Derivation of the Surname RAMSDALE

Part 3: Danish or Norwegian Origin
Table of Place-Names

Old Norse Place-Name Evidence in and around Fylingdales Parish, North Yorkshire

Part 1 Index: Etymological & Teutonic Sources

  1. Derivation of the Surname RAMSDALE
  2. Etymology
  3. Teutonic Sources
  4. Viking Influence
  5. Danish or Norwegian Origin ?
  6. Topographical and Toponymic (habitation) Surnames
  7. Heraldry
  8. Notes
  9. Møre og Romsdal, Norway
  10. Romsdal to Ramsdale

Part 2 Index: Locative Sources

  1. Ramsdale Hamlet, Fylingdale's Parish, North Yorkshire
  2. Ramsdale Megalithic Standing Stones, North Yorkshire
  3. Ramsdale Valley, Scarborough, North Yorkshire
  4. Ramsdale & Ramsdell Chapelries, Hampshire
  5. Lilla Howe Bronze Age Barrow, North Yorkshire
  6. Wade's Causeway, North Yorkshire

Part 3 Index: Danish or Norwegian Origin

  1. Danish or Norwegian Origin (published sources)
  2. Danish or Norwegian Origin (table of place-names - this page)
  3. Viking Society Web Publications
  4. Molde Wind Roses
  5. "On dalr and holmr in the place-names of Britain", Dr. Gillian Fellows-Jensen
  6. "The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" (1979) A. H. Smith, Volume V

Part 4 Index: General

  1. Fylingdales: Geographical and Historical Information (1890), Transcript of the entry for the Post Office, Professions and Trades in Bulmer's Directory of 1890
  2. Fylingdales Parish: Victoria County History (1923) A History of the County of York North Riding Volume 2, Pages 534 to 537
  3. Ramsdale Mill, Robin Hood's Bay, Yorkshire - Postcard Views (circa 1917 to 1958)
  4. Ramsdale Valley, Scarborough, North Yorkshire: Edwardian Postcards (1901 to 1915)
  5. Scarborough, North Yorkshire: Bulmer's History and Directory of North Yorkshire (1890)
  6. Ramsdale Megalithic Standing Stones, Bronze Age Stone Circle, Fylingdales Moor, North Yorkshire
  7. Ramsdale Family Register - Home Page


Fylingdales Parish

Fylingdales

The area researched was originally confined to 'The Chapelry of Fylingdales' - see map above - first recorded as Figclinge in the 11th century, Figelinge and Fielinge in the 11th and 12th centuries and possibly as Saxeby in the 12th century. It was a parochial chapelry south of Whitby and contained the villages of Robin Hood's Bay and Thorpe, or Fylingthorpe (which was recorded as Prestethorpe in the 13th century) and the hamlets of Normanby, Parkgate, Ramsdale, Raw (Fyling Rawe, 16th century) and Stoupe Brow. Fylingdales Parish covers an area of 13,325 acres (53.92 km2, 20.82 miles2) of land and inland water.

The area researched was then extended beyond Fylingdales Parish to include 'The Liberty of Whitby Strand' comprising, in 1831, the parishes of Whitby, Hackness, Sneaton and the Chapelry of Fylingdales as taken from A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 2, ed. William Page (London, 1923) at pages 502 to 505 (see map below) and which now includes the parishes of Aislaby (1865), Ruswarp (1870) and Hawsker (1878).

The area researched has been further extended to include (1) Pickering Lythe Wapentake, (2) Whitby Strand Wapentake and (3) Langbargh East Wapentake, described in "The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" (1928) A. H. Smith, Volume V, at pages 74 to 157; in particular the littoral parishes comprising the North Yorkshire coast.

England 878 AD The Liberty of Whitby Strand

North Yorkshire Littoral - Parishes

Old Norse Origins: local place-name evidence

In the Pickering Lythe, Whitby Strand and Langbargh East Wapentakes there are some 1,828 examples of local place-names containing one or more of 177 Old Norse original elements. Where a place-name has two or more Old Norse original elements it is included under both so the total number of examples includes some double and triple counting. Examples of such multiple element listings are:

In this regard see place-name element raw: hrar, bráð 'raw flesh' and rauðr 'red' with (seven) duplicate entries.

The published sources used for the table of local place-names can be found in:

Old Norse test-words include (but are not limited to) the following:

  1. barn, laithe, leath (hlaða) 'barn'
  2. beck (bekkr) 'brook, stream'
  3. breck (brekka) 'hill, slope
  4. booth (búð) 'shelter'
  5. by (býr) 'farmstead, homestead, village'
  6. cliff (kleif) 'cliff, rock'
  7. ergh (erg) 'shieling, hill or summer pasture'
  8. fell (fjell) 'rough hill, mountain, fell'
  9. force (foss) 'waterfall'
  10. gais, goose (gás) 'goose'
  11. garth (garðr) 'enclosure'
  12. gill (gil) 'ravine, cleft, deep narrow gully (with a stream)'
  13. holm (holmr) 'higher dry ground amidst marshes'
  14. howe (haugr) 'barrow, sepulchral mound, cairn, tumulus'
  15. knip (gnúpr) 'hill, peak'
  16. ra (rauðr) 'red'
  17. rea (refr) 'fox'
  18. ross (hross) 'horse'
  19. scale, scole (skáli) 'temporary hut, shieling'
  20. satt(er), seat, sett, side, -ster (sætr) 'shieling'
  21. slack (slakki) 'shallow valley, hollow in the ground'
  22. stoupe (staup) 'a steep declivity or slope, a pitch, precipice'
  23. swart (svartr) 'black, dark'
  24. tarn (tarn) 'enclosed body of water'
  25. thwaite (þveit, þvait,) 'a clearing in woodland, used as meadowland'
  26. war, ward, wart (varða) 'beacon'

Notes

Old Norse is the language of Norway in the period circa 750 to 1350 (after which Norwegian changes considerably) and of Iceland from the settlement (circa 870) to the Reformation (circa 1550 - a date that sets a cultural rather than a linguistic boundary). Known in modern Icelandic as Norræna, in Norwegian as Norrønt and in English sometimes as Old West Norse, this type of speech is a western variety of Scandinavian. Scandinavian itself represents the northern branch of the Germanic group of languages, whose western branch includes Dutch, English and German.

Although Icelandic circa 870 to 1550 and Norwegian circa 750 to 1350 are here given the designation 'Old Norse', it would be wrong to think of this language as entirely uniform, without variation in time or space. The form of Scandinavian spoken in Norway around 750 differed in a number of important respects from that spoken around 1350, and by the latter date the Norwegian carried to Iceland by the original settlers had begun to diverge from the mother tongue. Nevertheless, in the period circa 1150 to 1350, when the great mediæval literature of Iceland and Norway was created, there existed an essential unity of language in the western Scandinavian world.

Old English is the name given to the language spoken by the Anglo-Saxons in the 5th to 11th centuries.

The following 'local examples' (aka local place-names) are linked to one or more of the following online maps:

  1. National Library of Scotland Ordnance Survey six inch map (1883 - 1913 series) as a 100% opacity overlay of a contemporary (Bing or Google) satellite map
  2. Streetmap
  3. UK Grid Reference Finder

If a 'local example' link fails (e.g. because of changes to the target website) then simply cut and paste its grid reference into the search box of an alternative online mapping service and the 'local example' should appear on screen.

Or find the grid reference on a map (old school).

Often, but not always, the grid reference for a 'local example' points to its name as it appears on the map rather than the 'local example' itself. The reason for this is to prioritise identification of the 'local example' over its precise location which can be easily pinpointed from the map e.g. Brocka Beck [NZ 85886 00951] a 'local example' - a stream - which, by its nature, covers a narrow, lengthy range. Bear in mind that the sole purpose of this exercise is to identify local place names with an Old Norse (and/or Old English) derivation. If you want to visit one of these 'local examples' buy a map and plan your journey.

Basic Pronunciation of Old Norse


Vowels
á as in father ár 'year'
a the same sound, but short dagr 'day'
é as in été, but longer él 'storm'
e as in été ben 'wound'
í as in eat lítr 'looks'
i the same sound, but short litr 'colour'
ó as in eau, but longer sól 'sun'
o as in eau hof 'temple'
ú as in bouche, but longer hús 'house'
u as in bouche sumar 'summer'
ý as in rue, but longer kýr 'cow'
y as in rue yfir 'over'
æ as in pat, but longer sær 'sea'
œ as in feu, but longer œrr 'mad'
ø as in feu døkkr 'dark'
ö as in feu björk 'birch'
ǫ as in hot ǫl 'ale'
Unstressed Vowels
a as stressed a leysa 'release'
i as in city máni 'moon'
u as in wood eyru 'ears'
Diphthongs
au as in now lauss 'loose'
ei as in bay bein 'bone'
ey ON e + y hey 'hay'
Consonants
b as in buy bíta 'bite'
bb the same sound, but long gabb 'mockery'
d as in day dómr 'judgement'
dd the same sound, but long oddr 'point'
f (1) as in far 'money'
f (2) as in very haf 'ocean'
ff as in far, but long offr 'offering'
g (1) as in goal gefa 'give'
g (2) as in loch lágt 'low'
g (3) as in loch, but voiced eiga 'own'
gg (1) as in goal, but long egg 'edge'
gg (2) as in loch gløggt 'clear'
h as in have horn 'horn'
j as in year jafn 'even'
k as in call kǫttr 'cat'
kk the same sound, but long ekki 'nothing'
l as in leaf nál 'needle'
ll the same sound, but long hellir 'cave'
m as in home frami 'boldness'
mm the same sound, but long frammi 'in front'
n (1) as in sin hrinda 'push'
n (2) as in sing hringr 'ring'
nn as in sin, but long steinn 'stone'
p as in happy œpa 'shout'
pp the same sound, but long heppinn 'lucky'
r rolled gøra 'do'
rr the same sound, but long verri 'worse'
s as in this reisa 'raise'
ss the same sound, but long áss 'beam'
t as in boat tǫnn 'tooth'
tt the same sound, but long nótt 'night'
v as in win vera 'to be'
þ as in thin þing 'assembly'
ð as in this jǫrð 'earth'
x as in lochs øx 'axe'
z as in bits góz 'property'

