) 20 d
  • Kilvardeby 1247 (Calendar of Charter Rolls)
  • Kelwardeby 13th (Percy Cartulary)
  • Ki-, Kylward(e)by 1285 (Kirkby's Inquest) et freq to 1487 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Kilwerbye 1572 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

The first element is without doubt identical with the personal name Chiluert which is found in DB. It enters into Kilverstone (Norfolk), and a lost Kuluertestuna, Culuerdestuna (DB) in Colneis Hundred (Suffolk), one of the forms of Marishes 84 supra, Killerby 245 infra, Killerwick (Place-Names Lancashire 205), and a lost Killerby in Leicestershire ("Introduction to the Survey of English Place-Names" 86). Björkman (Nordische Personennamen) 81, Björkman (Zur Englische Namenkunde) 54. Loanwords 25) supposes that it is a hybrid personal name of which the themes are ON Ketill (frequently reduced in Scandinavian dithematic names to Kil-) and the common OE theme -weard. The persistence of -verd forms, however, may occasion some doubt as to the correctness of Björkman's suggestion, and one may suggest that the name is from an OE compound name Cēolfriþ, Cēolferð, composed of the very common themes Cēol- and -friþ, or an ON name *Ketilferð composed of the themes Ketill- and -ferð. Later forms however show confusion with OE -weard. vide by.


  • Asgozbi 1086 DB
  • Angotby circa 1160 (Byland Cartulary, Egerton) 22 d
  • Angoteby 1206 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), 1247 (Calendar of Charter Rolls), 1268 (Registers of the Archbishops of York)
  • Osgotby circa 1160 (Byland Cartulary, Egerton) 22 d, 1285 (Kirkby's Inquest), 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy 1301), 1408 (Forest Proceedings)
  • Osgodebi circa 1170, 1252, 1333 (Rievaulx Cartulary)
  • Osgodby 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy) (p) et passim
  • Osgarby 1577 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

'Asgaut's farm' vide by. The first element is the ON personal name Ásgautr, on the various forms of which vide Björkman (Nordische Personennamen) 14 ff. Forms with An- are due to AN substitution of a continental form, and those with Os- to the substitution of the OE personal name-theme Ós- which was cognate with ON Ás-.


  • Grisetorþ 1086 DB
  • Gris-, Grysthorþ(þ) 1175-89 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 370 et freq
  • Gri-, Grysethorþ 1181 (Byland Cartulary, Egerton) 103 d et freq

'Gris's village' vide þorp. The first element is the ON personal name Gríss, from ON gríss 'a pig', found also in Gristhwaite and Girsby 186, 280 infra.


  • Eterstorþ 1086 DB

The first element is a personal name, possibly ON Eitri (Lind, Norsk-Isländska dopnamn och fingerade namn), found also as the first element of Etresghilebec (13 Rievaulx Cartulary) in Middleton in Teesdale (Durham). vide þorp.


  • Niwebigginge 1187, 1190 (Pipe Rolls) etc.

'New building' vide niwe, bigging.


  • Rodebestorþ, Roudeluestorþ 1086 DB
  • Rodberthorþ 1328 (De Banco Rolls)

The evidence is too conflicting for any certainty to be possible.


  • Scagestorþ, Scagetorþ 1086 DB

'Skagi's village' vide þorp. Compare ON Skagi (Lind, Norsk-Isländska Personbinamn, 1920-1), ODan Skaghi (Nielsen).


  • Ledbestun, Ledbeztun 1086 DB
  • Ledbrithun 1181 (Byland Cartulary, Egerton) 103 d
  • Ledbreston(a) 1190-1227, 1251 (Rievaulx Cartulary)
  • Ledbrizton 1206 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Ledbriston 1208 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), 1251 (Calendar of Charter Rolls)
  • Ledberstona 1257 (Rievaulx Cartulary)
  • Lebreston 1285 (Kirkby's Inquest), 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy 1301), 1303 (Knights' Fees 1303), 1408 (Forest Proceedings)
  • Lyberston 1550 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

'Leodbriht's farm' from OE Lēodbeorht adduced only in ONb and tun.


1. SCARBOROUGH 23 D 6, 7

  • Escardeburg 1155-63 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 364, 1256 (Calendar of Patent Rolls)
  • Scardeburc(h), -burg 1159-1190 (Pipe Rolls) (passim) et passim to 1505
  • Scarðeborc circa 1200 (Forest Proceedings)
  • Scartheburg(h) 1208 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls) et freq
  • Scareburgh 1414 (Testamenta Eboracensia)
  • Skarbrugh 1538 (Rievaulx Cartulary)
  • Scarbrowgh 1573 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

The name also appears in Scandinavian Sagas as Skarðaborg Kormakssaga, Flateyjarbok; Skarðabork Orkneyingasaga.

'Skarthi's stronghold' vide burh (ON berg). The history of this name is fully dealt with in a paper by Professor E. V. Gordon in Acta Philologica Scandinavica, i. 320 ff. The following is a summary of Professor Gordon's account of the foundation of the borough.

Kormakssaga tells us that "the brothers Thorgils and Kormak went harrying in Ireland, Wales, England and Scotland, and were accounted the most excellent of men. They were the first men to set up the stronghold which is called Scarborough (Kormaks Saga, Reykjavik, p. 64). It seems probable that the place takes its name from Thorgils, for we know from two poems which his brother Kormak addresses to him under his by-name (op. cit. 44, 45) that he was nick-named Skarði 'the hare lip'. This account of the foundation of Scarborough must have been widely known, for Robert Mannyng of Brunne (The Story of Inglande, ed. Furnivall, Rolls Series, ii. ll. 14816 ff.) gives the summary of a story told by Mayster Edmund (not extant):

When Engle had þe londe al þorow,
He gaf to Scardyng Scardeburghe -
Toward þe northe, by þe see side,
An hauene hit is, schipes in to ryde.

The date of Thorgils' harrying of England can be approximately determined. According to the saga, the brothers had joined the service of king Harald Gráfeld of Norway (king 960-965) and had accompanied his expedition to Bjarmaland (= Permia in North Russia) which took place in 966, and as the expedition to England took place immediately after this and as Kormak died in 967, the foundation of Scarborough as a centre of Scandinavian influence dates from 966-71. (Among Scarborough street-names, in addition to Dumple Street supra, we may note Cartergate (id. 1252 (Rievaulx Cartulary) and Sandgate (id. 1333 (Rievaulx Cartulary), Partum Sabulonis (ib), 'Carter's road' (vide gata) and 'road to the sands'. Newbrough Street takes its name from the Novo Burgo (1333 (Rievaulx Cartulary)), referring probably to Scarborough Castle.)


  • Burtondal(e) 1210 (Dugdale's Monasticon) iv. 319, 1298 (Yorkshire Inquisitions), 1329 (Percy Cartulary)

vide burhtun, dæl.

DUMPLE STREET, a street (6")

  • the Dompyll 1500 (Testamenta Eboracensia)

This name should be compared with Dumplington (Place-Names Lancashire 38) which Professor Ekwall derives from an unrecorded OE dympla 'a small dent in the earth', compare OHG dumphilo. The word is probably the origin of the English word dimple, the earliest recorded sense of which is 'a small hollow in a plump part of the human body' (New English Dictionary from 1400). The later meaning 'a dip in the surface of the earth', judging from the cognate words, is in reality probably earlier. The actual word dumple found in this place-name is hardly a direct descendant of OE dympla, but must be from an unmutated OE dumpel from a Germanic base *dump-; compare ON dump 'pit, pool', German dialect dumpf, dümpel 'a deep place in flowing or stagnant water' (Grimm), and the modern dialect (NRY) dump 'a deep hole in the bed of a river or pond' (Atkinson, Cleveland Glossary), dumble (NTT) 'stream with steep sides'.


  • Wal(l)esgrif, Walesgriþ 1086 DB
  • Walesgraua, -grave 1169, 1190 (Pipe Rolls) et freq to 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Hwallisgrave 1170 (Rievaulx Cartulary)
  • Hwallexgraue 1181 (Byland Cartulary, Egerton) 103 d, 1334 (Pleas of the Forest) 318
  • Walegrive 1175-89 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 370
  • Wallesgrave 1201 (Rotuli Chartarum), 1228 (Calendar of Liberate Rolls), 1275, 1298 (Yorkshire Inquisitions), 1312 (Calendar of Charter Rolls)
  • Walegrave 1231 (Book of Fees)
  • Whalegrave 1237 (Calendar of Close Rolls)
  • Quallegrave 1242 (Pipe Rolls)
  • Whallesgrave 1259 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls), 1304 (Placitorum Abbreviatio), 1312 (Pleas of the Forest) 377 d, 1487 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Walsgrave 1575 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire)
  • Faulesgrave 1568 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

vide gryfja 'a hole, pit', compare Griff Farm and Stonegrave 54, 73 supra. The first element is the ON personal name Hvalr, genitive Hvals (Lind, Norsk-Isländska dopnamn och fingerade namn). The change of hw- to f- is peculiar, but is probably due to over-aspiration, in the same way as in some Scottish and Northern Irish dialects what has become 'fat'.


  • Sandepittes 1298 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

vide sand, pytt. There is a large number of sand-holes in the parish.



  • Brinctun, Brinniston, -tun 1086 DB
  • Brinigstun 1091-5 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 863, 1109-14 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 865
  • Brinigstona 1185-95 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 369
  • Briniston(a) 1108-14, 1145-8, 1155-65 (Whitby Cartulary), 1314, 1322 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Brunieston 1150-60 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Bernestona 1161-84 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Bri-, Bryningeston(a) 1224-38 (Whitby Cartulary), 1279-81 (Placita de quo Warranto), early 14th (Whitby Cartulary), 1408 (Forest Proceedings)
  • Brinneston 1259 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls) (p)
  • Bryneston' 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy 1301)
  • Brenestona 1314 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Brenyston 1395 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Byrnyngeston' 1408 (Forest Proceedings)
  • Burnysshton 1550 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Burston 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire)

'Bryning's farm' vide tun. The name Brýning (an ing-formation from OE Bran) is found independently in OE vide (Redin, Uncompounded Personal Names in OE 165) and as Brýningr in ON (Lind, Norsk-Isländska Personbinamn, 1920-1); compare Burneston (Halik) 226 infra. The modern form of the place-name is due to metathesis of Brin- to Birn-, which later became [ban] in the dialect.


  • Cloctune, -ton(a) 1086 DB, 1195-1225 (Dodsworth's MSS in the Bodleian Library) vii. 244, 1230 (Whitby Cartulary), 1235 (Calendar of Charter Rolls)
  • Clochton 1231 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls)
  • Cloghton 1368 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), 1408 (Forest Proceedings)
  • Clouchetone 1322 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Cloughton 1577 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Clawghton 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

'Valley farm' vide cloh, tun.


  • Elsicroft, Elsy- about 1133, early 14th (Whitby Cartulary), 1204 (Rotuli Chartarum)
  • Elliscrofte 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

'Elsi's croft' vide croft. Elsi (compare DB Alsi) is from OE Ælf- or Æþel-sige.

3. SCALBY 23 C 6

  • Sc-, Skallebi, -by 1086 DB et passim to 1400
  • Sc-, Skalebi, -by 1086 DB, 1169 (Pipe Rolls) et freq to 1280 (Calendar of Charter Rolls)
  • Escaleby 1251 (Calendar of Close Rolls)
  • Scalby 1322 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series), 1376 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), 1408 (Forest Proceedings), 1508 (Testamenta Eboracensia), 1665 (Heraldic Visitations of Yorkshire)
  • Sc-, Skawby(e) 1570, 1575 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), 1577 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

'Skalli's farm' vide by. The first element, as in Scawby (Lincolnshire), is the ON personal name Skalli, genitive Skalla (Lind, Norsk-Isländska dopnamn och fingerade namn); compare the Swedish place-name Skålby, OSwed Skallaby (Hellquist, Svenska ON -by, 37).


  • Caldhou 1244 (Percy Cartulary)

'Cold mound' vide cald, haugr.

COOMS (6")

  • Cumbis 1252 (Calendar of Patent Rolls)
  • Cumbes 1252 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

'The valleys' vide cumb.


  • Crossik 1244 (Percy Cartulary)

'Stream near the cross' vide cros, sic.


  • Hatterberga 1167 (Pipe Rolls)
  • Haterberg(e, -h) 1218 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines) et freq to 1304 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Hatherbergh 1327 (De Banco Rolls)
  • Atterbergh 1550 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Haterbargh 1577 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

vide berg. The first element is the ON by-name Hattr (Höttr), genitive Hattar (Lind, Norsk-Isländska Personbinamn, 1920-1).


  • Neuby 1244 (Percy Cartulary) et passim

'New farm' vide niwe, by.


  • Nort(h)stede 1550 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

'North place' vide norþ, stede.


  • haia (haya) de Scallebi 1190 (Pipe Rolls), 1201 (Rotuli Chartarum)

vide Scalby 108 supra and gehaeg. Here it denotes a hunting enclosure in the forest of Scalby. Compare Hayburn 111 infra.


  • Swinestischal 1109-14 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 865
  • Swi-, Swyn(e)stischage, -schache about 1133, 1154-89, 1189 (Whitby Cartulary) et freq to 1308 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Swinsey 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

'Wood near the pig-sty' vide swin, stigu, sceaga. The final element offers some difficulty. The -schall forms in ME should probably be regarded as orthographic variants of the -schaghe forms, due to the development of a diphthong -au- from OE -ag-, which was similar in sound to the diphthong -au- from OFr -al-; the latter was often written al by French scribes after the Conquest, even though its phonetic character had changed. Apparently Norman scribes represented the ME au (from OE ag) in the same way as OFr au. OFr al had certainly become an soon after the Conquest (Schwann-Behrens, Altfranz. Gram. § 174) and the new diphthong was frequently written al (op. cit. §§ 174, 233). The probability that ME au (from OE ag) was sometimes represented by al in AN orthography is borne out by the evidence of other place-names. Oakenshaw (Yorkshire West Riding), Akanescale 1255 (Yorkshire Inquisitions), Okeneschagh 1355 (Yorkshire Deeds) (from acen and sceaga); compare also the DB form of Aiskew (Hang East Wapentake) 236 infra, and Vinehall (Sussex), earlier Fynhawe.


  • T'stanebi 1167 (Pipe Rolls)
  • Thurstanby 1276 (Percy Cartulary) et freq to 1475 (Calendar of Patent Rolls)
  • Thorstanby 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy 1301), 1379 (Inquisitiones post mortem), 1417 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Throssenbye 1537 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Frostenby 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire)

'Thorstan's farm vide by. The ultimate origin of Thorstan is ON Þorsteinn (Lind, E. H. Norsk-Isländska dopnamn och fingerade namn, Upsala 1905, Nielsen, etc.), with the OE name-theme -stan substituted. For the modern pronunciation and the last two spellings compare Thrussington (Leicestershire) from the same personal name. The x in the modern spelling is probably explained in the same way as in Moxby and Roxby 29, 90 supra and Coxwold 191 infra. For F- in the last form compare Fingay Hill 213 infra.


  • Steintun 1086 DB
  • Staynton Dale 1562 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

vide steinn, tun, dæl.


  • Blauuich 1108-14 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Blawic, -k, -wyc 1109-14 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 865 et passim to 1314 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Blawick 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

'Exposed, cheerless sea-creek' vide blar, vik. Blowick near Southport (Place-Names Lancashire 126) is an exact parallel.


  • Hai-, Hayburn(ia) 1135-54 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 362 et passim

The name referred originally to Haybum Beck, vide burna. As Hayburn was within the bounds of the forest of Scalby (a royal hunting ground, compare Calendar of Close Rolls and Pipe Rolls passim) the first element is probably ME hay 'part of a forest fenced off for hunting'; hence 'brook by the hunting enclosure' (compare Scalby Hay 109 supra). vide (ge)haeg.


  • Rauenesere 1312 (Pleas of the Forest) 378

'Hrafn's scar' from ON Hrafn and ON sker 'rock, skerry'.

IV. WHITBY STRAND WAPENTAKE (pages 111 to 128)

  • Wytebistrand 1200-22 (Guisborough Cartulary, 15th century), 1294 (Registers of the Archbishops of York)
  • Libertate de Whiteby 1231 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls)

'Whitby shore' vide Whitby Cartulary 126 infra and strand. Whitby Strand was a liberty and at the time of the Domesday Book survey all its parishes were in the wapentake of Langbargh except Hackness which was in Pickering Lythe. As late as the end of the 13th century the lord of Aislaby manor (in Whitby parish) did suit at the wapentake court of Langbargh (compare Whitby Cartulary 718). Whitby Strand (the older name of the district) was first called a wapentake in 1316 (Calendar of the Patent Rolls).


1. Broxa 23 C 4

  • Brokesay(e), -eye 1090-6 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 855 et passim to 1335 (Pleas of the Forest)
  • Brochesei 1155-65 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Broxhay 1335 (Pleas of the Forest)
  • Brokessay 1395 Whitby Cartulary

'Broc's hunting enclosure' vide (ge)hæg. The position does not admit of a second element e.g. For the possibility of such a personal name, vide MLR xiv. 235.


  • Langadale circa 1200 (Whitby Cartulary)

vide lang, dæl

2. HACKNESS 23 C 4

  • Hacanos 8 (Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum)
  • Heaconos 10 (The Old English Bede, 1890)
  • Hagenesse 1086 (Domesday Book)
  • Haganes 1176 (Pipe Rolls)
  • Hakenesse circa 1081-5 (Liber Vitae Dunelmensis, 1921) 48 d et freq to 1354 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Hachanessa 1091-2 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 863, 1133 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Hakanes 1108-14 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Hakenes(s) 1114-40, 1145-8, 1149-53, circa 1180 (Whitby Cartulary), 1227 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), 1234 (Calendar of Close Rolls)
  • Hachanes 1155-65 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Hakanessham 1314 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Hakenasse 1385 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Haknas 1472 (Testamenta Eboracensia)

The forms of this name, apart from those in Bede, offer no great difficulty. They may be interpreted as the 'ness or headland of one Hac(c)a'. The form in Bede suggests that there was an earlier form of the second element, and Professor Ekwall suggests that there may have been an OE nos, cognate with Scandinavian nos (compare Torp, Nynorsk Etym. Ordbog, sub verbo nos) bearing the same sense as næss. Hackness lies at the foot of a very prominent ridge projecting between the Derwent and Lowdales Beck.


  • Flok Leiz 1540 (Whitby Cartulary)

'Sheep flock clearings' from OE flocc or ON flokkr and leah.


  • Haradale 12 (Whitby Cartulary) Haredale circa 1265-78 ibidem Hardale 1286 ibidem

These spellings have been taken to refer to the modern Harwood Dale 113 infra but the site of the place, so far as can be ascertained from the bounds in the Whitby Cartulary, is here rather than at Harwood Dale, and the latter name can scarcely be a direct descendant of the above spellings. The first element is perhaps OE hara 'hare' vide dæl.


  • Thwayte, Thwaite 1372 (Inquisitiones Post Mortem)

vide þveit.


  • Holgate 1268 (Whitby Cartulary)

vide hol, gata and compare Howlgate 85 supra.


  • Langedalebek circa 1265-72 (Whitby Cartulary)


  • Dales 1155-65, circa 1265-78, 1395 (Whitby Cartulary)



  • Harewode 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy), 1385 (Baildon, Monastic Notes) (p)
  • Harwod 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy), 1395 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Harwoddale 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire)

vide Hard Dale 112 supra. The first element is doubtful. It may be OE hara 'hare', hence 'hare wood'. It is possible, however, that we may have OE har 'rock', (vide Harome 70 supra), which would certainly conform with the topography of Harwood Dale. Finally it might be OE (æt þæm) hara(n) wuda '(at the) grey wood'. Equally ambiguous is Harewood (YWR, ONb æt Harawuda, where Færeman Glossed the gospel of St John.


  • Bludebec 1268 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Blode-, Blodybek 13th (Additional manuscripts in the British Museum) 4615 f 96 d

vide bekkr. The first element is from OE blod 'blood' or OE adjective blodig 'bloody'. The significance of this element in the place-name is not clear.


  • Coppekeld(e)broc(h) 1108-14 (Whitby Cartulary) et freq
  • Copcheldebroc 1109-14 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 865
  • Copkeldebroc, -brok 1199 (Whitby Cartulary), 1204 (Rotuli Chartorum), 1279-81 (Placita de quo Warranto)
  • Cocheldbrok 1308 (Whitby Cartulary)

'Stream which flows from a spring on the top of a hill' vide copp, kelda, broc.


  • Drye Hede 1540 (Whitby Cartulary)



  • Gaytelaye, Gaitelei 1145-8, 1155-65 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Gatelaw 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

'Goats' clearing'; vide geit, leah.


  • Kesebec, -bek 1155-65 (Whitby Cartulary), 1231 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls), 1395 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Kesbek 1175-98 (Whitby Cartulary)

The first element is ON kjóss 'a small creek, valley, recess', which enters into a number of Norwegian place-names compare Rygh, (Norske Gaardnavne Indledning 60); vide bekkr.


  • Kirkelach 1108-14 (Whitby Cartulary), 1204 (Rotuli Chartorum), 1308 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Kirkelac, -lak 1109-14 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 865 et freq to 1314 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

'Church clearing'; vide kirkja, leah. On the form -lac(h); vide Helmsley 71 supra.


  • Myrke Hede 1540 (Whitby Cartulary)

'Dark hill'; vide myrkr, heafod.


  • Tornelai, -lay, Torneslag 1086 (Domesday Book), 1204 (Rotuli Chartorum)
  • Thornelay(e) 1109-14 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 865 et passim to 1314 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Thornelac 1199 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Thirley 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

'Thorntree clearing'; vide þorn, leah.

4. SILPHO 23 C 4

(At page xxv: "… Silpho in the south of the wapentake and Sneaton and Wragby contain Danish personal names …")

  • Sifthou (sic) 1145-8 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Silfhou, -how 1155-65, 1230, circa 1265-78, early 14th century (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Silfho 1231 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls)
  • Silfow(e) 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy), 1395 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Silfey 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire)

vide haugr. The first element is probably the Old Danish personal name Sylve (Nielsen, Olddanske Personnavne, 1883). Compare Silton 201 infra.


  • Bradeie, Braday circa 1200, 1286 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Braderheved, circa 1265-78 (Whitby Cartulary)

'Broad eg'; vide brad. The modern form is regularly developed from OE a. The 'broad eg' was no doubt the level tract of land between Whisperdale Beck and Breaday Gill, bounded on the north by the end of the ridge now called Breaday Heights, formerly heued (vide heafod).


  • Whitspotdale, Wytspotdale 12th, circa 1200, 1286 (Whitby Cartulary)

'White spot valley'; vide dæl. For spot compare Ekwall, "Oxford Concise Dictionary of English Place-Names" page 434 - Spotland, Lancashire.

5. SUFFIELD 23 C 5

  • Sudfelt, Sudfeld 1086 (Domesday Book)
  • Suffeld 1108-14 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Suthfeld 1155-65 ibidem

vide suð, feld. Compare Northfield infra.


  • Eurelai, Eurelag 1086 (Domesday Book)
  • Euerlaye 1090-6 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 855
  • Everle 1177-89 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines) et passim to 1328 (De Banco Rolls); -lac 1314 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Yereley 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire)

'Wild boar clearing'; vide eofor, leah. On the modern form compare Yearsley 193 infra and for lac vide Helmsley 71 supra.

Editor's note: possibly from ON jöfur 'wild boar' and hlið 'hillside, slope'. See also Everley [SE 97215 88890], Everley Bank Wood [SE 97395 89143] Everley Banks [SE 97075 89358] and Everley Bridge (now Wrench Green Bridge) [SE 96798 89272] and adjacent Leys Spring [SE 97629 88984] from either OE leah 'clearing' or ON hlið 'hillside, slope'.


  • Norfel, Nordfeld 1086 (Domesday Book)
  • Norfild 1108-14 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Northfeld 1155-65 (Whitby Cartulary)

vide norð, feld, and Suffield supra.


  • Theovesdiches 1108-14, a. 1133, 1154-89 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Theofvesdikes 1204 (Rotuli Chartorum), 1314 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Theofesdikes 1308 (Whitby Cartulary), 1314 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Thevisdykes 15th (Whitby Cartulary)

vide dic. The earthworks to which the name refers are still extant. The element OE þeof 'thief' enters into several OE names, e.g. to þeofa dene near Hallow (Wo), (Birch, Cartularium Saxonicum) 356. Compare Thieves Gill 246 infra.



  • Figelinge, Nortfigelinge 1086 DB 1086;
  • Philinch 1114-40 Whitby
  • Figelingam ante 1133 Whitby; -inge circa 1175 YCh 366
  • Fieling(am) 1133, 1155-65, 1222-7, 1308 Whitby
  • (Tribus) Figelinges 1181 P
  • (North)filinge, -fylyng(e) circa 1280 Whitby et freq, (in valle de) ibidem
  • Ffilingdales 1395 Whitby

'The settlement of the people of Fygela' vide ing. The district included by the settlement was probably the series of small valleys which meet the sea in Robin Hood's Bay. The personal name Fygela is not adduced in independent use in OE, but it may be assumed (as by Ekwall, Place-Names in -ing 93) from the place-names Figheldean (WIL), Fillingham (LIN), Figelingeham DB 1086, and Filgrave (Place-Names BKM 15); vide dæl.


  • Bilrod 1145-8 Whitby
  • Bilroche 1155-65 Whitby

The second element is possibly OE rod, 'clearing.' If so, the -roche is an error for -rothe, a Scandinavianising of rod under the influence of ON rióðr. Dr Lindkvist (Middle English Place-Names of Scandinavian Origin, 1912) suggests ON Bili or Bil (feminine) as the first element.

Editor's note: see adjacent Billira Cottage [NZ 91810 00795].


  • Bownehalle 1236 Whitby
  • Bownelle 1540 Whitby

'Buna's hall' from the OE personal name Buna and h(e)all.

Editor's note: now lost, but see at this location Brown Hill [SE 92103 97829].


This should be identified with the aliam Fielingam 1133 Whitby, Sutfieling 1140-65 ibid, i.e. South Fyling, of early sources. Other spellings agree with those of Fylingdales supra. In the 13th century the name is sometimes Prestethorpe 1280 Whitby. Here þorp is used in the sense of 'outlier'. The land was held by the monks of Whitby; vide preost, þorp.


  • Grenedic(h) 12th century (Whitby Cartulary) (passim)
  • Greene dikes 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

'Green (grassy) dyke'; vide grene, dic. The dyke is still extant.


  • Helewath 1231 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls)
  • Helwath 1369 (Whitby Cartulary)

'Ford made with flat stones' from ON hella 'flat stone' (compare Rygh, Norske Gaardnavne Indledning sub verbo) and vað. Compare a lost Hellawath in Glaisdale 1119, 1129 (Guisborough Cartulary, 15th century).


  • Lillacros(se) 1108-14 (Whitby Cartulary) et passim to 1314 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Lilehaucros 1154-89 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Lillehowes 15th (Whitby Cartulary)
  • crucem de Lilhow 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

'Cross on Lilla's mound' from the OE Lilla and haugr and cros. Such a hybrid formation offers difficulties but seems here to be beyond question.


  • Normanneby circa 1110 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 857
  • Northmanbi 1224 (Whitby Cartulary)

This name has the same run of forms and meaning as Normanby (Ryedale Wapentake) 57 supra: at page 57 - 'Village of the Norwegians' from OE Norþman (genitive plural Norþmanna) and by; vide Introduction xxvi


  • Ramesdale 1210 (Dugdale's Monasticon) iv. 319, 1240 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Rammesdale 1240 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

The early forms suggest that we have here OE hramse, ramese 'garlic, ramson', as in Ramsey (Huntingdonshire); vide Place-Names Worcestershire xli. Alternatively we may have OE ramm, hence either 'garlic valley' or 'ram's valley'.


  • Robin Hoode Baye 1532 (Whitby Cartulary)

The name is not found before the 16th century and probably arose from the popular ballads.