Element Old Norse Original Element Other Original Element Meaning Local Examples No
a, ay, sey, sea, ea ON ey [84] OE eg, ig island, land in the midst of marshes
  1. Brock Hall Farm [NZ 92987 02484]
  2. Brocka Beck [NZ 85886 00951]
  3. Brocka Beck Bridge [NZ 86026 00969]
  4. Broxa (Brochesei 1160) [1], [4] [SE 94685 91345]
  5. Broxa Banks [SE 94377 91212]
  6. Broxa Farm [SE 94746 91588]
  7. Broxa Forest [SE 95615 93790]
  8. Broxa Hill [SE 94467 91143]
  9. Broxa Lane [SE 95811 90261]
  10. Broxa Rigg [SE 95301 90859]
  11. Broxa Spring [SE 94280 91300]
  12. East Ayton [SE 99675 85175]
  13. Hilla Green Farm [SE 94911 90266]
  14. Hilla Green Bridge [SE 94792 90046]
  15. Hilda Wood [SE 97137 90971]
  16. Little Hilla Green [SE 94630 89973] [241]
  17. Thirlsey [SE 97721 91440]
  18. Thirlsey Bottoms [SE 97763 90719]
  19. Thirlsey Plantation [SE 97650 92495]
  20. Thirlsey Wood [SE 97896 91095]
20
a ON á [85] OE river, running water, stream
  1. Hilda Spring [9] [240] [SE 97151 90743]
1
acre, er ON akr [175] OE æcer field, plot of arable land, the area a yoke of oxen could plough in a day
  1. Acres [SE 88150 93350]
  2. Stainsacre [20] [NZ 91574 08327]
  3. Stainsacre Bridge [NZ 91556 08076]
  4. Stainsacre Dale [NZ 91381 08155]
  5. Stainsacre Hall [NZ 91237 08303]
  6. Stainsacre Lane [NZ 91607 06655]
6
aik, aig, eyk, aysc, ack, oak, ake ON eik (eiki) [87] OE ac (acen) oak (oakwood)
  1. Oakham Wood [NZ 93837 07975]
  2. Oak Wood [NZ 92939 03562]
2
ain, an ON einn [176] OE ân one, alone    
apple ON epli, apaldr [88] OE æppel (apulder) apple (tree)    
asp ON ǫsp [109] OE æspe aspen tree (species of poplar)
  1. Asp House [NZ 91533 07257]
1
ayre ON eyrr [89] OE ayre gravel or sand bank, spit of land
  1. Nelly Ayre Foss (Force) [SE 81342 99658] [61]
1
baa, bode(s) ON boði [58] OE bod, gebod (1) a breaker on hidden rocks, skerry, big wave, breaker, surf over reef or shoal (2) messenger    
balk ON bálkr [177] OE bälc wall, partition, ridge of land
  1. Low Balk [NZ 96519 03348]
1
back ON bak [75] OE bæc, bäc back
  1. Back Lane [NZ 91622 06650]
  2. Backleys [SE 92380 90335]
  3. Backleys Farm [SE 92755 90435]
  4. Back Wood [NZ 85113 07398]
4
bank ON bakki [75] OE benc, banc bank of a river, earthen incline, slope, raised shelf or ridge of ground, the slope of a hill
  1. Battle Banks [NZ 87687 07615]
  2. Blue Bank Bottom Farm [NZ 86686 06694]
  3. Blue Bank Farm [NZ 86644 06347]
  4. Broxa Banks [SE 94377 91212]
  5. Carlin Bank Wood [NZ 94244 03894]
  6. Cess Banks [SE 89519 93511]
  7. Cote Bank Farm [NZ 82613 06884]
  8. Cote Bank Woods [NZ 82748 06719]
  9. Daisy Bank [NZ 87648 04751]
  10. Dorsley Bank [NZ 84014 06578]
  11. Dorsley Bank Wood [NZ 83837 06456]
  12. Jenney Bank Wood [NZ 81291 02602]
  13. Lythe Bank [NZ 85435 13142]
  14. Lythe Bank Lodge [NZ 85530 13011]
  15. Mill Bank [NZ 95350 03950]
  16. Mill Bank House [NZ 95295 03742]
  17. Moor Ings Bank [SE 52121 87560]
  18. Murton Bank [SE 54128 88746]
  19. Oxbank Wood [NZ 94103 01915]
  20. Pricky Bank Wood [8] [NZ 95188 04104]
  21. Quarry Banks [NZ 0435 94065]
  22. Ripleys Bank [TA 00087 95077]
  23. Row Pasture Bank [NZ 93993 06303]
  24. Ruswarp Bank [NZ 88767 09337]
  25. Sneck Yate Bank [28] [SE 50550 87350]
  26. Stoupe Brow Bank [NZ 95750 03450]
  27. Stoupe Bank Farm [NZ 95747 03362]
27
barn, lat, lay, laithe, leath ON hlaða [178] OE bern barn
  1. Barnby [NZ 82266 13757]
  2. Barnby Howe and Barnby Howes [NZ 83139 13682]
  3. Barnby Tofts Farm [NZ 82142 13937]
  4. Barns Cliff [SE 93740 93326]
  5. Barns Cliff End [SE 94015 94605]
  6. Barriebarn [NZ 94779 05684] [60]
  7. Low Laithes Farm [NZ 92051 09491]
  8. Whitby Laithes [NZ 92370 09489]
  9. Whitby Laithes Farm [NZ 92542 09496]
9
-bar ON barð [192] OE (1) brymme, ecg, fnæd (2) beard (1) edge, verge (2) beard    
bar ON barr [191] OE bere barley, pine or fir needles
  1. Barley Carr Dike [SE 92722 96028]
  2. Barley Carr Rigg [SE 91358 96228]
  3. Barley Carr Slack [SE 92239 96138]
  4. Barley Carr Tongue [SE 92546 96503]
  5. Barriebarn [NZ 94779 05684] [60]
5
bat, batt ON bátr [56] and [286] OE bāt (rowing) boat
  1. Normanby Stye Batts [286] [NZ 95192, 07558] and [NZ 95120 07520]
  2. North Batts [NZ 91663 11204]
  3. Pursglove Stye Batts [NZ 94450 08250]
  4. South Batts [NZ 92532 10596]
4
-ber(gh), -barrow, -be(a)r(e), -borough ON berg [91] OE bearu, beorg
OD berg, bjerg
hill, mound, tumulus, prominence in the landscape, crag, cliff-face
  1. Barugh Hill [NZ 93527 05384]
1
beck ON bekkr [71] OE bæce, bece brook, stream, small watercourse
  1. Beck Farm [NZ 01415 93033]
  2. Beck Hole [50] [NZ 82284 02138]
  3. Beck Hole Road [50] [NZ 82152 02251]
  4. Beck Hole Scar [50] [NZ 82332 02264]
  5. Beck Lane [TA 00809 94309 ]
  6. Beckside Farm [NZ 90746 06274]
  7. Beck Slack [SE 83940 99161]
  8. Black Beck [SE 92180 92505]
  9. Black Rigg Beck [SE 79188 96884]
  10. Blawath Beck [SE 82104 96402]
  11. Blea Hill Beck [NZ 89776 01825]
  12. Bloody Beck [SE 98497 99830]
  13. Bloody Beck Hill [SE 98211 99855]
  14. Blue Beck [NZ 80776 04790]
  15. Blue Beck Cottage [NZ 80664 04702]
  16. Broadlands Beck [SE 96342 96457]
  17. Brocka Beck [NZ 85890 00953]
  18. Brocka Beck Bridge [NZ 85977 00965]
  19. Brown Beck [SE 98693 94848]
  20. Brown Rigg Beck [NZ 91931 00745]
  21. Burniston Beck [TA 01241 93297]
  22. Buskey Beck [NZ 89047 07162]
  23. Butter Beck [NZ 78098 02459]
  24. Caley Beck [NZ 85923 06842]
  25. Caley Becks Farm [NZ 85734 06603]
  26. Caley Beck Wood [NZ 85837 06946]
  27. Castle Beck [SE 95165 98059]
  28. Castlebeck Farm [SE 95265 97505]
  29. Castlebeck Wood [SE 94784 97160]
  30. Cat Scar Beck [NZ 82215 05981]
  31. Church Beck [TA 00842 90735]
  32. Cloughton Beck [TA 00721 94022]
  33. Cock Mill Beck [NZ 89728 09114]
  34. Cop Keld Beck [SE 98165 92902]
  35. Crook Beck [SE 74892 97762]
  36. Crook Beck Rigg [SE 74766 98147]
  37. Crook Beck Slack [SE 74899 98127]
  38. Crossdales Beck [SE 97443 90622]
  39. Dalby Beck [SE 85611 87099]
  40. Dunsley Beck [NZ 86638 11513]
  41. East Close Beck [NZ 93529 07170]
  42. Eller Beck [SE 86924 98156]
  43. Eller Beck Bridge [SE 85802 98257]
  44. Eller Beck Head [SE 87123 96542]
  45. Glaisdale Beck [NZ 76280 04020]