  • Fyling Rawe 16th (Whitby Cartulary)

vide raw 'a row of houses, hamlet'.


  • Staupe 1133 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Stoup(e) 1155-65 (Whitby Cartulary), 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy)
  • Stowpe Browe 1540 (Whitby Cartulary)

From ON staup 'a steep declivity, precipice' (compare Lindkvist (Middle English Place-Names of Scandinavian Origin, 1912 at page 165) and OE bru 'brow'.


  • Wrauby 1344 (Testamenta Eboracensia)
  • Wragby 1476 (Testamenta Eboracensia), 1540 (Whitby Cartulary)

'Wragi's farm' from the ODan personal name Wraghi (Nielsen), found as the first element of ODan Wraghæthorp and of Wrawby (L), Waragebi (DB), and Wragby (YWR), Wraggeby 1308 (Wakefield Court Rolls); vide by. The g in this name is purely a spelling survival.


I. SNEATON 16 G 11

  • Snetune, Sneton 1086 DB et passim to 1665 (Heraldic Visitations of Yorkshire)
  • Snetton' 1163, 1167, 1181 (Pipe Rolls)
  • Ouersneyton' 1231 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls)

'Snjo's farm' from the ODan Snjó (Nielsen); compare OIcel Snær and the ON name-theme Snaæ- (Lind, E. H. Norsk-Isländska dopnamn och fingerade namn, Upsala 1905); vide tun. Called Ouer because it is on higher ground than Sneaton Thorpe 119 infra.


  • Kattewich 1214-22 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Catwyk 1576 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

Possibly 'Kati's vik'. ON Káti is adduced by (Lind, E. H. Norsk-Isländska Personbinamn, 1920-1), but the tt is difficult. Further forms are needed. ON vík seems to be used here of a nook or corner in the hills; vide (Chief Elements in English Place-Names, 1923 p.62). Catwick stands on the side of a narrow valley.


  • Scograineshoues 12th (Whitby Cartulary) (passim), 1177-81 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 871
  • Scogreineshoues 1109-14 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 865, 1308 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Scogranehouuis 1199 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Scogreneshoghes 1314 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Skoggat howes 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

Lindkvist (Middle English Place-Names of Scandinavian Origin, 1912 at page 78) suggests that the first element is an unrecorded ON personal name Skóga-Hreinn "from skógr 'a wood' prefixed to the man's name Hreinn and referring to the abode or usual whereabouts of the person in question". Such a type of personal name is not without parallel; other cases are TunguKarl, Tungu-Oddr, etc. (Lind, E. H. Norsk-Isländska Personbinamn, 1920-1). It should also be noted that frequently in this district ON haugr is coupled with a personal name; vide haugr.


  • Sneton et Thorpe 1349 (Whitby Cartulary)

This was formerly a hamlet attached to the larger village of Sneaton; vide þorp.


1. AISLABY 16 G 10

  • Asulue(s)bi 1086 DB
  • Assulueby 1215 (Rotuli Litteratum Clausarum)
  • Asolvebi 1222-7 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Aselby circa 1300 (Whitby Cartulary) et freq to 1339 (Calendar of the Patent Rolls)
  • Assulby 1487 (Calendar of Inquisitiones post mortem)
  • Ayslabye 1556 (Wills of the Northern Counties)

'Asulf's farm' vide by. ON Asulfr (Lind, E. H. Norsk-Isländska dopnamn och fingerade namn, Upsala 1905) occurs independently in English as Asulf, Asolf on OE coins (Bjórkmann, Nordische Personennamen, 1910) and in the Yorkshire Domesday Book as Asulf, Asul.


  • Briggwath 1230-50 (Guisborough Cartulary, 15th century)

'Bridge ford', i.e. near a bridge; vide brycg, vað.

2. ESK DALE (SIDE) 16 G 9, 10

  • Eschedale, -dala 1086 (Domesday Book)
  • Aeschedale circa 1150 (de vita S. Godrici)
  • Eskedal(a) 1175-85 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 673 et passim
  • Eskdale 1336 (Calendar of Charter Rolls)

vide Esk, River p.3 supra and dæl, sid

Esk, River

  • Esch 1109-14 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 865, ante 1133, 1154-89, 1199 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Esc 1129, circa 1199 (Guisborough Cartulary)
  • Esk(e) 1204 (Rotuli Chartarum), 1279-81 (Placita de quo Warranto), 15th (Whitby Cartulary) et passim

Compare Esk Dale and Esklets 119, 134 infra, and vide (River Names of Yorkshire, E.V. Gordon, A.H.Smith) 13.


  • Flathou 1252 (Yorkshire Inquistions)
  • -how 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd Series)

'Flat mound'; vide flöt, haugr. There is a tumulus here.


  • Grosmunt' 1226-8 (Book of Fees)
  • Grosmont 1540 (Dugdale's Monasticon) 1817-30 iv. 75, 1665 (Heraldic Visitations of Yorkshire)
  • Grandimont(e) 1228 (Registers of the Archbishops of York), 1287 (Guisborough Cartulary)
  • Grauntmount 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy)
  • Gromunde 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy)
  • Gromo(u)nd 1469 (Baildon, Monastic Notes), 1615 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 1st series)
  • Growmand 1557 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire)

Grosmont was a priory founded by John Fossard in 1200. He gave to the Prior and Brothers of the order of Grandmont near Limoges a mansion and land in the Forest of Egton (Dugdale's Monasticon) vi. 1025. Grosmont takes its name from that of the mother priory of Limoges. The meaning is 'big hill'. Compare Grosmont (Monmouthshire), Grosmont 1232 (Calendar of the Patent Rolls), so named for a similar reason.


  • Iburne, Yburn(e) 1258-65, 1270, 1308, 1311 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Iborne 1382 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Iburndall 1349 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Ibornedale 1573 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

vide burna, dæl. The first element should be compared with OE on yburnan (Birch, Cartularium Saxonicum) 1290 (Middlesex), Iden (Sussex), (Domesday Book) Idene, and Ifield (Sussex). (Domesday Book) Ifelt. Professor Ekwall suggests that the first element is OE iw with loss of w before the following labial, at least in Iburn and Ifield.


  • Lithebec(h) 1109-1114 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 865 et passim to 1314 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Lythebeck(e) 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 212 d

vide hlið 'slope' and bekkr.


  • Slechetes circa 1223 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Sleghtes circa 1223, circa 1300 (Whitby Cartulary), 1347 (Baildon, Monastic Notes), 1429 (Testamenta Eboracensia)

vide sletta and compare Sleightholme Dale and Sleights 62-3 supra.

SLEIGHTHOLME DALE [Kirkby Moorside] at pages 62-3

  • Sletholme 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy) (p)
  • Slehtholme 1386 (Rievaulx Cartulary) (p)
  • Sl(e)ightholm(e)dale 1538 (Rievaulx Cartulary), 1621 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 1st series)

'Flat ground near water'; vide sletta, holmr, and compare Barnby Sleights and Sleightholme 135, 305 infra. The first element is from early ON sleht- (which later became slétta), and the normal development of this in the dialect would be [sli:t] (vide Sleightholme 305 infra). The modern pronunciation [sleit] is irregular, and, as Cowling (§§ 149, 172, 226) suggests for some other word, it is a borrowing from received standard English.


  • Slectes 1154-63 (Rievaulx Cartulary)

ut supra and compare the Latin form in parvis slectis in a West Lincolnshire charter of circa 1160. The context suggests that it refers to marshland (Catalogue of Ancient Deeds) (AS 280).


  • Ugleberdesbi 1086 (Domesday Book)
  • Ugelbardeby, Ugle- 1100 to circa 1115 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 857, 1177-89, 1222-7 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Uggelbardebi, -by 1145-8 (Whitby Cartulary), 1301 (Placitorum Abbreviatio)
  • Ucchelbardebi 1155-65 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Vgulbardebi 1181 (Pipe Rolls)
  • Uglebardby 1270 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • W-, Ugelbardby 1310 (Whitby Cartulary), 1335 (Pleas of the Forest)
  • Oggelberdesby 1314 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Ugglebarnby 1613 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 1st series)

'Farm of a man nicknamed "Owl-beard"' from ON Uglubarði; compare (Lindkvist, Middle English Place-Names of Scandinavian Origin, 1912 at page lxii), and (Bjórkmann, Nordische Personennamen, 1910), (Bjórkmann, Zur Englische Namenkunde) sub nomine and vide by. The change of -bardby to -barnby is due to association of the name with Barnby across the river Esk.

3. HAWSKER 16 G 12

  • Houkesgart(h) circa 1100 to circa 1125, circa 1110 (Whitby Cartulary), 1181 (Pipe Rolls), 1226 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Haukesgard circa 1115-35 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 859, ante 1133, circa 1230-40 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Houkesgard 1145-8 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 872, 1222-7 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Hoches-, Hokesgard 1163, 1167 (Pipe Rolls)
  • Haukesgarð, Haukesgarth(e) 1176 (Pipe Rolls) (p), 1284 (Yorkshire Inquistions) (p), 1298 (Yorkshire Inquistions), 1308, 1351 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Hakisgarth 1330 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Housegarth 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire)
  • Harrsker, Horskarse, Haskerth 1611, 1613 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 1st series)

'Hawk's enclosure'; vide garð. The first element is the ON personal name Haukr. Compare (Lindkvist, Middle English Place-Names of Scandinavian Origin, 1912 at page 143).


  • Kocche-milne 1155-65 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Cokmylne 1395 (Whitby Cartulary)

Possibly 'cock mill' from OE cocc; though one may have rather to deal with OE cocc used as a personal name. Cocc(a) is found in Cockbury (Gloucestershire), OE Coccanburh (Birch, Cartularium Saxonicum) 246 and Cogshall (Cheshire), DB Cocheshull. Compare Sawcock 217 infra.

Editor's note: Cock Mill [NZ 89850 08750] and Cock Mill Wood [NZ 89932 08974].


  • Ghinipe 1086 DB
  • Gnip(e) circa 1110, 1145-8, 1155-65 (Whitby Cartulary)

From ON gnipa 'a steep rock or peak', probably referring to the high peak overlooking the sea-cliffs on which Gnipe Howe stands; vide haugr. There is a tumulus here.


  • Bothem circa 1230-40 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Bothome 1396 ibidem

vide botm.


  • Lairpel, Layrpel 1145-8 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 872, 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy)
  • Leirpel 1155-65 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Lairpelle 1307 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Lairepell 1395 ibidem
  • Layerpelle 1396 ibidem
  • Larepoole circa 1540 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Lirpoole 1622 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 1st series)

The first element is leirr. The second is more difficult. Lindkvist (Middle English Place-Names of Scandinavian Origin, 1912 at page 71, note 2) suggests that it is OE pyll. The history and forms of Marple (Cheshire), Merpille in 1285 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls) and so generally, do not make this very likely. Professor Ekwall suggests that the second element is the Norse word from which comes Norwegian poyla, 'pool'. This would suit the phonology and fit a Norse first element (leir 'clay, earth, loam, mud' - editor) better.


  • Lingehou circa 1230-40 (Whitby Cartulary)

vide lyng and haugr.


  • le Rigge circa 1175-98 (Whitby Cartulary)

vide hrycg.


  • Saltewicke 1540 (Whitby Cartulary)

From OE s(e)alt (vide Saltburn 143 infra) and ON vik 'creek.'


  • Halmerigg 1214-22 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Scalmeryg 1305-22 ibidem
  • Shalmerigge 1355-72 ibidem

Ekwall (Introduction to the Survey of English Place-Names, 92) makes the interesting suggestion that this name exhibits a development in sound of the Scandinavian dialect in England; he suggests that the first element is ON Hjalm- and that Sh- was substituted for this. Though this form would explain the later development to Shalme-, the earliest form could hardly arise from it. It is more probably OE healm 'straw, stubble'; the form Halme- is from the regular unfractured Anglian form halm; the Shahne- form must have arisen from confusion with ON hjalmr, 'helmet', suggested by Professor Ekwall. On the change of Healm or hjalm to Shalme vide Shipton 16 supra and Addenda xlv.

Addenda xlv: p. 523, sub nomine SHAWM RIGG. Professor Ekwall points out that a 'straw' name is very unlikely at this particular spot and suggests that the halm- form offers no difficulty as ON hjalmr would, at an early date, have such a form as healm and that the substitution of ONb halm for this would be quite natural.

Editor's note: see Shawn Riggs [NZ 89419 09048] and [NZ 89566 08923] and Shawn Riggs Beck [NZ 89422 08818].

See also "Introduction to the Survey of English Place Names" Professor Allen Mawer and F. M. Stenton, Cambridge University Press (1924) at page 92:

"Certain sound-developments found in place-names point to a somewhat advanced stage of the Scandinavian language in England. The changes of eo to yo and ea to ya to be seen in York (from Eoforwic) and Yatstainswad from Eadstan-, found in a twelfth century text, seem to be comparatively late … Shawm Rigg is in an early source Halmerig. It seems to be an OScand. Hjalmhryggr. Here Sh- was substituted for Hj- just as it was in Shetland for earlier Hjaltland. We cannot date these Scandinavian sound-changes, but they presuppose a development of the Scandinavian language in England."


  • Ad pontem Hospitalis circa 1175-98 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Spittalle-brigge 1540 (Whitby Cartulary)

vide brycg. The first element is ME spital, an aphetised form of OFr hospital. There is still a farm called Hospital in the district.

Editor's note: see Spital Bridge [NZ 90123 10373].


  • Stainsaker 1090-6 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 855
  • Stainsecre, -echer, Staynseker circa 1110 (Whitby Cartulary), 1145-8 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 872, early 14th, 1395 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Steinsecher, Steinseker 1155-65 Whitby, 1181 (Pipe Rolls)
  • Stanesacher 1177 (Pipe Rolls) (p)
  • Stanseker 1611 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 1st series)

'Stein's field' from the ON personal name Steinn and akr. ON ekra (a by-form of akr) occurs in some of the spellings.


  • Whitebi-lathes 1351 (Whitby Cartulary)

vide hlaða 'a barn' and Whitby 126 infra.

4. HELREDALE (6") 32 SE II

This is now the name of a township formed out of Hawsker. The name had fallen into disuse but has now been revived. The small valley originally called Helredale is now called Spital Vale (compare Whitby Cartulary ii. 428).

  • Hellerdale 1145-8 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Helredale 1155-65 ibidem, 72 (Registrum Cartarum Hospit. St Leonardi Ebor, 15th century) 66d
  • Ellerdale 1351 (Whitby Cartulary)

vide dæl. The first element is possibly ON hella, genitive hellur, 'flat stone, table-land of rocks', common in Norwegian place-names, compare Helwath Beck 117 supra.

Editor's note: see Helredale (Spital Vale) [NZ 90650 10190] and Helredale (Det.) [NZ 89350 09750].

5. NEWHOLM 16 F 10

  • Neu(e)ham 1086 (Domesday Book)
  • Neweham circa 1100-1125 (Whitby Cartulary)

'New homestead' vide niwe, ham. Compare Newham 163 infra.


  • Dunesla 1086 (Domesday Book)
  • Dunesle 1086 (Domesday Book), 1219 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls), 1227 (Whitby Cartulary), late 12th (Malton Cartulary) 137 d, -lea(m) 1139-48 (Whitby Cartulary), 1181 (Pipe Rolls)
  • Duneslac 1100 circa 1115 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 857, 1133 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Doneslac 1136 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 868, 1314 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Dunslaie 1145-8 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 872

Further forms are without interest. 'Dun's forest clearing' from the OE personal name Dun and leah. For -lac vide Helmsley 71 supra.

Editor's note: see Dunsley [NZ 85985 11118].


  • Graistan 1190-1206 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 725

'Grey rock'; vide græg, stan.


  • Raithwait 1351 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Rathwayte circa 1540 (Whitby Cartulary)

vide þveit. The form Rai- is at first sight against Lindkvist's suggestion (see Middle English Place-Names of Scandinavian Origin) of derivation from ON 'landmark' (p. 119, n. 4, 5) but too much stress should not perhaps be laid on a form which first appears in 1351. It is worth noting also that in a Danelaw charter of circa 1190 (ed. Stenton no. 529) land lying compactly is contrasted with land described as lying rái a rái. It would seem that this can only mean 'strip by strip' and if so it is difficult to think that we have any other word than ON 'boundary-mark.' The spelling is exceedingly difficult but it is possibly an inversion due to the fact that OE a alternates with OE ai, ei, so that ON á might possibly have been spelt ai on occasion, in an area where OE long a was preserved.

SWARTHOE CROSS (tumulus) (6")

  • Swarthouethcros 1108-14 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Swarthovthescros 1204 (Rotuli Chartarum)
  • Swarthouchescros (? = -houthes-) 1314 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

'Swarthead's cross'; vide cros. The first element is the common ON personal name Svarthofði, -a (Lind, E. H. Norsk-Isländska dopnamn och fingerade namn), found also in the name of a lost place in Tolsby, Swarhovedwath 12 (Whitby Cartulary).

Editor's note: see Swarth Howe [SE 96945 94082].

6. RUSWARP 16 F 11

  • Risewarp(e), Ryse- 1145-8 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 872 et passim to 1351 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Riswarp 1316 (Nomina Villarum)
  • Ruswarpe 1665 (Heraldic Visitations of Yorkshire)

Ruswarp is on the north bank of the river Esk, and this fact must be taken into consideration in deciding the etymology of the second element. A dialect word warp 'the sediment deposited by a river, an accumulation of mud checking the flow of a river' is found in the North Riding (English Dialect Dictionary), and a compound warp-land 'land formed by the silt of a river' is adduced from the East Riding (English Dialect Dictionary); this is the meaning required by the geographical situation of Ruswarp. These two words and the second element of the place-name are identical in form with ON varp (neuter), varpa (feminine), found in the Norwegian place-name Varpet Rygh (Norske Elvenavne. Kristiania (1904) [Elvenavne] & Gamle Personnavne i Norske Stedsnavne. Kristiania (1901) [Personnavne] i. 218, etc.), and the root idea of the whole series is 'something cast up' from varpa to throw, cast'. The meaning of Ruswarp is therefore 'silt-land overgrown with brushwood'; vide hris. The change of Rise- to Rus- is probably due to the influence of w especially in the neighbourhood of r; compare Ruddings 85 supra and Ruswick and Runswick 241, 139 infra.


  • (bosco qui vocat') Le Ker 1282 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Ruswarp Carr 7623 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 1st series)

'Ruswarp marsh'; vide kjarr.


  • Staxebi 1086 (Domesday Book)
  • Stachesbi, -by 1090-6 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 855, 1133, 1155-65 (Whitby Cartulary), 1314 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Stakesbi, -by 1100-circa 1115 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 857 et passim
  • Stakisby 1395 (Whitby Cartulary)

'Staki's farm'; vide by. The first element is probably the ON by-name Stáki (Lind, E. H. Norsk-Isländska Personbinamn) with genitival -s substituted for -a (the weak form), rather than the by-name Stakkr, genitive Staks (Lind, E. H. Norsk-Isländska Personbinamn) which would have become Stax-.


  • le Upgange 1540 (Whitby Cartulary)

'Road or path leading up (from the sea shore)' from OE up and OE gang (compare gang in English Dialect Dictionary).

Editor's note: see Upgang [NZ 88250 11850], Upgang Beck [NZ 88098 11688] and Upgang Lane [NZ 88489 11645]. For the ON derivation of 'Upgang' see:

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

  • upp-ganga, u, f. a going up, ascending, ascent
  • upp-gangr, m. = uppganga, a pass or stile
  • Upp-gangr, 'a pass or stile'
  • Upp-ganga, 'ascent'

7. WHITBY 16 F 11

  • Witebi, -by, Wytebi, -by 1086 (Domesday Book) et passim to 1298 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Wyttebeia, -beya 1138 (Dugdale's Monasticum) iii. 545 passim

Aspirated forms appear in the 12th century and are practically the only forms found after the 13th:

  • Whitby 1138 Whitby et passim
  • Whi-, Whyteby circa 1150-60 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 828 et passim to 1361 (Yorkshire feet of Fines)

Over-aspirated forms are of sporadic appearance:

  • Quietby 1218 (Yorkshire feet of Fines) (p), 1267 (Registers of the Archbishops of York)
  • Qwyteby 1423 (W.P. Baildon, Monastic Notes)

The name appears also in the Heimskringla as Hvitabyr. 'Hviti's farmstead' from the ON by-name Hviti (gen. Hvíta) and by.

Whitby was by early tradition identified with the Streonæshalch of Bede (compare Simeon of Durham, Hist. Dunelm. Eccles., Rolls Series, i. 111). Variant forms of the name in Bede are Streanshalh, Streonæshalch, Streaneshalh, Streneshælc. The OE Bede has Streonshalh, Strineshalg, whilst the Anglo Saxon Chronicle (sub anno 680) has Streonsheal. For this name v. Strensall 13 supra. Bede translates the name as sinus fari, which offers difficulty. The best explanation seems to be to look upon Bede's fari as a mistake for fare or farae, from Medieval Latin fara 'strain, descent' which is, of course, the meaning of OE streon, here used as a personal name, while healh is rendered by sinus.


  • Ergum 1090-6 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 855 et passim to 1314 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Hergum 1155-65 (Whitby Cartulary)

vide erg and compare Airyholme 49 supra.


  • Erghum 1138 (Dugdale's Monasticon) v. 350
  • Ergum 1218 FF (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), 1236 (Calendar of Close Rolls) (p)

'(At) the shielings' vide erg. The word is derived ultimately from OIr airgh 'a place for summer pastures in the mountains', and as Airyholme stands on the top of a hill overlooking Wath Beck in the hilly district south of Hovingham, it seems probable that the meaning of the name is 'summer pastures'. The phonology of this word is of interest; the MIr form was airge but this does not indicate a diphthong; medial -i- is here used to indicate the palatal quality of OIr a, whilst gh represents a spirant consonant aspirated from original stopped g between vowels. The pronunciation, therefore, of OIr airgh would be [ærg]. This would normally develop into [erj(em)] in Yorkshire.

Editor's note: see Airy Hill [NZ 89527 10337] and Airy Hill Farm [NZ 89750 10050].


  • Baldebi, Baldeby 1086 (Domesday Book), 1133, 1155-65 (Whitby Cartulary), 1280 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls)

'Baldi's farm' from the ON personal name Baldi (Lind, E. H. Norsk-Isländska dopnamn och fingerade namn) and by. For the site vide Whitby Cartulary 118, n. 9.

Editor's note: 'Baldby Fields' are likely to be the 'Baldby Closes' described by George Young and Lionel Charlton in their respective histories of Whitby:

"That part of the York Road which extends from the top of Water-stead lane to the turnpike-gate was anciently called Baldby Lane, and the adjoining fields on the south were termed the Baldby Closes." per 'A history of Whitby and Streonshalh Abbey: with a statistical survey of the vicinity to the distance of twenty-five miles' (1817) by the Rev George Young at page 516.

"Accordingly, application was made in the year 1763, and an act obtained, empowering such trustees as were therein appointed to erect three turnpike-gates, (viz one at the cross roads, about a mile from Whitby, another at Sleights Bridge, and the third at Saltergate) where the tolls were not to exceed two pence for a single horse, and every other thing in proportion …" per 'The history of Whitby, and of Whitby Abbey, before the conquest' (Book III) (1779) by Lionel Charlton at pages 338 and 339.

See also:

"Baldby. Baldby, lost village whose site is marked by Baldby Fields, Whitby, Whitby Strand W, N. Baldebi 305r, 380v. The first element is either the Scandinavian personal name Baldi or an OE personal name Balda …" per "Scandinavian Settlement Names in Yorkshire" (1972) Gillian Fellows Jensen at page 19:

"In the time of the Confessor WHITBY and its berewick Sneaton, where 15 carucates of land were at geld, belonged to Siward Earl of Northumbria. In 1086 it was held by William de Percy of Hugh Earl of Chester (fn. 243) as one manor with soke in Fylingdales, Hawsker, 'Prestebi,' Ugglebarnby, 'Sourebi,' (probably between Ruswarp Carrs and Baldby Fields, it was still a constabulary in 1646 and was identified by Charlton with Sneaton Thorpe), 'Brecca' ('Breche') (Bracken-bank, not far from Baldby Lane, is mentioned in 1540), Baldby (marked by Baldby Fields, south-west of Whitby town), 'Florun' ('Flore') (probably commemorated by Flowergate in Whitby), Stakesby and Newholm; in all 28 carucates and 6 oxgangs of land were at geld, all waste except the Abbot of York's (that is, St. Hilda's) lands. Earl Hugh and William de Percy joined in enfeoffing Whitby Abbey." per "A History of the County of York North Riding" (1923) Volume 2 at pages 506 - 528

In "Domesday Book - A Complete Translation" (2003) at pages 802 and 855 Baldebi is listed in the manor of Whitby and Sneaton between Brecca and Florun (Flowergate).

Baldby Lane and Baldby Closes. Note that the crossroads and turnpike gate are stated to be 1 mile from Whitby as described by Lionel Charlton. Breck, from 'Breche' 1086 Domesday Book, derives from Old Norse brekka, 'a slope', and is possibly the hillside adjacent to the south and west of Baldby Closes.

Cross Lane Turnpike (1853) showing Whitby milestone

'A history of Whitby and Streonshalh Abbey: with a statistical survey of the vicinity to the distance of twenty-five miles'
(1817) Reverend George Young at page 889

See also:

'Whitby Panorama And Monthly Chronicle, Volume 1 (1827) at page 25

Gersums or Fines

From John Candeler, for 10 acres and a half above Baldby* for the term of 6 years; Gersum 2s 0d.

* Near the Turnpike-gate. The fields belonging to Miss Boulby, and adjoining to her property, on the south side of the road to the Turnpike-gate, are the Baldby fields; and that road was formerly called Baldby Lane.

BRECK (lost)

  • Breche 1086 DB
  • Brecca(m) 1086 DB, 1100 - circa 1115 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 857, 1133 (Whitby Cartulary)

'The slope'; vide brekka and Introduction xxvii.


  • Kirkgate 1318 (Whitby Cartulary)

vide kirkja, gata.

Editor's note: see Church Street [NZ 90155 10820].


  • Fyths 1395 (Whitby Cartulary)

'Luxuriant grasslands on the bank of a river' from ON fit, which enters into a number of Icelandic place-names (compare Landnamabók) and into such Norwegian place-names as Fiane, Fidjane Rygh (Norske Gaardnavne) Indledning 49). Compare Feetham 271 infra.

Editor's note: see Fitts Steps [NZ 89205 09871].

FLOWERGATE, a street (6")

  • Florun 1086 (Domesday Book)
  • Flore 1086 (Domesday Book), 1145-8 (Whitby Cartulary) (passim), 1280 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls)
  • Floram 1133 Whitby, 1314 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)
  • Floregate 1313 (Whitby Cartulary)

'(At) the cow stalls' from ON flórum (dative plural) or flóri (dative singular) of ON flórr; vide gata. Compare Skiplam 65 supra, which is a name of the same significance.

Editor's note: see Flowergate [NZ 89850 11050].

PRESTBY (lost)

  • Prestebi, -by 1086 DB et passim to 1345 (Whitby Cartulary)

'Priests' farm'; vide preost, by. Compare Norwegian Præstby (Rygh, Norske Gaardnavne i. 66). Symeon of Durham and the Memorial of the Foundation of Whitby Abbey (Whitby Cartulary, p. 1) both say that Prestebi was the old name of Whitby. But the above references and spellings show that the name was in use in the 12th century, contemporaneously with Whitby, and certainly not to refer to the same area as Witebi.

SOWERBY (lost)

  • Sourebi, -by 1086 DB et passim to 1354 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Saurebi, -by 1145-8 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 872, 1148-75 (Whitby Cartulary), circa 1170-9 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 861

The name Sowerby is common in the north of England and that is identical with Norwegian Sørby (ONorw. i Saurby Rygh Norske Gaardnavne ii. 88, etc.) 'swampy farmstead'. An interesting explanation of the Icelandic name is found in the Landnamabók: Steinolfr built a farm and called it Saurbœ, því at þar var myrlent mjök i.e. 'because it was very swampy there'; vide saurr, by.