  46. Grain Beck [SE 88890 90535]
  47. Gurtof Beck [SE 49102 86110]
  48. Hamer Beck [SE 74516 97430]
  49. Hartoft Beck [SE 75757 94736]
  50. Harwood Dale Beck [SE 94440 95133]
  51. Hayburn Beck [SE 98984 97849]
  52. Hayburn Beck Farm [SE 99730 97222]
  53. Healwath Beck [SE 95547 99567]
  54. Helwath Beck [SE 95020 99089]
  55. Highdales Beck [SE 95050 92427]
  56. Hipperley Beck [SE9 2300 94434]
  57. Howdale Beck [NZ 95041 02032]
  58. Intake Beck [NZ 91718 07734]
  59. Jugger Howe Beck [SE 94825 98045]
  60. Keasbeck [SE 96450 95850]
  61. Keas Beck [SE 95947 95329]
  62. Keasbeck Farm [SE 96371 95999]
  63. Keasbeck Hill [SE 96603 95726]
  64. Keasbeck Hill Farm [SE 96764 95832]
  65. King's Beck [NZ 94897 05056]
  66. Kirk Beck [SE 96932 90541]
  67. Kirk Moor Beck [NZ 91981 03027]
  68. Lindhead Beck [TA 00205 93776]
  69. Lingers Beck [NZ 94484 05339]
  70. Littlebeck (olim Little Beck) [NZ 85003 01146]
  71. Little Beck Bank [NZ 88067 05214]
  72. Little Beck Lane [NZ 87783 05054]
  73. Little Beck Wood [NZ 88055 04715]
  74. Little Eller Beck [SE 87595 98647]
  75. Little Lingers Beck [NZ 94741 05495]
  76. Loftus Beck [NZ 73244 18154]
  77. Long Rigg Beck [NZ 91387 05840]
  78. Lownorth Beck [SE 95189 95529]
  79. Lunshaw Beck [SE 50158 87160]
  80. Lythe Beck [NZ 83531 04404]
  81. Lythe Beck Plantation [NZ 83698 04639]
  82. Marnar Dale Beck [NZ 95152 04814]
  83. May Beck [NZ 88776 01188]
  84. Maybecks New Plantation [NZ 89588 03071]
  85. Middle Grain Beck [NZ 83735 02315]
  86. Mill Beck Farm [NZ 95268 03883]
  87. Mitten Hill Beck [NZ 91958 06879]
  88. Murk Beck Slack [NZ 82816 06859]
  89. Newholm Beck [NZ 86572 11206]
  90. New May Beck [NZ 89928 03311]
  91. Oakham Beck [NZ 94088 08214]
  92. Old May Beck [NZ 89003 02697]
  93. Old May Beck Farm [NZ 89650 03268]
  94. Parsley Beck [NZ 87286 02963]
  95. Parsley Beck Rigg [NZ 86288 03270]
  96. Prickybeck Bridge [TA 01355 92990]
  97. Prickybeck Island [TA 01371 93189]
  98. Quarry Beck [TA 00604 93685]
  99. Raisbeck Farm [NZ 92122 07187]
  100. Ramsdale Beck [10] [NZ 93326 03552]
  101. Raw (Row) Beck [NZ 93890 05293]
  102. Raw Pasture Beck [NZ 93794 07220]
  103. Rigg Mill Beck [NZ 90865 07620]
  104. Sandsend Beck [NZ 84981 12264]
  105. Scalby Beck [8] [TA 02224 90483]
  106. Shawn Riggs Beck [NZ 89650 08851]
  107. Smallwood Beck [SE 89521 93048]
  108. Sneaton Thorpe Beck [NZ 90277 05635]
  109. Sow Beck [SE 94547 89828]
  110. Spital Beck [NZ 90482 10247]
  111. Staindale Beck [SE 86794 89999]
  112. Stainsacre Beck [NZ 91259 08143]
  113. Stockland Beck [SE 91596 93693]
  114. Stoupe Beck [NZ 95307 03200]
  115. Stoupe Beck Sands [NZ 96032 03414]
  116. Stoupe Beck Wood [NZ 95579 03301]
  117. Swanbeck Farm [11] [SE 99350 90050]
  118. Tan Beck [NZ 97427 02223]
  119. Thirley Beck [SE 98322 95206]
  120. Thirley Beck Cottage [SE 98419 95428]
  121. Thorney Beck [SE 98857 97771]
  122. Thorpe Beck [NZ 93910 05081]
  123. Waingate Beck [NZ 85138 09771]
  124. Warn Beck [NZ 86041 10118]
  125. Wash Beck [NZ 87560 04663]
  126. Washy Cote Beck [TA 00624 91981]
  127. Waytail Beck [NZ 71673 17556]
  128. West Beck [SE 81327 99667]
  129. Whisperdales Beck [SE 96124 93281]
  130. White Beck [SE 92486 91476]
  131. White Cliff (Whitecliff) Beck [NZ 71422 18310]
  132. Yarna Beck [SE 90488 93045]
132
bie, bield ON bœr, býr [92] OE bȳre, būr farm (stall, shed, hut)
  1. Collinson Bield [SE 83983 99654]
  2. Middleton Beeld [SE 84085 02340]
  3. Mussy Bield [SE 83206 99807]
  4. Old Kit Bield [NZ 82208 00080]
  5. Round Bield [NZ 83884 02152]
  6. Sheep Beeld [NZ 83683 02416]
  7. Sheep Bield (numerous) [SE 92242 96921]
  8. Sheep Beeld [SE 92220 96961]
8
birk ON björk, birki [193] OE bierce, birce birch
(overgrown with birch-trees, a birch copse)
  1. Birch House [NZ 83095 04198]
1
big ON bygg [179] OE bēow barley
  1. Biggersdale Hole [NZ 84050 11150]
1
big ON byggja [180] OE bycgean, bygen to buy, lend or let; also to settle, build, inhabit, dwell, live
  1. Biggersdale Hole [NZ 84050 11150]
1
biggin ON byggja [77], [180] and [195] OE būan, byht, biht, bying building, habitation, dwell, settle, inhabit and cultivate, occupy
  1. Low Newbiggin [NZ 85291 06872]
  2. Low Newbiggin North (Farm) [NZ 85309 07059]
  3. Low Newbiggin South [NZ 85021 06762]
  4. Newbiggin Hall (Farm) [NZ 83991 06830]
4
bight ON bugða, bugr [181] OE byht bend, angle, corner, bay, bight; a bend or curve in a coastline or river, a broad bay formed by an indentation (a bight) in the shoreline
  1. Green Bight [NZ 90318 11502]
  2. Jump Down Bight [NZ 91243 11209]
  3. Long Bight [NZ 90745 11355]
  4. Rail Hole Bight [NZ 91044 11293]
4
bister ON bústaðr [145] OE bolt, bútl, bý, býe, byht, eardung dwelling place, house, farm (buildings and land)    
blake, bleik, blai ON bleikr [78] OE blac pale (of weak colour), wan
  1. Blakey Moor [SE 87150 94150]
  2. Blakey Topping [SE 87259 93909]
2
blue, blea, blo ON blár [144] OE bleow, blāw blue, blue-black, black (metallic colour of armour)
  1. Bleach Garth [NZ 87295 04591]
  2. Blea Hill [NZ 90278 00509]
  3. Blea Hill Beck [NZ 89776 01825]
  4. Blea Hill Howe [NZ 89865 00246]
  5. Blea Hill Rigg [NZ 90339 00761]
  6. Blea Wyke [NZ 98796 01590]
  7. Blea Wyke Lodge [NZ 98938 00920]
  8. Blea Wyke Point [NZ 99258 01340]
  9. Blea Wyke Steel [NZ 99128 01535]
  10. Blue Bank Bottom Farm [NZ 86686 06694]
  11. Blue Bank Farm [NZ 86644 06347]
11
boggle ON (1) bogi, (2) boginn [143] OE byht (1) a bow, of a rainbow, an arch (vaulted roof), an arched bridge, (ybogi, 'yew-bow'), (2) curved, crooked, hooked, circular, curved or bent (river bend or valley)
  1. Boggle Hole [NZ 95572 04070] and [NZ 95593 04023]
  2. Boggle House [NZ 82962 04021] and [NZ 82992 04048]
2
bom, bon ON bóndi, (búa, hūsbōndi) [142] (also verr, maðr) OE hūsbōnda farmer, husband, to dwell    
bon, bown ON (1) bein [120] (2) beinn OE (1) bān (2) habban (1) bone (2) straight, right, favourable, advantageous, convenient, friendly, fair, keen
  1. Bownhill Wood [NZ 94625 03047] [59]
1
bon, bus(k) ON buskr OE bysc bush, shrub
  1. Buskey Beck [NZ 89047 07162]
  2. Buskey House Farm [NZ 88370 07901]
2
booth ON búð [79] -bo, -bœ (OD bõþ) booth, simple smaller temporary shelter
(OD land, property)
   
bottom ON botn [119] OE botm bottom, head of a valley or fjord, source of a watercourse
  1. Blue Bank Bottom Farm [NZ 86686 06694]
  2. Hawsker Bottoms [NZ 94147 07800]
  3. Thirlsey Bottoms [SE 97763 90719]
  4. Bottom House [NZ 94556 07114]
  5. Bottom House Lane [NZ 93883 06747]
  6. Bottoms Lane [NZ 93550 07950]
6
bratta, bretta ON brattr [75] OE brant, bront very steep cliff, near vertical, precipice    
breck, brick, brack ON brekka [75] OD brink
OE bræc, brec
hillside, slope [62]
(OE strip of uncultivated land)
  1. Breck (Whitby, lost) [68]
  2. Breckon Hill [NZ 86451 06260]
  3. Brecken Howe [SE 90872 95991]
  4. Breckenhurst [SE 96078 94863]
4
brei, brad, brea, broad ON breiðr [118] OE brad broad
  1. Breaday Gill [SE 96545 92785]
  2. Breaday Heights [SE 96050 92650]
  3. Broad Ings Farm [NZ 88150 10167]
3
brae, bræ, brow ON brá [194] OE brū, bræv hillside, slope, edge of a hill, projecting upper edge of a steep hill
  1. Brae Side [NZ 86726 07489]
  2. Brow Alum Quarry [NZ 95950 02350]
  3. Brow Top [NZ 92950 04650]
  4. Brow Wood [NZ 81717 04898]
  5. Doubrow Well [NZ 95293 06173]
  6. Hay Brow [SE 99273 90490]
  7. Moss Brow [NZ 87225 11668]
  8. Red Brow [SE 94350 90850]
  9. Redbrow Plantation [SE 94612 90938]
  10. Silpho Brow [SE 97805 93242]
  11. Silpho Brow Farm [SE 98155 93310]
  12. Stoupe Brow [NZ 96387 01930]
  13. Stoupe Brow Bank [NZ 95750 03450]
  14. Stoupe Brow Beacon [NZ 97095 01200]
  15. Stoupe Brow Cottage Farm [NZ 95774 03360]
  16. Stoupe Brow Farm [NZ 96652 02195]
  17. Surgate Brow [SE 97322 93864]
  18. Surgate Brow Farm [SE 97560 93840]
  19. Surgate Brow Plantation [SE 98369 94359]
  20. Surgate Brow Wood [SE 97599 93554]
  21. Thorney Brow Farm [NZ 94690 01687]
  22. Whin Brow [TA 01266 95376]
22
brigg, thel ON bryggja [117] OE þelbrycg (1) quay, landing stage, wharf, (2) gangplank (between ship and land), (3) bridge over watercourse
  1. Brigholme (olim Brigholm and Brygholm) [53] [NZ 95249 04957]
  2. Bridge Holm Lane [NZ 94604 02954]
  3. Briggswath [23] [NZ 87348 08475]
3
brim ON brim [80] OE brim, brym, brymm surf, flood, wave, sea, ocean, shore    
broat(e)s ON brot [81] OE gebrot (1) fragment, break, breach, (2) brot, small piece of land, (3) land cleared for cultivation by burning, (4) heap of felled trees in a wood, a clearing in a wood    
  ON brú [82] OE brycg, bricg bridge or raised way over water or marshy terrain    
burn ON brunnr [83] OE burne burn, well-spring, font, spring, stream
  1. Burn Howe [SE 91215 99158]
  2. Burn Howe Dale [SE 93594 99758]
  3. Burn Howe Duck Pond [SE 89558 99130]
  4. Burn Howe Moor [SE 94399 98243]
  5. Burn Howe Rigg [SE 91675 98762]
  6. Burnt Howe [NZ 98647 01260]
  7. Burniston Beck [TA 01241 93297]
  8. Hayburn Beck [SE 98984 97849]
  9. Hayburn Beck Farm [SE 99730 97222]
  10. Hayburn Wyke [TA 01262 97068]
  11. Hayburn Wyke Hotel [TA 01502 96980]
  12. Hayburn Wyke Wood [TA 00809 97030]
  13. Iburndale Beck [NZ 87227 07440]
13
burra, borrow ON borg [116] borg (OD burgh)
OE burh, byrig
rampart, fort, stronghold, fortified town
  1. Low Burrows [12] [NZ 81622 04377]
  2. High Burrows [NZ 81346 04005]
2
by ON býr, bœr, bö, bÿ, bú, búa [74] -by (OD larger villages or settlements),
-bøl, -bølle (OD bøli, bølik)
OE bý, býe
(1) ON farmstead, homestead, farm (with regard to the buildings), the buildings which as a group constitute a farm
(2) OD village
(3) OE a dwelling, habitation
  1. Aislaby (Hesselby, Assuluesbi, 'Asulf's by' DB) [16] [NZ 85802 08756]
  2. Aislaby Moor [NZ 85183 08936]
  3. Baldby (Fields)
  4. Barnby [54] [NZ 82266 13757]
  5. Barnby Howe and Barnby Howes [NZ 83139 13682]
  6. Barnby Tofts Farm [NZ 82142 13937]
  7. Boltby (Boltebi DB) [SE 49255 86455]
  8. Dalby Beck [76] [SE 85611 87099]
  9. Dalby Forest [SE 90763 90870]
  10. Dalby Meadow [SE 85630 86458]
  11. Dalby Snout [SE 90964 93542]
  12. Dalby Warren [SE 86519 87585]
  13. Dalby Wood [SE 85350 86850]
  14. Danby [55] [NZ 70858 08548]
  15. East Barnby [NZ 82847 12812]
  16. Haxby Plantation (Haxebi DB) [NZ 89817 04893]
  17. High Dalby House [SE 85277 88646]
  18. High Normanby [NZ 93582 06020]
  19. High Normanby Farm [NZ 93208 06026]
  20. High Stakesby (Stachesbi 1160) [NZ 88845 10712]
  21. Jingleby Thorn [SE 89419 89600]
  22. Jingleby Thorn Plantation [SE 89612 89645]
  23. Low Dalby (House) [SE 86017 87333]
  24. Low Dalby Wood [SE 85354 86783]
  25. Low Stakesby [NZ 89150 10750]
  26. Normanby (Normanebi DB) [NZ 92611 06131]
  27. Normanby Hill Top [NZ 92379 05605]
  28. Normanby House [NZ 85752 12671]
  29. Normanby Stye Batts [286] [NZ 95192, 07558] and [NZ 95120 07520]
  30. Scalby (Scalebi, Scallebi DB) [TA 01495 90951]
  31. Scalby Hayes [SE 99874 91671]
  32. Scalby Nab [SE 99537 90193]
  33. Scalby Nabs [SE 99815 90067]
  34. Stakesby Vale [NZ 88550 10350]
  35. Stakesby Vale Farm [NZ 88550 10250]
  36. Ugglebarnby [6] [NZ 88230 07195]
  37. Ugglebarnby Moor [NZ 89019 05140]
  38. Upper Dalby Wood [SE 85379 86963]
  39. West Barnby [NZ 82070 12623]
  40. Whitby [3] (Witebi DB)
  41. Wragby [40] [NZ 93650 00350]
  42. Wragby Farm [NZ 93604 00395]
  43. Wragby Wood [SE 93122 99920]
43
cald ON kaldr [115] OE cald, ceald cold
  1. Coldgill Spring [SE 99642 91077]
1
calf, caw, kell, call ON kalfr [114] OE calf, cealf, celf calf
  1. Calfthwaite (olim Calf Thwaite) Farm [35] [SE 99220 97737]
  2. Kale Croft [NZ 93786 02202]
2
carl ON karl [113] OE ceorl peasant, churl (a freedman ranked below a þegn but above a thrall)
  1. Carlin Bank Wood [NZ 94244 03894]
1
carr, -ker, -brook ON kjarr [242] OE carr (1) copsewood, brush-wood, thicket (2) bog, marsh, marshy land overgrown with brushwood, (3) rock, scar, north country carrock
  1. Barley Carr Dike [SE 92722 96028]
  2. Barley Carr Rigg [SE 91358 96228]
  3. Barley Carr Slack [SE 92239 96138]
  4. Barley Carr Tongue [SE 92546 96503]
  5. Carr End [NZ 78124 05416]
  6. Carr Lands [SE 95776 92514]
  7. Carr Mount [NZ 87792 08818]
  8. Carr Wood [NZ 92697 03201]
  9. Far Carr Wood [NZ 81232 05376]
  10. Ravenscar [NZ 98770 01673]
  11. Ruswarp Carrs [NZ 87663 08542]
  12. Struntry Carr [NZ 81049 02605]
  13. The Carr [SE 94514 90299]
  14. Wharrell Carr Spring [SE 00939 93911]
14
cliff, clett ON kleif, klif, klettr [243] OE clif, cliof cliff, steep face of rock
(OE - any steep sloping ground or cultivated escarpment)
  1. Barns Cliff [SE 93740 93326]
  2. Barns Cliff End [SE 94015 94605]
  3. Beast Cliff [SE 99887 99762]
  4. Common Cliff [NZ 99370 00830]
  5. Old Lance Cliff [NZ 95472 05661]
  6. Peter White Cliff [NZ 96209 03026]
  7. Raincliffe Woods [25] [SE 98611 87653]
  8. Stonecliff End [NZ 85614 14171]
  9. Wait Cliff [SE 91627 91361]
  10. Waitcliff End [SE 91883 91416]
  11. Waitcliffe Howe [SE 91210 91054]
  12. West Cliff [NZ 88850 11650]
  13. White Cliff (Whitecliff) Beck [NZ 71422 18310]
  14. Whitecliff (White Cliff) Wood [NZ 71215 18400]
14
clough ON klofi [281] OE clōh a narrow valley, cleft or rift in a hill, ravine, glen or gorge
  1. Cloughton [44] [TA 00643 94627]
  2. Cloughton Beck [TA 00818 94569]
  3. Cloughton Bridge [TA 00905 93734]