  • Tingwall 1145-8 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 872
  • Thingwala 1155-65 (Whitby Cartulary)

vide þingvölir. The name is undoubtedly that of the moatstead of a very strong Scandinavian colony in Eskdale. There is no clue to the site. Compare Fingay Hill 213 infra.

Editor's note: see [7].


  • Langeberg(e) Wapentac 1086 DB et passim to 1339 (Guisborough Cartulary)
  • Wap' de Lankeberga 1166 (Pipe Rolls)
  • Langebrigg' 1226-8 (Book of Fees)
  • Langebergh(e) 1231 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls) et passim to 1335 (Guisborough Cartulary)
  • Langeberewe 1273 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Langbarffe 1599 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 1st series)
  • Langbarghe 1612 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 1st series)

Langbargh Wapentake (now in two divisions East and West) takes its name from a hill called Langbaurgh in Great Ayton 165 infra, practically in the centre of the whole wapentake, of which it was the meeting-place. Part of the wapentake was taken for the formation of the wapentake of Whitby Strand and now the remainder goes by the general name of Cleveland.


  • Clive-, Clyveland(a) 1104-14 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 932, circa 1130 (Symeon of Durham) et passim to 1452 (Testamenta Eboracensia)
  • Clieveland 1304 (Dugdale's Monasticum) v. 508
  • Clifland bi Tese side 14 Horne Child (l. 54)
  • Cleueland circa 1270 (Cartularium de parco Helagh 1498) 103 et passim
  • Cleiveland 1621 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 1st series)

In the Orkneyinga Saga (c. 40) it is called Klifland.

'Steep, precipitous district' vide clif, land. One glance at the map will show the appropriateness of the name.

To explain the modern form we must assume that the original form of the name had a genitive plural clifa-land 'district of cliffs', for the short vowel -i- has undergone a lengthening which usually took place only in open syllables. Compare Upleatham 153 infra.


1. EGTON 16 G 8

  • Egetune, -ton 1086 DB, 1284 (Yorkshire Inquisitions), 1291 (Calendar of entries in Papal Registers)
  • Eggeton' circa 1170-95 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 1041, 1181 (Pipe Rolls) et passim to 1410 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Egton 1285 (Kirkby's Inquest)

'Ecga's farm' from the OE Ecga and tun. Compare Egton (Lancashire).


  • Erneclive 1223 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

'Eagles' cliff' vide earn, clif.


  • Blawyth a. 1133 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Blawath 13 (Guisborough Cartulary) (3 X), 1252 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

'Dark, (possibly) cheerless, exposed ford' vide blar, vað and compare Blawath 82 supra. The modern form arose from the dialect change of ON á to [ia] and then from the development of a glide-vowel [u] before the following w.


  • Brigholme 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy) (p)

vide brycg, holmr.


  • Lecerigge 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy)

From OE læs 'pasture' and hrycg.


  • Neubiggin 1310 (Calendar of Charter Rolls)

'New building' vide niwe, bigging.


  • Shortwaite 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 1st series)

'Short enclosure' vide sceort, þveit.


  • Senerhou 13 (Guisborough Cartulary) (2), 1223 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Shonerhom (sic) 1252 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Shonerhowes 15 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Shenerhoues 1619 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd series)

'Sjon's mound' vide haugr. The first element is ON Sjónr, genitive Sjónar (LindN), which enters into the parallel Norw place-name Sjonhaug (ONorw i Siónarhaugi, Rygh (Norske Gaardnavne) i. 10). Ekwall (Namn och Bygd ix. 162) would derive the name from ON sjón and explain it as 'look-out hill' and compares it with Shunner Fell (not evidenced in early documents) in Wensleydale.

The modern form of the name Shunner is borrowed directly from the late ON form Sjónar, for initial sh- can in this case be derived only from the acoustically neighbouring sound [sj], a tendency in sound development which is reflected in such modern English words as sure, sugar (18th century). The earlier forms Sener- are what we should normally have in English for ON Sjónar (Primitive Norse *sēonaR). The phonetic history of this name and possibly of Shunner Fell indicate a late connexion with the Scandinavians vide (Introduction to the Survey of English Place-Names, 1923) 92.


  • Westingebi 1254 (Calendar of Patent Rolls)
  • Westingby 1279 (Yorkshire Inquisitions), 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy)
  • Westynby 1413 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

'Farm of the western men' vide west, by. The hamlet lies in the west of the township. The use of ing in compounds of this type to indicate relative position is discussed by Zachrisson (Chief Elements in English Place-Names containing Primitive German *vis, *vask, 8 ff.), where a number of parallels are cited.


  • Wheeldale, Welledale 1252 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Wheledale 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 218 d, 15 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Weledalerygge 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 213 d

The first element is from OE hwēol 'a wheel' and the valley derives its name from the fact that its course forms a large arc of a circle; vide hweol, dæl, hrycg, and compare Wheelden (Place-Names Buckinghamshire 212) and Welldale (Pickering Lythe) 96 supra.


1. DANBY 16 J 5

  • Danebi, Daneby 1086 DB et passim to 1328 (De Banco Rolls)
  • Danby 1285 (Kirkby's Inquest) et passim
  • Danby-Forest 1665 (Heraldic Visitations of Yorkshire)

'Village of the Danes' vide by. For the significance of this name, vide Introduction xxv.


  • cruce de Bothine, le cuvert de Bothine, bosci de Bothine 1234, circa 1200, 1223 (Guisborough Cartulary)

This may be ON both used of the bottom of a valley but Professor Ekwall suggests that Bothine is an inexact rendering of Bothme from OE boðm for the more usual botm. Compare Dialectal botham. The change from m to n would then be due to assimilation or to the influence of the common Scandinavian word just mentioned. Compare further Botton (Place-Names Lancashire 182).


  • Castro de Daneby 1242 (Guisborough Cartulary)
  • Castleton 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire)

'Castle farm' named from Danby Castle.


  • Clitherbec 1273 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

Clitherbeck should be compared with Clitheroe (Lancashire), early Cliderhow, Clitherow, (Place-Names Lancashire 78) from clider, clither, probably identical with dialectical clitter 'a pile of loose stones or granite debris' (English Dialect Dictionary, from Devonshire), and possibly connected with OE clidren(n) 'clatter, noise'. Clitherbeck is a fast-flowing stream with a rocky bed. vide bekkr and Addenda xlv.


  • Laundis in foresta de Daneby 1242 (Guisborough Cartulary)

vide launde and compare Lawn of Postgate 133 infra. Lawns is within the bounds of the old Forest of Danby.


  • le Dynant 1273 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

This is the name of a boundary stone on the hills in the north of Danby parish. Possibly we have here to deal with a Celtic name, for the name is not of a Germanic type. If this surmise is correct the name is no doubt from British din 'hill, fort' (compare Welsh din 'hill', Cornish din 'a fort') extended by a suffix -ant, which also enters into the name of the old Northumbrian kingdom of Bernicia (British *Briganticia) and the tribal name Brigantes.


  • Frehope 12 (Guisborough Cartulary), 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy)
  • Frihop(p) 1223, 1234 (Guisborough Cartulary)

vide hop, here used of a small valley branching off from Eskdale. The first element offers some difficulty, but the modern pronunciation and spelling indicates ME -ī-. It is possibly an OE personal name Friga, a hypocoristic form of some OE personal name such as Frīgȳð.


  • Hollenges 1230-50 (Guisborough Cartulary)

vide holegn.


  • Souresby 1242 (Guisborough Cartulary)

Compare Sowerby (Whitby) 128 supra.


  • Troch circa 1200, 1223, 1234 (Guisborough Cartulary)
  • Trochsich 13 (Guisborough Cartulary)

vide trog, sic. Trough is a small valley branching off Fryup.


  • Glasedale 12 (Whitby Cartulary), circa 1200, 1223 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), (Guisborough Cartulary), 1224 (Calendar of Patent Rolls), 1665 (Heraldic Visitations of Yorkshire)
  • Glasedalebech 12 (Guisborough Cartulary)
  • Glasdale 1223 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), 1227 (Guisborough Cartulary), 1369 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

The modern form Glais- indicates that the ME vowel in the first element was long; the name may, therefore, be compared with Glazebrook (Ekwall, Place-Names Lancashire 94) which is perhaps from the British word found in Welsh glas 'blue, green' etc. vide dæl.


  • Bainwith(e)lith circa 1200, 1223 (Guisborough Cartulary)

'Holly bank' from ON bein-viðr 'the common holly' and hlið. Compare Lindkvist (Middle English Place-Names of Scandinavian Origin, 1912 at page 24, note 1).


  • Birkescoht, -scog(h) 1200, 1223 (Guisborough Cartulary), 1223 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

'Birch wood' vide birki, skogr.


  • Crūbeclif, Crūbeclive, -cliva 1086 DB

'Ravine by the crooked cliff' vide crumb, clif, gil and compare Cronkley, Place-Names Northumberland, Durham sub nomine and Hamley 80 supra.


  • Graystanes 12 (Guisborough Cartulary)
  • Graistan 13 (Byland Cartulary)

'Grey stone' vide græg, stan.


  • la launde de Postgate circa 1200 (Guisborough Cartulary)

vide Danby Lawns 131 supra and Postgate 134 infra.


  • Lelun, Laclum (sic) 1086 DB
  • Lelum(e) 1273 (Yorkshire Inquisitions), 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy)
  • Lellum 1299 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Lelhom(e) 1273, 1410 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Lelom 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy) (p), 1349 (Testamenta Eboracensia)
  • Leleholme 1579 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

This name is probably derived from the dative plural of OE læl(a) '(amongst the) twigs' (vide Ritter 58, 207). Compare Rysome (Yorkshire East Riding) from OE hrīsum (vide hris) and Snaizeholme 267 infra.


  • Mosebec(k) circa 1200, 1223 (Guisborough Cartulary), 1223 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), 1234 (Guisborough Cartulary)

'Stream through the swamp' vide mos, bekkr.


  • Postgate 12 (Guisborough Cartulary), 1223 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), (Guisborough Cartulary)
  • Postegate circa 1200 (Guisborough Cartulary)

'Road marked by posts' from OFr poste and gata.


  • Stai-, Stayngateside 12, 1223 (Guisborough Cartulary), 1223 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Staingatelith 1233 (Guisborough Cartulary)

'Hill-side along which the stone(-paved) road runs' vide steinn, gata, sid. Compare Stonegate (York), Stainegate 1118-35 Magnum Registrum Album (Dean and Chapter of York, circa 1300) ii 5 d, etc. Staingatelith contains hlið.



  • Westerdale, -dala 1154-81 (Rievaulx Cartulary) et passim
  • Westerdaill 1285 (16th) (Kirkby's Inquest), 1582 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

'More westerly valley' vide west, dæl. Westerdale is one of the western valleys of Eskdale.


  • Basdale 1189-1204 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 564, 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy)
  • Basedale c. 1230 (Guisborough Cartulary) et passim to 1400 (Testamenta Eboracensia)
  • Basedalebec 1236 (Dugdale's Monasticon) vide 508
  • Bosedal 1236 (Cheshire)
  • Bassedale circa 1291 Tax, 1390 (Testamenta Eboracensia)
  • Baisedale 1483 (Testamenta Eboracensia)
  • Baisdell 1561 (Wills of the Northern Counties), 1578 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

'Cow-shed valley' from ON *báss, O.Swed bás (equivalent to OE *bōs, which has become Yorkshire West Riding dialect boois, Yorkshire North Riding dialect [bias]); compare Björkman, Loanwords 99. The Cheshire form Bosedal contains OE bōs. The modern forms of the place-name are due to the regular Northern ME raising of OE, ON ā.


  • Eskeletes 1154-81 (Rievaulx Cartulary)

The first element is the name of the river Esk which rises in the vicinity. The second element is difficult to determine but it is probably OE (ge)læte, the reference being to the junctions of the three streams here which form the river Esk.


  • Huntersty 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy) (p)

'Hunter's path' from ME hunter and stig.


  • crucem Radulphi circa 1200 (Guisborough Cartulary)

vide cros.


  • Hogthaith circa 1180 (Rievaulx Cartulary)
  • Oggedwaith 1160 ibidem
  • Oggethuaith, Hogarthweit 12th ibidem
  • Oghetwait 13th, 1333 ibidem
  • Oggethwaite 13th ibidem

vide þveit. The first element is uncertain but one may derive the name from the OE personal name Ogga ((Redin, Uncompounded Personal Names in OE 103). The form Hogarthweit is of secondary authority. On the loss of the first element compare Keld, Thwaite (Hang West Wapentake) 260, 272 infra.


  • Whitethwayt 1539 (Dugdale's Monasticon) v. 510

vide þveit. The first element is OE hwit or a personal name, ON Hvíti (compare (Whitby Cartulary) 126 supra).


  • Wulvedalebec 1154-81 (Rievaulx Cartulary)

'Stream through the wolves' valley' vide wulf, dæl.

Editor's note: possibly ON dalr, 'valley' and ON bekkr, 'stream'.


1. BARNBY 16 E 9

  • Barnebi 1086 DB

With the same range of forms and interpretation as Barnby 36 supra.

SLEIGHTHOLME (lost), identical with BARNBY SLEIGHTS (6")

  • Sletholm(e) 12th (Guisborough Cartulary), circa 1175-98 (Whitby Cartulary), 1279 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

vide Sleightholme 62, 120 supra.

2. BORROWBY 16 D 7

  • Bergebi, Bergesbi 1086 DB
  • Berg(h)by 1279 (Yorkshire Inquisitions), 1327 (De Banco Rolls)
  • Berygby 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy)
  • Barube 1483 (Sanctuarium Dunelm et Beverlac)
  • Boruby, Borabye 1415 (Yorkshire Inquisitions), 1513 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

'Hill farm' from berg, by. Borrowby is on a hill. Compare Borrowby (Allert) 205 infra and Norwegian Berby (ONorw i Bær­ghabø, Rygh, Norske Gaardnavne i. 97), and Swedish Bergby (OSwed Bærghby, Hellquist, Svenska ON på -by, 5).