  4. Cloughton Hall [TA 00991 94222]
  5. Cloughton Newlands [TA 01234 95892]
  6. Cloughton Newlands Farm [TA 01198 96064]
  7. Cloughton Plantations [SE 99898 95623]
  8. Cloughton Quarries [TA 00529 94017]]
  9. Cloughton Wyke [TA 02617 95155]
9
cock ON kokkr [244] OE cocc cock
  1. Cock(h)am Gill [SE 99108 90828]
  2. Cock Lake Side [NZ 89851 00431]
  3. Cockley Head [SE 95990 93933]
  4. Cock Mill [NZ 89866 08752]
  5. Cock Mill Beck [NZ 89728 09114]
  6. Cock Mill Wood [NZ 90374 08724]
  7. Cockrah Foot [SE 96838 88920]
  8. Cockrah House [SE 96650 89050]
  9. Cockrah Wood [SE 96631 88515]
9
con, coney, cun ON konungr [112] OE cyng, cyning king  
con, coney, cun ON koning OE conynge, conig, cony coney, rabbit
  1. Coneygarth Nab [SE 86284 89917]
  2. Coney Well Spring [NZ 97443 01040]
2
cote ON kyta, kytra [245] OE cote (1) hovel, small cottage, hut (2) cote, small shelter for sheep, pigs etc
  1. Cote Bank Farm [NZ 82613 06884]
  2. Cote Bank Woods [NZ 82748 06719]
  3. Ewe Cote [NZ 87963 10801]
  4. Ewe Cote Farm [NZ 87684 10832]
  5. Ewe Cote Hall [NZ 87929 10831]
  6. Thirley Cotes (Farm) [SE 97594 95070]
  7. Washy Cote Beck [TA 00624 91981]
7
coupe, cop, cope ON kaupa-land [246] OE landceáp purchased land
  1. Cop Keld Beck [SE 98165 92902]
1
coupe, cop, copp, cape ON kaupmaðr, kaupmanna [110] OE cépa, cépeman, cýpa, cýpeman merchant    
cra, crag ON krákr, kraká [247] OE cráw, cráwe crow, chough, jackdaw
  1. Blawath Crag [SE 81208 97677]
  2. Burtree Cragg [NZ 89950 11250]
  3. Crag Farm [NZ 84607 06154]
  4. Crag Hole [SE 94850 97750]
  5. Cramble Gate [TA 00454 96698]
  6. Jopling Crag [NZ 87853 03828]
  7. Skivick Crag [SE 80952 97971]
7
cringle, crindle ON kringla, hringr [111] OE hring, hrincg circle, ring    
croft ON kot [248] OE croft a small, fenced piece of arable land
  1. Croft Farm [NZ 94093 05073]
1
crook ON krókr [249] OE crōc crook, hook, bend, bight
  1. Crook Beck [SE 74892 97762]
  2. Crook Beck Rigg [SE 74766 98147]
  3. Crook Beck Slack [SE 74899 98127]
  4. Crook Ness [TA 02747 93385]
4
cros, cross ON kross [250] OE cros cross, junction, as instrument of execution
  1. Ann's Cross (on Tumulus) [NZ 87648 00156]
  2. Cross Dales [SE 97781 90450]
  3. Crossdales Beck [SE 97443 90622]
  4. Crossdales Wood [SE 97971 90487]
  5. Cross Dyke [SE 84350 87750]
  6. Cross Dike [SE 84350 87750]
  7. Cross Dyke [NZ 90382 02258]
  8. Cross Keld Trough [NZ 94301 05828]
  9. Crosses Farm [SE 95484 95879]
  10. Stoupe Cross Farm [NZ 90992 10791]
  11. Tom Cross Rigg [SE 85662 97282]
11
dale ON dalr [251] OE dæl dale, valley, hollow, depression (in the landscape)
  1. Bellsdale Slack [SE 97479 91109]
  2. Bellsdale (East, West) Woods [SE 97413 91061]
  3. Biggersdale Hole [NZ 84050 11150]
  4. Biller Howe Dale [NZ 91567 01469]
  5. Birstly Dale [NZ 86034 12192]
  6. Coverdale Pasture Plantation [49] [NZ 93852 04480]
  7. Cross Dales [SE 97781 90450]
  8. Crossdales Beck [SE 97443 90622]
  9. Crossdales Wood [SE 97971 90487]
  10. Dalby Beck [SE 85611 87099]
  11. Dale Farm [NZ 91388 07961]
  12. Daleside [SE 53398 88958]
  13. Danesdale [NZ 98693 00093]
  14. Danes Dale Farm [NZ 98550 00150]
  15. Deep Dale [SE 92125 90970]
  16. Deepdale Farm [SE 92255 91500]
  17. Deepdale House [SE 92164 91503]
  18. Dove Dale [SE 87121 90795]
  19. Dovedale Griff [SE 87136 91400]
  20. Dovedale Wood [SE 86981 90787]
  21. Esk Dale [NZ 81165 04945]
  22. Flax Dale [SE 86579 86790]
  23. Fylingdales Moor [SE 92465 99710]
  24. Goose Dale [TA 00544 94529]
  25. Gower Dale [SE 52615 89098]
  26. Gowerdale Wood [49] [SE 52360 88878]
  27. Gowerdale Windypits [49] [SE 51790 88950]
  28. Hard Dale [SE 94847 92397]
  29. Hard Dale Gill [SE 94462 92903]
  30. Harwood Dale [SE 96635 95580]
  31. Heck Dale [SE 87111 86315]
  32. Helredale (1160) (Spital Vale) [NZ 90650 10190]
  33. Helredale (Det) [NZ 89350 09750]
  34. High Dales [SE 95045 93050]
  35. Highdales Farm [SE 94965 93030]
  36. Highdales Beck [SE 95050 92427]
  37. High Langdale End [SE 93071 95238]
  38. House Dale [SE 86321 87554]
  39. Housedale Rigg [SE 86584 87787]
  40. How Dale [NZ 95007 01849]
  41. Howdale Beck [NZ 95041 02032]
  42. Howdale Farm [NZ 95256 01693]
  43. Howdale Moor [NZ 95693 01260]
  44. Howdale Wood [NZ 94849 02136]
  45. Hun Dale [TA 02279 94746]
  46. Hundale Point [TA 02682 94850]
  47. Hundale Scar [TA 02593 94963]
  48. Iburndale [NZ 87522 07130]
  49. Iburndale Beck [NZ 87227 07440]
  50. Langdale End [SE 94470 91230]
  51. Langdale Forest [SE 90997 95746]
  52. Langdale Rigg [SE 92988 94455]
  53. Langdale Rigg End [SE 92988 94650]
  54. Limperdale Gill [49] [SE 52656 86715]
  55. Limperdale Rigg [49] [SE 52003 86489]
  56. Low Dales [SE 95600 91970]
  57. Lowdales Beck [SE 96030 90900]
  58. Lowdales Farm [SE 95425 91590]
  59. Low Staindale [SE 86871 90511]
  60. Marnar Dale [NZ 95150 04750]
  61. Marnar Dale Beck [NZ 95152 04814]
  62. Overdale [NZ 84719 13961]
  63. Overdale Farm [NZ 84703 14190]
  64. Overdale Wyke [NZ 85648 14390]
  65. Oxdale Slack [SE 99622 94888]
  66. Rain Dale [25] [NZ 95289 06917]
  67. Raindale Slack [NZ 95233 07036]
  68. Ramsdale [NZ 92722 03762] and [NZ 92646 03762] [69]
  69. Ramsdale Mill Farm [NZ 92655 03466]
  70. Ramsdale (Standing Stones) [NZ 92053 03777]
  71. Rumsdale Plantation [SE 69957 88779]
  72. Scugdale [SE 74737 93174]
  73. Seive Dale [SE 86201 88410]
  74. Snever Dale [SE 86338 87901]
  75. Sneverdale Rigg [49] [SE 86443 88134]
  76. Stain Dale [SE 87047 90332]
  77. Stainsacre Dale [NZ 91381 08155]
  78. Staintondale [43] [SE 98974 98408]
  79. Swair Dale [SE 86504 89220]
  80. Teydale Farm [SE 97389 97825]
  81. Teydale Well [SE 97554 97652]
  82. The Hundales [TA 02816 94401]
  83. Troutsdale Low [SE 93100 90130]
  84. Troutsdale Moor [SE 91695 88860]
  85. Whisper Dales [SE 95990 93170]
  86. Whisperdales [49] [SE 96261 93449]
  87. Whisperdales Beck [49] [SE 96124 93281]
  88. Whisperdales Farm [49] [SE 96088 93408]
88
-deil, -dail, -dale, -dole, -dayle ON deild [252] OE dal part, share of land or common field (field name)    
deep ON djúpr [72] OE deop deep
  1. Deep Dale [SE 92125 90970]
  2. Deepdale Farm [SE 92255 91500]
  3. Deepdale House [SE 92164 91503]
3
dike, dyke ON díki [253] OE dic (1) natural hole in the ground filled with water, waterhole, bog-pit, mudhole (2) ditch, dike, barrier of stone or earth used to hold back water and prevent flooding
  1. Barley Carr Dike [SE 92722 96028]
  2. Crag Dike [NZ 82424 03958]
  3. Cross Dyke [NZ 90382 02258]
  4. Cross Dyke [SE 84350 87750]
  5. Cross Dike [SE 84350 87750]
  6. Green Dike [NZ 96941 00718]
  7. Kairn Dikes [NZ 90940 05601]
  8. Kepwick Dyke (Cleave Dyke) [SE 49456 90603]
  9. Kepwick Quarry [SE 48481 91427]
  10. Park Dyke [NZ 81216 01706]
  11. Skell Dykes [SE 99250 87450]
  12. Snainton Dikes [SE 90880 89305]
  13. Thieves Dikes [SE 97348 92509]
  14. War Dike [SE 99395 99938]
  15. War Dike Gate [NZ 99508 00024]
  16. War Dike Lane [SE 99535 99977]
16
draw, draugh
(OE dray)
ON drag [254] OE dræg (1) watercourse, feeder-stream (2) small hollow, glen    
dring, drink, droi ON drengr [95] OE dreng (1) person of integrity, person of honour, stalwart, brave person (2) young man (who has not yet set up house), lad, servant holding by free tenure    
east, ow, aust ON austr [96] OE éast, éasta east
  1. East Ayton [SE 99675 85175]
  2. East Barnby [NZ 82847 12812]
  3. East Close Beck [NZ 93529 07170]
  4. East Close Spring [NZ 93748 06880]
  5. East End [NZ 81341 06460]
  6. East End Farm [NZ 81281 06543]
  7. East Grain [SE 90549 94809]
  8. East Row [NZ 86415 12578]
  9. East Row Beck [NZ 85531 12131]
  10. East Row Lodge [NZ 85010 11966]
  11. East Row Plantations [NZ 85687 12287]
  12. East Side Farm [TA 00250 98250]
12
is ON eystri [279] OE éastlang, éastan easterly    
eller ON elri, ǫlr [42] OE ellen alder tree, alder wood
  1. Eller Beck [SE 86924 98156]
  2. Eller Beck Bridge [SE 85802 98257]
  3. Eller Beck Head [SE 87123 96542]
  4. Little Eller Beck [SE 87595 98647]
4
end ON endi [97] OE ende the end of something - an estate, district or quarter of a village or town
  1. Barns Cliff End [SE 94015 94605]
  2. Carr End [NZ 78124 05416]
  3. Easington End Farm [NZ 73950 18050]
  4. High Langdale End [SE 93071 95238]
  5. Langdale End [SE 94470 91230]
  6. Langdale Rigg End [SE 92988 94650]
  7. Nab End [TA 00195 97177]
  8. Noddle End [SE 52603 88734]
  9. Noddle End Windypit [SE 52558 88564]
  10. Pye Rigg End [NZ 96624 00278]
  11. Sandsend [NZ 86215 12899]
  12. Sandsend Beck [NZ 84981 12264]
  13. Sandsend Ness [NZ 86111 13822]
  14. Sandsend Rigg [NZ 85740 12445]
  15. Sandsend Wyke [NZ 86833 12754]
  16. South End [TA 01283 92745]
  17. South End Farm [TA 01358 92816]
  18. Stonecliff End [NZ 85614 14171]
  19. Waitcliff End [SE 91883 91416]
19
-ergh, -er ON skjól, erg [255]   (1) shelter, cover (2) shieling, hill or summer pasture (3) shepherd's hut or shack
  1. Airy Hill [52] [NZ 89527 10337]
  2. Airy Hill Farm [52] [NZ 89750 10050]
  3. Cober [51] [TA 01173 95117]
  4. Cober Hill [51] [TA 01145 94904]
  5. Heater Plantation [NZ 92750 02750]
5
ask(e), esk, esc, eas ON askr [256] OE äsc, æsc ash tree
  1. Easington [NZ 74583 18306]
  2. Easington End Farm [NZ 73950 18050]
  3. Easington Farm [NZ 73950 17950]
  4. Easington Hall [NZ 74550 18050]
  5. Easington Hall Farm [NZ 74698 18140]
  6. Eskdale Gate [NZ 86233 06660]
  7. Eskdaleside [NZ 84805 06304]
  8. Glen Esk Cottage [NZ 89576 09218]
  9. Glen Esk Wood (Eskdale Park Whitby) [NZ 89571 09125]
  10. Murk Esk [NZ 82459 04314]
  11. Murk Esk Cottage [NZ 81644 02740]
  12. River Esk [NZ 81991 02142]
12
ewe ON ær [90] OE ewe, eowu ewe
  1. Ewe Cote [NZ 87963 10801]
  2. Ewe Cote Farm [NZ 87684 10832]
  3. Ewe Cote Hall [NZ 87929 10831]
3
ever(s), years ON jó, jǫfurr (hlið) [257] OE eofor (leah) wild boar
(leah - clearing) (hlið - hillside)
  1. Everley [SE 97215 88890]
  2. Everley Bank Wood [SE 97395 89143]
  3. Everley Banks [SE 97075 89358]
  4. Everley Bridge (now Wrench Green Bridge) [SE 96798 89272]
4
fair, far ON fár, fær, fé, fjár [258] OE scēap sheep
  1. Far Grain Slack [NZ 83811 01958]
  2. Far Jetticks [NZ 95276 07287]
  3. Fair Plain [NZ 86436 05839]
  4. Farsyde House Farm [NZ 95130 04398]
4
fall ON fall OE fellan field, forest clearing    
fell, field ON fjall [259] OE feld (isolated) elevation in the landscape, hill, mountain, fell
  1. Cowfield Hill [NZ 95195 04769]
  2. Northfield Farm [SE 98674 90734]
  3. Northfield Wood [SE 98074 90797]
  4. Suffield [SE 98566 90557]
  5. Suffield Heights [SE 97550 89650]
  6. Suffield Hill [SE 98350 90450]
  7. Suffield Ings [SE 98187 89322]
  8. Suffield Mere [SE 98801 90784]
  9. Suffield Moor [SE 98245 92592]
9
ferry ON ferja [260] OE ferrian ferry    
firth, ford ON fjörðr [261] OE ford firth, fjord, inlet, sea-loch    
fiska, fiski ON fiskr [262] OE fisc fish    
fit ON fit [263] OE filiðléag (waterlogged) meadowland (leading down to a stretch of water), grassland beside a river
  1. Fitt Steps [NZ 89205 09871]
  2. Great Marfit Head Slack [SE 85551 92281]
  3. Little Marfit Head [SE 85425 92740]
  4. Little Marfit Head Slack [SE 85307 92603]
  5. Marfit Head [SE 85470 92518]
5
fladda, flat(t) ON flatr [264]   flat, piece of level ground, division of the common field, furlong or shott
  1. Flat Howe (x2) [NZ 85480 04756]
  2. Marleflatte, Ryggeflatte and Wreckflatte (all 13th century) [13]
2
fors, forse, force ON fors, foss [265]   waterfall
  1. Falling Foss [NZ 88806 03471]
  2. Foss Farm [NZ 88550 03164]
  3. Foss Lane [NZ 88589 03143]
  4. Foss Wood [NZ 88589 03449]
  5. Foss Plantations [NZ 87518 02889]
  6. Nelly Ayre Foss (Force) [SE 81342 99658] [61]
  7. Thomason Foss [NZ 82661 02164]
  8. Thomason Foss Wood [NZ 82548 02193]
  9. Walk Mill Force [NZ 83212 022238]
9
foul ON fugl, fogl [266] OE fugol fowl, bird    
foul ON fúll [267] OE fūl foul, rotten, stinking
  1. Foulsike Farm [NZ 91338 02394]
  2. Foulesike alias Wawe-myres (13th century)
  3. Foulsyke Bridge [NZ 73144 18203]
  4. Foulsyke Farm [TA 00973 91376]
  5. Far Foulsyke [NZ 73458 18230]
  6. Far Foul Syke [NZ 73775 18227]
  7. Near Foul Syke [NZ 73416 18327]
  8. Near Foulsyke [NZ 73288 18260]
8
gar, gore ON geiri (and ON personal name Geir) [268] OE gára triangular piece of land in corner of a field, isolated spot of tender grass    
gais, goose ON gás [269] OE gós goose
  1. Goose Dale [TA 00503 94532]
  2. Goosedale Road [TA 00442 94378]
2
garth ON garðr [86] [140] -gaard, -gaarde (OD group of farms from which a village grew) garth, enclosure (apaldr-garthr, 'apple orchard')
  1. Bleach Garth [NZ 87295 04591]
  2. Chapel Garth [NZ 92397 02905]
  3. Coneygarth Nab [SE 86284 89917]
  4. Dowson Garth [NZ 81719 03660]
  5. Hogarth Hall [NZ 93202 01778]
  6. Hogarth Hill [15] [NZ 93350 01689]
  7. Hogarth Hill Farm [NZ 93101 01716]
  8. Hollin Garth [NZ 82297 02938]
  9. Hollin Garth Farm [NZ 82344 02966]
  10. Hawsker [17] [NZ 92256 07814]
  11. Hawsker Bottoms [NZ 94147 07800]
  12. Hawsker-cum-Stainsacre (Steinsecher or Nedhrebi 1160), [NZ 91192 08417]
  13. Hawsker Hall [NZ 92143 07517]
  14. Hawsker Hall Farm [NZ 92098 07611]
  15. Hawsker Intake Road [NZ 91833 06751]
  16. Hawsker Villa [NZ 92567 07389]
  17. High Hawsker [NZ 92827 07605]
  18. Low Hawsker [NZ 92375 07487]
  19. Old Hall Garth [NZ 94350 02650]
19
gate ON gata [141] OE geat, (pl gatu) way, road, street, gate
  1. Bickley Gate [SE 91375 91352]
  2. Burgate Farm [SE 97095 95055]
  3. Cargate Nab [SE 86175 93760]
  4. Cargate Spring [SE 86350 93651]
  5. Cramble Gate [TA 00454 96698]
  6. Corngate Slack [SE 97945 88503]
  7. Cowgate Slack [SE 97065 96495]
  8. Cowgate Rigg [SE 96953 97153]
  9. Dargate Griff [SE 88419 91104]
  10. Eskdale Gate [NZ 86233 06660]
  11. Fewler Gate Wood [SE 94955 91900]
  12. Flowergate (Florum 1160) [NZ 89850 11050]
  13. Gatela Road (and Bridge) [SE 95196 95471]
  14. Godewynegate (13th century) [13]
  15. Green Gate [NZ 92513 07523]
  16. Greengate Slack [SE 97747 90215]
  17. Greengate Wood [SE 97551 90527]
  18. Holl Gate [SE 95050 91250]
  19. Hollgate Plantation [SE 95126 91115]
  20. Kirk Gate [SE 96627 91357]
  21. Kirk Moor Gate [NZ 91761 02800]