GRIMSBY (lost)

  • Grimesbi 1086 DB

'Grim's farm' from the common ON personal name Grímr and by.

3. ELLERBY 16 E 8

  • Elwordebi, Alwardebi 1086 DB
  • Elverdeby circa 13th (Whitby Cartulary), 1279 (Yorkshire Inquisitions), 1316 (Nomina Villarum)
  • Elferby 1252 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls)
  • Eluuerdeby 1254 (Calendar of Patent Rolls)
  • Elred(d)eby 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy), 1316 (Nomina Villarum)
  • Elred-, Elleredby 1303 (Knights' Fees)
  • Ellerby 1369 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

'Ælfweard's farm' vide by, and compare Ellerby (Yorkshire East Riding), DB Aluuardebi.


  • Hotune, Hotone 1086 DB, etc.

'Farm on the ridge' vide hoh, tun. Hutton is near Mulgrave.


  • Bircschoke 1279 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

'Birch wood' vide birki, skogr.


  • Cukewaud 1223 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines); -wald 1279 (Yorkshire Inquisitions), 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy)
  • Kukeswaud 1228 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Kokuewald 1265 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Cokewalde 1301 (Whitby Cartulary)

'Cuca's woodland' from the OE personal name Cuca. It closely resembles Coxwold 191 infra but the latter probably contains Cuha rather than Cuca. vide w(e)ald.

5. LYTHE 16 E 9

  • Lid 1086 DB, 1201 (Curia Regis Rolls), 1210 (Placitorum Abbreviatio)
  • Liz 1181 (Pipe Rolls)
  • Li-, Lyth(e) 1201 (Placitorum Abbreviatio) et passim to 1508 (Testamenta Eboracensia)
  • Leth 1401 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Lieth 1623 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 1st series)

'The slope' vide hlið. The reference is to a slope which borders on the sea-coast north-west of Whitby. For the form Leth compare Upleatham 153 infra. The common form [laið] is from ON hlið (which had a long vowel).


  • Golborg 1086 DB
  • Goldeburg(h-e) 1086 DB, 1279 (Yorkshire Inquisitions), 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy)
  • Goldesburgh 1303 (Knights' Fees), 1402 (Testamenta Eboracensia)

'Golda's burh' from the OE personal name Golda. For the intrusive -s- compare Blansby 85 supra.


  • Grif 1086 DB
  • Mulegrif, -grive 1155-65, 1222-7 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Mul(e)greve 1224 (Calendar of Patent Rolls), 1268 (Registers of the Archbishops of York), 1414 (Testamenta Eboracensia), 1475 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Mulgref 1303 (Knights' Fees)
  • Mulgrave 1285 (16th) (Kirkby's Inquest), 1335 (Pleas of the Forest) 203 d
  • Moulgraue 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire)
  • Mowgrave 1577 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), 1673 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 1st series)

'Muli's valley' vide gryfja, here applied to the steep-sided valley in which Mulgrave stands. Compare Mowthorpe 35 supra.


  • Sandes(h)end(e) 1254 (Calendar of Patent Rolls), 1279 (Yorkshire Inquisitions), 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy)

'The end of the sands' vide sand, end.

6. MICKLEBY 16 E 8

  • Michelbi 1086 DB
  • Miclebi c. 1185-90 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 1046
  • Mikelby 1247 (Calendar of Charter Rolls) et passim

'Large farmstead' vide mycel, by. Compare Norwegian Nøkleby (ONorw i Myklabœ), Rygh, Norske Gaardnavne ii. 33, etc., and Swedish Myckleby (OSwed Myklaby), Hellquist, Svenska ON -by, 49.


  • Newetune, Neutone 1086 DB etc.

It is near Mulgrave.

8. UGTHORPE 16 F 8

  • Ug(h)etorp 1086 DB
  • Uggethorp(e) 1161 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 619 et passim to 1242 (Pipe Rolls)
  • Ugthorp(e) circa 1180 (Percy Cartulary), 1285 (Kirkby's Inquest), 1665 (Heraldic Visitations of Yorkshire)
  • Hugethorpe 1262 (Guisborough Cartulary)

'Uggi's village' from the ON by-name Uggi (Lind, E. H. Norsk-Isländska Personbinamn) and þorp.


  • Percybigginge, -byggyng 1262, 1280 (Guisborough Cartulary)

vide bigging. The Percy family held land here (compare references cited).


  • Woluedale 12, 13 (Guisborough Cartulary), 1279, 1293 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

vide Woodale Beck 135 supra.



  • Hildre-, Ildrewelle 1086 DB
  • Hader-, Hylderwell(e) 1139-48 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 906 et passim to 1475 (Calendar of Patent Rolls)
  • Hildrewell 1347 (Calendar of Patent Rolls), 1348 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), 1404 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Hynderwell, Hinderwell 1468 (Testamenta Eboracensia), 1490 (Calendar of Inquisitions post mortem), 1573 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), 1665 (Heraldic Visitations of Yorkshire)

'Hild's well' vide w(i)elia. The name was probably originally OE *Hildewella, containing the name of the famous Saint Hild of Streoneshalch, whose monastery was a few miles to the southeast of Hinderwell. The present form of the name, however, points to a Scandinavianising of the name on the analogy of ON Hildr, genitive Hildar, found in Hinderskelfe 40 supra. There is still a well at Hinderwell called St Hilda's Well. Compare also a lost Hildekelde, fons sancte Hilde (12 Guisborough Cartulary) in Guisborough.


  • Reneswike, Reneswyk 1273 (Yorkshire Inquisitions), 1348 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines) Ri-, Rynneswyk 1293 (Placita de quo Warranto), 1407 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Remmeswyk 1327 (Index to the Charters and Rolls in the British Museum)
  • Ryneswyk 1404 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Runswick 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire)

Perhaps 'Rægen's creek' from OE Rægen or ON Hreinn which appears as Ren- in Rainton 185 infra, and vik. On the phonology of this name vide Introduction xxxii.


  • Scetun(e), 1086 DB
  • Seton 1279 (Yorkshire Inquisitions) et passim to 1412 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Seaton 1571 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

'Farm by the sea' from OE and tun.


  • Setonstathes 1415 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Stathes 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire), 1665 (Heraldic Visitations of Yorkshire)
  • Stease 1686 Marske

vide stæþ. Staithes is a little fishing village built in a creek on the sea-coast.

2. ROXBY 16 D 7

  • Roscebi, Rozebi, 1086 DB
  • Raucebi 1145-8 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Rouceby 1285 (Kirkby's Inquest), 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy), 1346, 1425 (Calendar of Patent Rolls)
  • Rotseby 1311 (Calendar of Charter Rolls)
  • Rouseby 1415 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Rousby 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire)
  • Rokesby 1575 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

'Rauth's farm' from the ON personal name Rauðr), genitive Rauz. vide Roxby 90 supra and by, and compare Rauceby (Lincolnshire).


  • Skalynge, Skalinge 12 (Guisborough Cartulary), 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy), 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire)
  • Scalingis 1243-73 (Cartularium de Parco Helagh) 43 d
  • Estskaling 1415 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

'Shieling, pastureland, or a roughly built hut (near such a piece of land)'. The etymology of this word is probably ON *skáling (vide New English Dictionary sub verbo shieling), a derivative of skali. The same element is found in Scale Foot 148 infra.



  • Esingetun, -ton 1086 DB
  • Esintun 1119, 1129, a. 1199 (Guisborough Cartulary)
  • Esinton(a) 1154-61 (Index to the Charters and rolls in the British Museum), 1160-75 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 656, 1228 (Calendar of Liberate Rolls), 1292 (Calendar of entries in Papal Registers), 1369 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Esing-, Esyngton 1154-81 (Guisborough Cartulary) et passim to 1371 (Wills of the Northern Counties), etc.
  • Eassington 1575 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

'Esa's farm' from OE Ésa (vide Easingwold 24 supra) and ingtun. Easington is found also in Yorkshire East Riding and Durham.


  • Bollebi, -by 1086 DB, 1262 (Index to the Charters and rolls in the British Museum), 1279 (Yorkshire Inquisitions), 1303 (Knights' Fees), 1363 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Bolebi, -by 1086 DB, 1204 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines) (p), 1285 (Kirkby's Inquest)
  • Bolby 1407, 1412 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Bowlby 1575 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), 1665 (Heraldic Visitations of Yorkshire)

'Bolli's farm' from the ON personal name Bolli, genitive Bolla (Lind, E. H. Norsk-Isländska dopnamn och fingerade namn, 1905-15) and by.

at page 322:

Personal Names Compounded in North Riding Place-Names … (ii) Scandinavian

Bolli (Boulby)

Editor's note: the first element is ON personal name Bolli which, together with ON suffix by 'farmhouse, village' gives 'Bolli's farmhouse/village'


1. LOFTUS 16 D 6

  • Loctus(h)um, Loctehusum 1086 DB
  • Lofthus 12, 13 (Guisborough Cartulary) (9 X), 1155-65 (Whitby Cartulary) et passim to 1303 (Knights' Fees)
  • Loftus 1160-75 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 656, about 1199 (Guisborough Cartulary)
  • Loftous 1285 (Kirkby's Inquest)
  • Lofthuses, -houses 1295, 1300 (Registers of the Archbishops of York), 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy)
  • Lofthowse, Lofthous 1316 (Nomina Villarum), 1334 1339 (Guisborough Cartulary), 1369 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), 464 (Testamenta Eboracensia)

vide lopthus. The DB form represents the ON dative plural lopthúsum, as in Lofthouse near Harewood (Yorkshire West Riding), DB Loctus­hun. For Locte- vide Loft Marishes 95 supra.


In early times the priory is referred to under both these names; there is no doubt about the identification, for in Malton 67 Grendale is found and Ha is written in the same hand above the Gr. The name Grendale is possibly preserved in Grinkle, a little distance to the east of Handale in Easington parish.

  • Handale circa 1180 (Percy Cartulary) et passim
  • Litlehandailes circa 1200 (Rievaulx Cartulary)
  • Handale-Abby 1666 (Heraldic Visitations of Yorkshire)

The first element is probably OE hān 'rock'. It can hardly be a personal name Hana for in the spellings there is no trace of a medial -e- representing the OE genitive singular -a(n). 'Rocky valley' vide dæl.

  • Grendale 1254, 1280 (Guisborough Cartulary), 1268, 1296 (Registers of the Archbishops of York), (alias Handale) 1315-8 (Whitby Cartulary), 1329 (W.P. Baildon, Monastic Notes)
  • Grendall 1319 (Placitorum Abbreviatio)
  • Gryndale 1395 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Grindell Felde 1540 (Dugdale's Monasticon) iv. 76

'Green valley' vide grene, dæl. If Grendale is to be identified with Grinkle the modern form is due to the interchange of t or d and k before l. Compare Kirklington 220 infra.


  • Roscheltorp 1086 DB

'Roskel's village' vide þorp. The first element is ON Hrossketill, which is found as Roscytel the name of one of Aifric's festermen (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 13, and as Roschel in DB.


  • Upton 1442 (Testamenta Eboracensia)

'High farm' vide upp, tun.


  • Walepol' 1226-8 (Book of Fees)
  • Walpolhou 1231 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls)
  • Walplehous 1231 (Book of Fees)
  • Wapel(h)ou 1287 (Registers of the Archbishops of York), 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy)
  • Wayplay 1540 (Dugdale's Monasticon) iv. 75
  • Wapley 1577 (Dugdale's Monasticon) iv. 75

'Howes near Walpole', which itself probably means 'Britons' pool' vide pol, haugr. The first element is OE W(e)alh, genitive plural W(e)ala (vide "Introduction to the Survey of English Place-Names" 18). On the modern pronunciation vide Intro­duction xxxi; ey represents the reduction of unstressed -hou.


1. LIVERTON 16 D 5

  • Liuretun 1086 DB
  • Livertun 1165-75 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 890, p. 1180 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Li-, Lyverton(a) 1175-80 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 889, 1181 (Pipe Rolls) et passim
  • Leverton circa 1200 (Index to the Charters and rolls in the British Museum), 1300 (Yorkshire Inquisitions), 1571 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire)

With this name compare Liverpool (Ekwall, Place-Names Lancashire 117), Liversedge (Yorkshire West Riding), DB Liuresech, and Livermere (Sf), Liuremere 12 (Index to the Charters and rolls in the British Museum), Lyvermere 1224 (Royuli Litterarum Clausarum). The first element is probably in each case a stream-name which Professor Ekwall connects with OE lyfrig(-blōd), ME livered 'coagulated, clotted.' The Norwegian river-name Levra, earlier Lifr- 'stream with thick water' (Rygh, Norske Elvenavne 145, sub verbo Lifr-) is a parallel to the stream-name contained in these English place-names. Liverton stands on Liverton Beck. vide tun.


  • Waytehil p. 1180 (Whitby Cartulary)

'Watch hill' from OFr wait 'watch' (compare Waits House 83 supra) and hyll. Waytail is near the sea-coast.


1. BROTTON 16 C 5

  • Broctune, Brotune 1086 DB
  • Brocton 1273 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Brotton' 1181 (Pipe Rolls), 1279 (Calendar of Charter Rolls)
  • Brottun 1185-96 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 667

vide broc, tun. Compare Broughton (Ryedale Wapentake) 46 supra. In this name [x] from c was assimilated to following t as in Latton (Wiltshire) from OE lac(u)tun; compare "Introduction to the Survey of English Place-Names" 113, 5.


  • Scinergreve 1273 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Skynnergreve 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy), 1404 (Yorkshire Inquisitions); -gryf 1348 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Skin(n)ergrive 1273 (Yorkshire Inquisitions), 1279 (Calendar of Charter Rolls)
  • Skinnengref(myll) 1407 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Skyningrave, Skynnyngrave 1285 (16) (Kirkby's Inquest), 1579 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

vide gryfja. Skinningrove is a small valley which runs down to the sea-coast. The first element is the ON by-name Skinnari (Lind, E. H. Norsk-Isländska Personbinamn) from ON skinnari 'a tanner'. The personal name is found in Norwegian place-name Skinnerbogen (Rygh, Norske Gaardnavne i. 156) and Skinnerthorpe (Yorkshire West Riding), Schinertorp 1297 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy). Forms with -in- for -er- are due to the analogy of numerous -ing- names.