  22. Lang Gate [SE 96015 89312]
  23. Lang Gate Brow [SE 95937 89189]
  24. Latter Gate Hills [NZ 92501 04504]
  25. Little Cowgate Rigg [SE 97136 96986]
  26. Moorgate Lees [NZ 91150 10050]
  27. Moorgates [SE 84381 99429]
  28. Newgate Brow [SE 86718 93349]
  29. Newgate Foot [SE 86869 93376]
  30. Newgate Moor [SE 87048 92769]
  31. Newgate Wood [SE 87083 92884]
  32. Park Gate (Parkgate) [NZ 93806 04637]
  33. Sandy Gate Pike [SE 02471 70888]
  34. Shortgate Noddle [SE 96076 89128]
  35. Shortgate Hill [SE 95920 88981]
  36. Sledgate Farm [NZ 93536 04746]
  37. Sled Gates [NZ 93914 04776]
  38. Span Gate [SE 95250 94750]
  39. Spangate Wood [SE 95450 94750]
  40. Stony Gate Slack [NZ 91756 05267]
  41. Surgate Brow [SE 97322 93864]
  42. Surgate Brow Farm [SE 97560 93840]
  43. Surgate Brow Plantation [SE 98369 94359]
  44. Surgate Brow Wood [SE 97599 93554]
  45. Waingate Beck [NZ 85138 09771]
  46. War Dike Gate [NZ 99508 00024]
  47. Watergate [NZ 81938 07211]
  48. Water Gate Ford [NZ 82865 07521]
  49. Waytail Gate [NZ 71590 16833]
49
ghyll, gill, geo ON geil, gil, gjá [139]   chasm, rift, ravine, cleft, deep narrow gully (with a stream)
  1. Ash Haggs Gill [SE 95665 93359]
  2. Blow Gill [SE 52977 93777]
  3. Breaday Gill [SE 96545 92785]
  4. Busco Gill [NZ 87797 05875]
  5. Cock(h)am Gill [SE 99108 90828]
  6. Coldgill Spring [SE 99642 91077]
  7. Crow Gill [NZ 90567 10291]
  8. Flaxton Gill [SE 96298 88866]
  9. Folly Gill [SE 94868 93930]
  10. Freeze Gill [SE 92615 89855]
  11. Grime Gill [5] [SE 93135 90943]
  12. Haggett Gill [SE 98082 92730]
  13. Hard Dale Gill [SE 94462 92903]
  14. Holey Gill [NZ 84237 05926]
  15. Hollin Gill [NZ 91812 00070]
  16. Jenny Brewster's Gill [SE 48112 96505]
  17. King Spring Gill [SE 52303 87052]
  18. Limperdale Gill [SE 52656 86715]
  19. Little Gill [SE 90734 91073]
  20. Little Gill Noodle [SE 90541 91160]
  21. Long Gill [SE 86155 93979]
  22. Middle Gill [NZ 72120 17212]
  23. Newgate Gills [SE 95294 92625]
  24. Oak Rigg Gill [SE 94738 93541]
  25. Peak Scar Gill [SE 52641 88472]
  26. Raven Gill [SE 94442 98105]
  27. Sledhill Gill [SE 52491 87258]
  28. Stony Gill [SE 95888 93860]
  29. Swines Gill [SE 96415 93855]
  30. Swinesgill Rigg [SE 96289 93893]
  31. Worry Gill [SE 88939 89939]
31
grain, grane ON grain, grein [138]   grain, division, fork, branch of a valley
  1. Broad Grain Head [SE 89287 95682]
  2. Cripple Grain Head [SE 98653 92516]
  3. East Grain [SE 90549 94809]
  4. Far Grain Slack [NZ 83811 01958]
  5. Grain Beck [SE 88890 90535]
  6. Grain Slack [SE 88918 90653]
  7. Grains [SE 83877 02294]
  8. Helwath Grains [NZ 95991 00248]
  9. Keldy Grain [SE 88500 93247]
  10. Little Grain [SE 89834 94659]
  11. Little Grain Head [SE 89147 95082]
  12. Little Grain Noddle [SE 89532 95202]
  13. Middle Grain Beck [NZ 83735 02315]
  14. Tinkler's Grain [SE 48114 90843]
  15. Tinkler's Grain Plantation [SE 48131 90676]
  16. Woof Howe Grain [SE 91272 96579]
16
gray, grey, gro ON grár, grá [137] OE græg grey
  1. Graystone (Farm) [NZ 86980 10837]
  2. Greystone Farm [TA 01144 95744]
  3. Grey Stones [SE 86733 96102]
3
green, gren, grin, gran ON grœnn, grænn [136] OE grēne green
  1. Green Dike [NZ 96941 00718]
  2. Green Gate [NZ 92513 07523]
  3. Greengate Slack [SE 97747 90215]
  4. Greengate Wood [SE 97551 90527]
  5. Green Hills [NZ 95294 06011]
  6. Greenlands Farm [NZ 83789 03830]
  7. Greenland's Howe [NZ 86881 03559]
  8. Guild House Green [NZ 93678 05244]
  9. Hilla Green Bridge [SE 94792 90046]
  10. Hilla Green Farm [SE 94911 90266]
  11. Hilda Wood [SE 97137 90971]
  12. Little Hilla Green [SE 94630 89973]
  13. Newholm Green [NZ 86550 10750]
  14. Tell Green [NZ 84952 14727]
  15. Tellgreen Hill [NZ 84861 14647]
  16. Thorpe Green [NZ 94136 04821]
  17. Whin Green [NZ 87006 07784]
17
griff, grove, grave, grief ON gryfja   hole, pit
  1. Bridestone Griff [SE 87381 91248]
  2. Dargate Griff [SE 88419 91104]
  3. Dovedale Griff [SE 87136 91400]
  4. Golden Grove [NZ 90089 08772]
  5. Golden Grove Wood [NZ 90512 08546]
  6. Holms Grove [NZ 84131 15129]
  7. Hutton Mulgrave (Mulegrif 1160, Hotone, Hotune DB) [21] [NZ 83874 10131]
  8. Nattley Griff [SE 88522 90894]
8
ground ON grund [135] OE grund bottom, ground, outlying farm
  1. Ground Wyke Hole [NZ 95420 05057]
  2. Grundstone Wath [SE 77601 96881]
2
gruin, grunna ON grunnr   shallows, bottom    
grut, gret, greet, girt ON grjót [134] OE greot gravel, sandy, stony piece of land    
ha, haa, ho ON hár [133] OE héah high, upper
  1. Harton House [NZ 93946 05305]
  2. Harwood Dale [SE 96635 95580]
  3. Harwood Dale Beck [SE 94440 95133]
  4. Harwood Dale Forest [SE 97075 97400]
4
hag, hagg, hogg ON högg [166] OE hēawan right of cutting trees
  1. Ash Haggs Gill [SE 95665 93359]
  2. Ash Haggs Plantation [SE 95550 93450]
  3. Hagger Lythe [NZ 89950 11350]
  4. Hagg House [NZ 88090 08209]
  5. Haggit Howe [NZ 91850 10050]
  6. Haggland Wood [SE 95831 91977]
  7. Hag Wood [SE 50178 81211]
  8. Hagg Wood [SE 84822 89102]
  9. Middle Haggs [NZ 82381 06149]
  10. Hoggit Hill [NZ 00386 93513]
10
ham ON heimr [73] OE hám, -hám home, abode, village
  1. Oakham Wood [NZ 93837 07975]
  2. Hamer Beck [SE 74516 97430]
  3. Hamer Bridge [SE 74263 97612]
  4. High Hamer [SE 74165 97703]
  5. Low Hamer [SE 74700 97325]
5
hamma, hammer ON hamarr, hamrar (pl) [132] OE hamor, hamar crag, steep cliff, rock face    
haven ON hǫfn [131] OE hæfen haven, harbour
  1. Wine Haven [NZ 97576 02408]
1
haugh, heog, -how(e), -hoe, -oe ON haugr [31] OE hoh
OD -høj, -høje
barrow, sepulchral mound, cairn, tumulus
  1. Barnby Howe and Barnby Howes [NZ 83139 13682]
  2. Beacon Howes [NZ 97267 01120]
  3. Biller Howe [NZ 91265 01204]
  4. Biller How(e) Dale [NZ 91567 01469]
  5. Biller Howe Dale Slack [NZ 90677 01769]
  6. Biller Howe Nook [NZ 90815 00837]
  7. Biller Howe Nook Slack [NZ 90908 00677]
  8. Biller Howe Turf Rigg [NZ 91364 00465]
  9. Blea Hill Howe [NZ 89865 00246]
  10. Brecken Howe [SE 90872 95991]
  11. Breckon Howe [NZ 85254 03379]
  12. Brown Howes [SE 89864 90837]
  13. Burn Howe [SE 91215 99158]
  14. Burn Howe Dale [SE 93594 99758]
  15. Burn Howe Duck Pond [SE 89558 99130]
  16. Burn Howe Moor [SE 94399 98243]
  17. Burn Howe Rigg [SE 91675 98762]
  18. Burnt Howe [NZ 98647 01260]
  19. Cracoe [36] [SE 49311 89367]
  20. Cracoe Slack [SE 49228 89538]
  21. Dog Howe [NZ 77205 02915]
  22. Evan Howe [NZ 92101 01228]
  23. Evan Howe (tumulus) [NZ 92484 01644]
  24. Evan Howe Plantation [NZ 92401 01636]
  25. Evan Howe Pond [NZ 92576 01401]
  26. Flat Howe (x2) [NZ 85480 04756]
  27. Foster Howes [NZ 87469 00904]
  28. Foster Howes Rigg [NZ 87689 00559]
  29. Fox Howe [SE 90097 90972]
  30. Gnipe Howe (Gnip 1160; olim Nype Howe) [NZ 93583 08541]
  31. Greenland's Howe [NZ 86881 03559]
  32. Grey Heugh Head [NZ 91102 02561]
  33. Grey Heugh Slack [NZ 90855 02344]
  34. Haggit Howe [NZ 91850 10050]
  35. Highgate Howe [NZ 91717 10022]
  36. High Woof Howe [SE 89280 96830]
  37. Hilda's Howe [NZ 93841 07435]
  38. How Close [NZ 88568 11192]