2. SALTBURN 16 C 5

  • Salteburnam 1180-90 (YCh) 767, 1293 (QW)

'Salt stream' vide s(e)alt and burna. The reference is probably to the alum which is found in this district.


  • Heselgrive 13 (VCH) ii. 401

'Hazel valley' from ON hesli 'hazel' and gryfja.


1. KILTON 16 D 5

  • Chiltun, -ton 1086 DB
  • Chiltona a. 1157 (Percy Cartulary)
  • Ki-, Kylton 1219 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls) (p), 1292 (Calendar of Charter Rolls), (Percy Cartulary) et passim

It is very difficult to come to any conclusion with regard to this name and Kildale 166 infra. For Kilton Professor Ekwall suggests a Scandinavian form of OE cilda-tun (compare Chilton) vide cild, tun, whilst the first element of Kildale he suggests is possibly ON kíll 'a narrow bay', well-evidenced in Norwegian place-names. In the latter case it is not quite certain what the semantic development of kíll must have been that it could be applied to a place inland. In Norwegian dialects it has the meaning 'narrow triangular piece' and in Danisk kil the meaning 'a narrow strip of land'.


  • Torp 1086 DB, duas Chiltonas a. 1157 (Percy Cartulary)
  • K. et Thorp 1257, 1292 (Calendar of Charter Rolls), 1292 (Percy Cartulary)
  • Thorpkilton, Kyltonthorp 1406, 1407, 1409 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

'The hamlet belonging to the village of Kilton' vide þorp and compare "Introduction to the Survey of English Place-Names" 58


  • Morehusum 1086 DB
  • Mores(h)um 12th (Guisborough Cartulary), 1328 (De Banco Rolls)
  • (Magna, parva) Morsum 13th, 1222-40 (Guisborough Cartulary), 1257, 1292 (Calendar of Charter Rolls), 1273 (Yorkshire Inquisitions), (petit) 1404 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • (Parva, Little, Great) Morsom 1285 (Kirkby's Inquest), 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy), 1348 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), 1404 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Muressom 1412 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Moresham 1610 (Speed's Map of Yorkshire)

(At) the houses on the mor'. vide hus.


  • le hauenes 1273 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

'The havens' from OE hæfen; the sense in which the word is used is not clear but it is probably 'refuge, shelter' (compare New English Dictionary sub verbo haven).


  • Gren(e)rig(g)e, -ryg 1273 (Yorkshire Inquisitions), 1280 (Calendar of Charter Rolls), 1293 (Placita de quo Warranto), 1407 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Gericke 1575 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Girricke 1616 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 1st series)

'Green ridge' vide grene, hrycg. The modern form arises from the metathesis of Grenr- to Gern- with later loss of -n-.


  • Hardale 1273 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

Probably 'rocky valley' vide Harwood Dale 113 supra.


  • Skaytebec 1271 (Yorkshire Inquisitions), 1272 (Calendar of Close Rolls)
  • Sketebec 1271 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Skeyte-, Scaitebek 1272 (Calendar of Close Rolls)

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" (1912) Harald Lindkvist at page 135 is probably correct in deriving this name from ON skøyti, a mutated form of ON skaut. ON skøyti is only recorded with the meaning of shaft, missile' but it may also have had the meaning of skaut 'nook, bend' (compare Rygh, Norske Elvenavne sub verbo skaut-). Skate Beck is a stream with many twists and turns in its course. 'Twisted stream' vide bekkr. We probably have a parallel in Staitebec (sic), the name of a tributary of the Wharfe (1310 Calendar of Charter Rolls).


  • Svyn-, Suindale(wra) 12th (Guisborough Cartulary)

'Swine valley' vide swin, dæl.


  • Swineswithne 13th (Guisborough Cartulary)

Professor Ekwall suggests 'burnt clearing where pigs are turned out to forage' vide swin and swithen (English Dialect Dictionary).

3. SKELTON 16 C 4

  • Sc(h)eltun 1086 DB, 1130-5 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 671

Later forms are the same as for Skelton (Bulm) 16 supra. The interpretation is discussed under that name.


  • Bagdalesclose 1407 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

'Baggi's valley' vide dæl. The first element is the ON personal name Baggi.


  • Burghgate 1407 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

'Road to the castle (of Skelton)' vide burh, gata, and compare Birdgate 85 supra.


  • Bosbek 1375 John Barbour's poem Bruce

'Stream near the cowshed' from OE bōs(ig) and bekkr.


  • Kaldekelde 12 (Guisborough Cartulary)

'Cold spring' vide cald, kelda. This name is fairly common in Yorkshire: it appears as Cawkill (Yorkshire East Riding), Caldekelde 1328 (De Banco Rolls), as the names of places (now lost) in Ampleforth, Caldkeldhill circa 1226 Magnum Registrum Album (Dean and Chapter of York, circa 1300) ii. 56, and in Easby, Caldekeld(e) 1160 Easby 4, 12 d, etc.


  • Glaphou 12th (Guisborough Cartulary) (p)
  • Galaphoue 1279 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Claphow 1404 ibidem

'Glappa's mound' vide haugr. On the OE personal name Glæppa, Glappa which enters also into Glapthorn (Northamptonshire), Glapethorn John (Index to the Charters and rolls in the British Museum), Glapwell (Derbyshire), DB Glapewelle, and OE Glæppan­felda (Birch, Cartularium Saxonicum) 1295, vide (Redin, Uncompounded Personal Names in OE 96); there is variation between G- and C- in the OE forms of the personal name, as also in Glapthorne (Northamptonshire).


  • Halikeld Cote 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy)

'Cottage near the holy well' vide halig, kelda, cot. Compare Halikeld Wapentake, Hallikeld House, and Hallikeld Spring 212, 218-9 infra. For medial g compare Wigginton 14 supra.


  • Haia, Haya 1129, 1239 (Guisborough Cartulary)

'Mound near the hunting enclosure' vide haugr, (ge)hæg. For la compare Barton le Willows 38 supra.


  • Milnholm 1407 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

'Mill field' vide myln, holmr.


  • Readecliff 1043-60 (12th) (Symeon of Durham)
  • Roudeclif, Roudclive 1086 DB
  • Routheclyve, -clive 1190, 1242 (Guisborough Cartulary)
  • Rouclif(flat) 1407 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Rocliff 1582 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

This name is of great interest as showing what must have repeatedly happened in Yorkshire place-names, viz. the re­placement of an OE name by a Scandinavian cognate. The Symeon of Durham form Readecliff is from OE read 'red', whilst later forms show the substitution of ON rauðr. vide clif.

At Introduction, page xxxiii

… Finally, spellings show the frequent substitution of Scandinavian for Englsih forms in Anglian names which survived the settlement. Such are … the very interesting case of Rawcliff Bank (infra 146), where ON raudðr is substituted for OE rēad.


  • Skelton bek 1407 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

vide bekkr and compare Skelton 145 supra.


  • Wandale(flat) 1407 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

Compare Wandales 59 supra.

4. STANGHOW 16 D 4

  • Stanehou 1273 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Stanghou, -houe 1280 (Calendar of Charter Rolls), 1293 (Placita de quo Warranto), 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy), 1575 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Staynghou 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy)

'Howe marked by a pole' vide stöng, haugr. Compare the lost Stangerhou in Ravensmeols (Place-Names Lancashire 250). The spellings Stane-, Stayng- are due to the influence of OE stan and ON steinn.


  • Asadale 1119, 1129 (Guisborough Cartulary)
  • Asedale 1239 (Guisborough Cartulary)
  • Hasdale 1273 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

'Asi's valley' from ON Ási (Lind, E. H. Norsk-Isländska dopnamn och fingerade namn, 1905-15) and dæl.


  • tres Hoggae circa 1200 (Guisborough Cartulary)

vide haugr.


  • Camisedale 1086 DB (? identical)
  • Camdale 1407 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

If the DB form is to be identified with this place the first element is the ON by-name Kámsi or Kámr (Lind, E. H. Norsk-Isländska Personbinamn). This identification is, however, doubtful and it seems more likely that the first element is OE camb or ON kambr 'comb, crest, ridge' (compare Cam 196 infra). vide dæl.


  • The Combes 1407 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

'The hollows' vide cumb.


  • Kateriding 1273 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Cadringe 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy)

'Kati's clearing' from the ON personal name Káti (Lind, E. H. Norsk-Isländska Personbinamn) and hryding. The Yorkshire Lay Subsidy form is erratic.


  • Locwyt 1273 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

From OE loc 'enclosure' and viðr, which was later replaced by OE wudu. Compare Lockwood (Yorkshire West Riding).


  • Slaipwath 1200-22 (Guisborough Cartulary)
  • Slaypewath 1222 (Guisborough Cartulary)

'Slippery ford' from ON sleipr and vað.


  • Tidkinhowe 1575 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

vide haugr. The first element is a late pet-form of some such personal name as OE Tydi, Tidi.



  • Colemandale 1273 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Colmandale 1539 (Dugdale's Monasticon) vi. 275, (al. Comondale) 1583 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Colmendall 1573 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

'Colman's valley' vide dæl. The name Colman (which is also found in Coldman Hargos infra) is of Irish origin, from OIr Colmán, a shortened form of OIr Columbán (vide Revue Celtique, XLIV 41). vide Introd. xxvii.


  • Colemanergas 1119, 1129 (Guisborough Cartulary)
  • Col(l)emanhergas 1170-90 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 659, a. 1199, 1239 (Guisborough Cartulary)

'Colman's shielings' vide erg, and Commondale supra.


  • Depehil 1119 (Guisborough Cartulary)
  • Dephil 1129, about 1199, 1239 (Guisborough Cartulary), 1170-90 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 659
  • Depilbrigge 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy)
  • Dybell Brigge 1539 (Dugdale's Monasticon) vi. 275

'Bridge near the deep pool' vide deop, hylr, brycg.


  • Mady House 1539 (Dugdale's Monasticon) vi. 275


  • Schalingthawythe 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy)
  • Skalethwayte 1539 (Dugdale's Monasticon) v. 510
  • Scalethwayte al. Scaylthat 1573 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

'Enclosure with a small shed or shieling', compare Scaling 139 supra, and vide þveit. The final element þveit has undergone a dialectal sound-change of th to f (compare Garfit 69 supra) and popular etymology has connected the word with foot.


  • Schelderscoh 1119, 1129, about 1199 (Guisborough Cartulary), 1170-90 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 659
  • Skelderschog 1239 (Guisborough Cartulary)
  • Skelderschuthe 1285 (Kirkby's Inquest)
  • Skelderskayg' 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy)
  • Skilderskew 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire)
  • Skelderskew 1623 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 1st series)

The first element is probably the ON personal name Skjöldr, genitive Skjaldar (Lind, E. H. Norsk-Isländska Personbinamn). vide skogr.


  • Sleddal Cote 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy)
  • Sleddalle 1539 (Dugdale's Monasticon) vi. 275

From OE slæd 'a wide flat valley' and dæl. Compare Sleddale (Hang West wapentake) 267 infra.


  • Todhou, -how 1200-22 (Guisborough Cartulary)

vide haugr. The first element may be the common word tod 'a fox' or it may be the ON personal name Toddi (Lind, E. H. Norsk-Isländska Personbinamn). As haugr seems to be most frequently coupled with a personal name the latter alternative is preferable.


  • Wayewathe 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy)
  • Whawathe 1539 (Dugdale's Monasticon) vi. 275
  • Wayworth 1615 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 1st series)

'Ford where the road crosses' vide weg, vað.


There is variation in the forms of Guisborough between -burn and -burgh; -burn forms predominate but do not seem to be the original ones:

  • Ghiges- Gighes-, Chigesburg, -burc, -borc 1086 DB
  • Gisburham 1104-8 (Symeon of Durham)
  • Gisebur(g)h 1130-5 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 671 and 9 examples noted before 1410 (Guisborough Cartulary)
  • Giseburc(h) 1155-1210 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 654, 1189-1214 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 564
  • Gi-, Gysburgh 1285 (Kirkby's Inquest), and 7 examples noted before 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire)
  • Gisseburgh circa 1291 Tax
  • Gysborozv, -borough 1530 (Heraldic Visitations of Yorkshire)

The following references are to -burn forms:

  • Giseborne 1086 DB
  • Gi-, Gyseburn(e) 1119 (Guisborough Cartulary), and 27 examples noted before 1430 (Yorkshire Charters (unpublished) in the Bodleian Library) a. i. 63
  • Gisbourne circa 1180 (Percy Cartulary)
  • Gi-, Gysburn 1228 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), and 7 examples noted before 1483 (Testamenta Eboracensia)
  • Guiseburna early 14th (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Guysborn 1504 (Testamenta Eboracensia)
  • Guisburne 1531 (Wills of the Northern Counties)

This is a difficult name of which the interpretation is not made easier by Simeon of Durham's Gisburham. There is a rare ON by-name Gígr (Lind, E. H. Norsk-Isländska Personbinamn) which would account for the DB forms, of which a diminutive seems to occur in Giggleswick (Place-Names Yorkshire West Riding 77). If this is correct the second g was early lost from the combination gsb and Simeon's form can only be ex­plained as a case of suffixed ham; compare DB Breilesfordham for Brailesford (Derbyshire). For the fluctuating final element vide Cheeseburn, Newburn and Sockburn (Place-Names Northumberland Durham sub nomine). Gainsborough (Lincolnshire) and Scarborough 105 supra are further examples of burh-names compounded with a Scandinavian by-name.


  • Bernodebi 1086 DB
  • Bernaldeby 12th (Guisborough Cartulary), 1155- circa 1170 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 752 et freq to 1303 (Fioda Militum 1316)
  • Bernaldby circa 1190 (p), 1263 (Guisborough Cartulary)
  • Barnaldeby 1285 (Kirkby's Inquest), 1412 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Barntby al. Barneby 1285 (16) (Kirkby's Inquest)

Beornwald's farm' from the OE personal name Beornw(e)ald and by.


  • Belmundegate 12th (Guisborough Cartulary)
  • via de Belmund 13th ibidem
  • Belmangate 1539 (Dugdale's Monasticon) vi. 275

'Road to Belmont' vide next name and gata.


  • Belmund 1185-94 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 695, 1230-50 (Guisborough Cartulary)
  • Baumund 1230-50 (Guisborough Cartulary)

'Beautiful hill' from OFr bel and mont.


  • Kerlinghou 12th, circa 1170 (Guisborough Cartulary)
  • Kerlinhou circa 1176 (Guisborough Cartulary)

'Old woman mound' vide haugr. ON kerling 'old woman' is used in ON as a by-name (Lind, E. H. Norsk-Isländska Personbinamn). There is an unidentified place in this township called Kerlingkelde 12 (Guisborough Cartulary), 'old woman spring' (vide kelda).


  • Holmes circa 1175 (Guisborough Cartulary)

vide holmr, brycg.


  • Holebec 1119, 1129 (Guisborough Cartulary) et passim
  • Hollebek 1239 (Guisborough Cartulary)

vide Howl Beck 69 supra.

at page 69: HOWL BECK (6") (Ryedale Wapentake)

  • Holbek 14 (Kirkham Cartulary) 53

vide hol, bekkr and Holbeck 56 supra.

at page 56: HOLBECK, HOLE BECK, a stream (Ryedale Wapentake)

  • Holebec(k) 1154-63, circa 1170 (Rievaulx Cartulary)
  • Holbek 1418 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

'Stream in the hollow' vide hol, bekkr. Compare also the name of a lost road in Gilling near this stream called Holegate circa 1170 (Rievaulx Cartulary).


  • Kempclive 13th (Guisborough Cartulary)
  • Kempley 1539 (Dugdale's Monasticon) vi. 275

'Kempi's cliff' from the ON by-name Kempi (Lind, E. H. Norsk-Isländska Personbinamn) and clif. For loss of final f compare Hamley 80 supra.


  • Moridayles circa 1175 (Guisborough Cartulary)

'Swampy shares of the common field' vide deill. Mori is the OE adjective mōrig from mor.

Editor's note: see also Deila, 'to deal'; deillir 'shares'; deild (deilþ, deilð) a deal, dole, share.

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

deill, m. [German theil; Gothic dails; English 'deal'; Swedish-Danish deel, del], Diplomatarium Norvagicum; this word never occurs in old writers, and can scarcely be said to be in use at present. Icelandic uses the fem. deild and deila, vide above.


  • Adthewaldeslet circa 1175 (Guisborough Cartulary)
  • Adalwalslet 12th (Guisborough Cartulary)

'Athelwald's level-ground' from the OE personal name Æþelwald and sletta. The development to Old must have arisen from loss of medial th and subsequent assimilation of Alwald to Ald.


  • Percycros 1231 (Guisborough Cartulary)

vide cros. The Percy family held land here (vide Guisborough Cartulary passim).


  • Scuggedale, Skugge- 12th (Guisborough Cartulary), 1185-95 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 695,13, circa 1230 (Guisborough Cartulary)

'Shady valley' from ON skuggi 'shadow' (compare Bjorkman, Loanwords 35) and dæl.


  • Waterfal circa 1200 G


  • Westwith 12th (Guisborough Cartulary), circa 1170 (Rievaulx Cartulary), 1170-80 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 662 et passim

'West wood' vide west, viðr.


  • Hotun 1086 DB, 1170-85 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 695
  • Hoton(a) 1189 (Guisborough Cartulary), (juxta Gis(e)burne) 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy)

'Farm on the spur of land' vide hoh, tun and Lowcross infra.


  • Loucros 12th, 1218-34, 1230-50 (Guisborough Cartulary)

vide cros. Professor Ekwall suggests that the first element is the ON personal name Logi found also in Lowthorpe (Yorkshire West Riding).


  • Torp, Oustorp 1086 DB
  • Thorp 1155-70 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 752, 1222-7 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Pinzunthorp circa 1195-1210 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 753
  • Pi-, Pynchunthorp(e) 12th, circa 1230, 1292 (Guisborough Cartulary), 1303 (Knights' Fees), 1347 (Baildon Monastic Notes), 1409 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Pynchonthorp 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy)
  • Pynchenthorp 1316 (Nomina Villarum)
  • Pyncheonthorp 1395 (Whitby Cartulary), 1412 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Punchunthorpe 1406 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Pi-, Pynchinthorp 1530 (Heraldic Visitations of Yorkshire), 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire)

vide þorp. The original form of the name means simply 'village' or 'east village' (DB Oust- from ON austr). Why 'east' is not clear, unless it was an outlying settlement from Newton, a mile to the south-east. The first element is the name of the family of Pinchun who held land here in the 12th and 13th centuries. (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters 753). The name is also the first element of Pinzuncroft (12 Guisborough Cartulary), the name of a lost field in Pinchingthorpe.

5. TOCKETTS 16 D 2

  • Theoscota 1043-60 (12th) (Symeon of Durham)
  • Toscutun, Tocstune 1086 DB
  • Toucotes circa 1180 (Guisborough Cartulary) (p), 1404, 1412, (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Tofcotes 1187 (Pipe Rolls) (p), 1202 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), 1252 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls, unpublished) (p)
  • Toscotes 1202 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Thocotes 1202 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), 1230-50 (Guisborough Cartulary), 1279 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Tokotes 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy)
  • Tochotes 1303 (Feoda Militum 1316)
  • Tocotes 1369 (Knights' Fees)
  • Toukotes 1338 (Baildon Monastic Notes) (p)
  • Tockets 1665 (Heraldic Visitations of Yorkshire)

vide cot. The forms are too conflicting and uncertain in them­selves for any satisfactory solution of the first element to be offered.



  • Upelider 1086 DB
  • Uplyum, Uplium, Uplihum 1119, 1129, 1230-50 (Guisborough Cartulary) et passim to 1310 (Calendar of Charter Rolls)
  • Uplithum 1140-54 (Whitby Cartulary), 13th (Easby Cartulary) 247 d, (Percy Cartulary), 1280 (Calendar of Charter Rolls), 1308 (Whitby Cartulary)
  • Ouerlidun 1181 (Pipe Rolls)
  • Uppelithum 1222-40, 1239 (Guisborough Cartulary)
  • Lyum 1231 (Yorkshire Assize Rolls, unpublished), 1257, 1292 (Calendar of Charter Rolls)
  • Oppelidun 1314 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd Series)
  • Uplethum 1285 (16) (Kirkby's Inquest), 1407 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
  • Upleythome 1581 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
  • Upledam 1613 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 1st Series)
  • Up-Leatham 1665 (Heraldic Visitations of Yorkshire)

'The upper slopes' vide upp(e), hlið. The DB form represents the ON austr nominative plural hliðir, whilst the remaining forms are from the dative plural hliðum. For the P form Ouer- vide ufera. The modern form of the name has arisen as follows: ME î in the open syllable was lengthened to í and lowered to e (written e, ey) in the 15th century: this was raised to [i:] in modern times, as also in Cleveland 128 supra, Kirkleatham, Healam, Skeeby, Smeaton 155, 220, 288, 211.


  • Cornegreve 1273 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

'Cranes' or herons' pit (or valley)' from OE *corn 'crane, heron' (vide Cornbrough 32 supra) and gryfja. Corngrave Farm is on the slope of a hill, but the name perhaps referred originally to a small valley which lies 200 yards to the south-west.

Editor's note: see ON Korn [Anglo Saxon and English 'corn'] corn, grain per "An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson


  • Dunesdale 1273 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

'Dun's valley' vide dæl.

Editor's note: ON dalr ?


  • Rabec 12 (Guisborough Cartulary), 1180-90 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 767

From ON ra 'roe-buck' (compare Raskelf 26 supra and Raydale 264 infra) and bekkr. The modern form is corrupt.


1. MARSKE 16 B 3

    • Merscum 1043-69 (12th) (SD)
    • Mersch(e) 1086 DB
    • Mersc 1086 DB et passim to 1223 (FF)
    • Mersk(e) 1180 (Percy) et passim to 1401 (Test)
    • Mers 1218-34 (Whitby)
    • Marske 1285 (16th) (KI), 1442 (Guis), 1677 Marske
    • Mask(e) 1577 (Saxton), 1581 (FF), 1665 (Visit), 1685, 1714 Marske

    'The marsh(es)' vide mersc, and compare Marske 293 infra. The earliest form is in the dative plural. After DB the forms show the substitution of Scandinavian sk for English sh (compare Loft Marishes 95 supra).

    CAT FLATS (6")

    • Cateflat 12 (Guisborough Cartulary), 1180-90 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 767

    'Kati's field' from the ON by-name Káti (Lind, E. H. Norsk-Isländska Personbinamn) and flat.


    • Alfelebrigge 13 (Whitby Cartulary)
    • Felebrige 13 (Whitby Cartulary)

    The first spelling is erratic. The second and the modern form suggest that the first element is ON fjöl 'a board'; compare Felebrigge (Place-Names Lancashire 253) Felbrigg (Norfolk) and Fell Beck (Yorkshire West Riding), Felebrigebec 1170-9 Magnum Registrum Album (Dean and Chapter of York) i. 71 d, 72. 'Bridge made of planks' vide brycg.

    GILDERT FLAT (6"), a field

    • Gyldhousflat 1407 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

    'Field near the guild-house', from ON gildi-hús (Björkman, Loanwords 154) and flat. Compare the lost Gildhusmor (early 14 Whitby Cartulary) in Middlesborough and Gildusclif (1284 Yorkshire Inquisitions) in Scarborough.


    • Mikeldailes 13th (Guisborough Cartulary)
    • Mikeldeldes 1407 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

    'Large shares of the common field' vide mycel, deill. The form deldes arises in the same way that early English vilde comes from vile.

    Editor's note: see also Deila, 'to deal'; deillir 'shares'; deild (deilþ, deilð) a deal, dole, share.

    "An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

    deill, m. [German theil; Gothic dails; English 'deal'; Swedish-Danish deel, del], Diplomatarium Norvagicum; this word never occurs in old writers, and can scarcely be said to be in use at present. Icelandic uses the fem. deild and deila, vide above.

    MORDALES (6")

    • Moredeldes 1407 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

    vide mor and preceding name.


    1. KIRKLEATHAM 16 C 2

    • Westlidun, -lid(e), Weslide, Westlidum, Westude 1086 DB
    • Livum 1221 (Guisborough Cartulary)
    • Lisum 1268 (Registers of the Archbishops of York)
    • Kyrkelidun 1181 (Pipe Rolls)
    • Kirkledom 1491 (Sanctuarium Dunelm)

    Other forms follow those of Upleatham 153 supra.

    It is called Westlidun from its position in relation to Upleathum and Kyrkelidun from its church (of early foundation). For the forms Lisum and Livum compare "Introduction to the Survey of English Place-Names" (1923) 108 ff. Compare further Upleatham 153 infra.

    CRUMBACRE (6")

    • Crumbaker 1231 (Guisborough Cartulary)
    • Crumbacre 1231 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

    'Crooked field' from crumb and æcer.

    Editor's note: see ON akr [Anglo Saxon œcer; English 'acre';] arable land, ground for tillage and krókr 'a hook, anything crooked' per "An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

    GREENWALL (6")

    • Grenewall(e) 1231 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), (Guisborough Cartulary)
    • Grenewalde 1401 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

    Probably 'green woodland', vide grene, w(e)ald.

    Editor's note: see ON grœnn, grænn, 'green' and veggr 'wall' per "An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson and "A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 255.


    • Uverby 1174-9 (Guisborough Cartulary), 1539 (Dugdale's Monasticon) vi. 275
    • Overby 1270, 1395 (Guisborough Cartulary)
    • Ureby 1579 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), 1611 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 1st Series)
    • Yerbye 1577 (Saxton's Map of Yorkshire)
    • Urierby 1609 (Index to the Charters and rolls in the British Museum)
    • Eureby 1615 (North Riding Record Society Publications, 1st Series)

    'Upper farm' from OE ufera and by. Compare Ovrebi (DB) the name of a lost place in Whitby. The development of Uverby to Ureby is due to the vocalisation of medial -v-. The change of Ure- or Eure- to Year- is normal in the dialect (vide Introduction xxxiii).

    2. REDCAR 16 B 2

    • Redker 1165-75 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 768 et passim to 1422 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
    • Redeker(re) circa 1180 (Percy Cartulary), 1198 (Memorials of Fountain Abbey), 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy), 1333 (Rievaulx Cartulary)
    • Rideker 1271 (Calendar of Inquisitions post mortem)
    • Redkerre 1353 (Percy Cartulary)
    • Ridkere 1407 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
    • Readcar 1653 Marske

    'Red marshy land' vide read, kjarr. The land is low-lying and the rocks are of a reddish hue (compare Rawcliff Bank 146 supra).


    • Cotum 1123-8 (Guisborough Cartulary), (Est) 13th (Byland Cartulary, Egerton) 19 et passim to 1404 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)
    • Oustcotum 1181 (Pipe Rolls)
    • Cotun 1165-76 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters) 657
    • Cotom 1231 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines), 1443 (Testamenta Eboracensia)

    vide cot. East (OE east, ON austr) in relation to …


    • Westcotum 1181 (Pipe Rolls), 1237 (Percy Cartulary)


    • Salcker in Clyvelond 1281 (Calendar of Patent Rolls)

    vide s(e)alt, kjarr. A wreck took place here in 1281.


    • Wandayles 12th, 1230-50 (Guisborough Cartulary)
    • Wanddayles 1175 ibidem
    • Wandayll 1231 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)
    • Wandeldes 1407 (Yorkshire Inquisitions)

    vide Wandales 59 supra. For -deldes compare Mickledales 155 supra.


    • the Wylyes 1296 (Yorkshire Inquisitions) (p)
    • le Wyli(g)es 1300 (Yorkshire Inquisitions), 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy)
    • Wiley 1571 (Yorkshire Feet of Fines)

    'The willows' vide welig.

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