  39. How Dale [NZ 95007 01849]
  40. Howdale Farm [NZ 95256 01693]
  41. Howdale Moor [NZ 95693 01260]
  42. Howdale Wood [NZ 94849 02136]
  43. Howden Hill [SE 93785 91620]
  44. Hunter Howe [SE 98679 97419]
  45. Jugger Howe [SE 94155 99817]
  46. Jugger Howe Moor [SE 94070 99508]
  47. Jugger Howes [NZ 94372 00173]
  48. Jugger Howe Slack [SE 94407 98367]
  49. Keldhowe Point [NZ 85543 14558]
  50. Keldhowe Steel [NZ 85565 14644]
  51. Kettle Howe [SE 68693 97999]
  52. Lilla Howe [SE 88925 98725]
  53. Little Howe Wood [SE 94456 90889]
  54. Loose Howe Rigg [SE 86070 96497]
  55. Louven Howe [SE 88520 99165]
  56. Low Woof Howe [SE 89187 96187]
  57. Pen Howe [NZ 85636 03689]
  58. Pen Howe Slack [NZ 85718 03527]
  59. Penny Howe [SE 96418 99198]
  60. Pye Rigg Howe [NZ 96657 00053]
  61. Robbed Howe [NZ 86847 01962]
  62. Robber Howe Slacks [NZ 86824 01494]
  63. Silpho (olim Silfhou 1160) [2]) [SE 96764 92171]
  64. Silpho Brow [SE 97805 93242]
  65. Silpho Brow Farm [SE 98155 93310]
  66. Silpho Moor [SE 96275 94030]
  67. Silpho Well [SE 96462 92627]
  68. Stony Marl Howes [NZ 95618 00672]
  69. Swarth Howe [SE 96945 94082]
  70. Thirnhowe (13th century)
  71. Thorn Howe [SE 95691 97410]
  72. Thorn Key Howes [NZ 91488 03334]
  73. Three Howes [SE 96665 98055]
  74. Two Howes [SE 82582 99431]
  75. Two Howes Rigg [SE 83134 99296]
  76. Waitcliffe Howe [SE 91207 91062]
  77. Widow Howe [SE 85970 99988]
  78. Widow Howe Moor [NZ 86883 00101]
  79. Widow Howe Rigg [NZ 86403 00138]
  80. Woof Howe Grain [SE 91272 96579]
80
hause, hals ON háls [130] OE heals neck, col, connecting ridge    
haver ON hafr [167] OE haver oats, haver    
head ON hǫfuð [129] OE héafod head, projecting peak
  1. Allison Head Wood [5] [NZ 94750 02050]
  2. Bell Heads [SE 96824 91224]
  3. Bellheads Wood [SE 96889 90888]
  4. Berry Head [NZ 87359 07734]
  5. Cockley Head [SE 95990 93933]
  6. Derwent Head [SE 88797 97356]
  7. Derwent Head Rigg [SE 89237 96761]
  8. Dobbiner Head [NZ 86496 00680]
  9. Dry Heads [SE 95050 98150]
  10. Eller Beck Head [SE 87123 96542]
  11. Fisher Head [NZ 95187 04869]
  12. Grange Head [NZ 78468 02760]
  13. Great Marfit Head Slack [SE 85551 92281]
  14. Hackness Head [SE 96516 90340]
  15. Hackness Head Wood [SE 96306 90604]
  16. Hazel Head [SE 81011 99870]
  17. Hazel Head Farm [SE 80792 99529]
  18. Key Head [SE 92753 95707]
  19. Leas Head Farm [NZ 88058 03453]
  20. Lind Head [SE 99463 93954]
  21. Lindhead Beck [TA 00205 93776]
  22. Lindhead Bridge [SE 99322 93808]
  23. Lindhead Gorse [SE 99667 93803]
  24. Lindhead Lodge [SE 99666 94294]
  25. Little Marfit Head [SE 85425 92740]
  26. Little Marfit Head Slack [SE 85307 92603]
  27. Little Stubby Head [SE 91186 90097]
  28. Loffeyhead Heights [SE 96545 91145]
  29. Loffeyhead Wood [SE 96370 91043]
  30. Marfit Head [SE 85470 92518]
  31. Middle Heads [NZ 77997 01981]
  32. Morra Head Wood [SE 93615 95444]
  33. Murk Head [SE 95152 95683]
  34. Murk Head Wood [SE 94828 95641]
  35. Nettlehead [SE 95148 96646]
  36. Nettlehead Wood [SE 94903 96533]
  37. North Head [NZ 92704 91124]
  38. North Head Wood [NZ 92582 91190]
  39. Rock Head Farm [NZ 84342 11217]
  40. Rustif Head [SE 85672 90304]
  41. Rustifhead Slack [SE 85284 89926]
  42. Stone Hill Heads [SE 88000 94360]
  43. Stray Head [NZ 87621 05279]
  44. Stubby Head [SE 91157 90499]
  45. Thorn Hill Head [SE 88962 94159]
  46. Thwaite Head [SE 85727 89622]
  47. Warsman Head [SE 92535 94429]
  48. Widdy Head [NZ 93359 09497] [57]
  49. Wrea Head Farm [TA 00479 91361]
  50. Wreahead Rigg [TA 00174 91151]
  51. Yondhead Rigg [SE 88037 91023]
51
hest, hesk ON hestr [128] OE hors, hengst horse
  1. Hesketh Dike [SE 51546 87810]
  2. Hesketh Grange [29] [SE 50318 86955]
  3. Hesketh Hall [SE 49991 86999]
  4. Horse Shoe Wood [NZ 92432 91258]
4
hevda ON hǫfði [127] OE hóh headland    
hoff ON hof [126] OE hof temple, sanctuary    
hoga, hagg, haw, haigh, haugh ON hagi [125] OE haga hedged field, pasture, part of an area of woodland, especially on a sloping bank
  1. Hagg Wood [SE 93895 95166]
  2. Hawthorns [SE 97979 88982]
  3. Hawthorn Wood [SE 98291 89092]
  4. Hogarth Hall [NZ 93202 01778]
  5. Hogarth Hill [15] [NZ 93350 01689]
  6. Hogarth Hill Farm [NZ 93101 01716]
6
-holm, -holme ON holmr, holmi [124] OE holm an islet, dry place in a marshy area, higher dry ground amidst marshes, water meadow
  1. Brigholme (olim Brigholm and Brygholm) [53] [NZ 95249 04957]
  2. Bridge Holm Lane [NZ 94604 02954]
  3. Darnholme (olim Darn Holm) [NZ 83692 02154]
  4. Fylingholm [NZ 94830 03250]
  5. Holm Hill [TA 00347 95096]
  6. Holm Hole [SE 50448 86444]
  7. Holm House [NZ 82206 04385]
  8. Holm Slack [TA 00318 95351]
  9. Holms Grove [NZ 84131 15129]
  10. Holms Well [TA 01326 93034]
  11. Holm Wood [SE 93672 95202]
  12. Holm Woods [SE 85535 89356]
  13. Newholm (Neuham 1160) [NZ 86764 10322] and Newholm cum Dunsley
  14. Newholm Beck [NZ 86572 11206]
  15. Newholm Green [NZ 86550 10750]
15
hol ON holr, hol [123] OE holh, hol (1) hole, hollow (2) hollow, concave, depressed, lying in a hollow
  1. Beck Hole Road [NZ 82204 02711]
  2. Beck Hole Scar [NZ 82314 02273]
  3. Biggersdale Hole [NZ 84050 11150]
  4. Boggle Hole [NZ 95572 04070]
  5. Crag Hole [SE 94850 97750]
  6. Dungeon Hole [NZ 95348 05476]
  7. Ground Wyke Hole [NZ 95420 05057]
  8. Hell Hole [SE 50427 87611]
  9. Herbert Hole [TA 01008 97818]
  10. Holl Gate [SE 95050 91250]
  11. Hollgate Plantation [SE 95126 91115]
  12. Homerell Hole [NZ 95837 07040]
  13. Jet Holes [NZ 95929 03214]
  14. Maw Wyke Hole [NZ 94132 08380]
  15. Mott's Hole [SE 51955 88944]
  16. Mucky Hole Slack [SE 91180 99837]
  17. Murk Hole [NZ 94903 01712]
  18. Rail Hole [NZ 91075 11388]
  19. Rail Hole Bight [NZ 91044 11293]
  20. Tom Keld Hole [NZ 83863 02424]
  21. White Stone Hole [NZ 94967 07785]
21
hope ON hóp [168] OE hopa haven, shallow bay, small land-locked bay or inlet connected to the sea
  1. Collier Hope [NZ 90050 11450]
  2. Hope Cottage [TA 00833 94017]
2
houll ON hóll [122] OE hyll hill
  1. Hulleys [TA 00225 96227]
  2. Partridge Hill [282] [NZ 93094 04010]
  3. Susanna Hill [284] [NZ 96547 02140]
3
hus, us, housa, house, hows, some ON hús [121] OE hus house
  1. Birch House [NZ 83095 04198]
  2. Boggle House [NZ 82962 04021] and [NZ 82992 04048]
  3. Bottom House [NZ 94556 07114]
  4. Bottom House Lane [NZ 93883 06747]
  5. Buskey House Farm [NZ 88370 07901]
  6. Catwick (Farm) (House Farm) [NZ 90872 05941]
  7. Cockrah House [SE 96650 89050]
  8. Deepdale House [SE 92164 91503]
  9. East Loftus [NZ 73005 18300]
  10. Farsyde House Farm [NZ 95130 04398]
  11. Friar's House [NZ 83143 01981]
  12. Guild House Green [NZ 93678 05244]
  13. Hagg House [NZ 88090 08209]
  14. High Dalby House [SE 85277 88646]
  15. Holm House [NZ 82206 04385]
  16. Hook's House [NZ 94565 05846]
  17. House Dale [SE 86321 87554]
  18. Housedale Rigg [SE 86584 87787]
  19. Knaggy House Farm [NZ 89720 06041]
  20. Loftus [NZ 72635 18385]
  21. Loftus Beck [NZ 73244 18154]
  22. Loftus Farm [NZ 72450 18350]
  23. Loftus Hall [NZ 72050 18050]
  24. Loftus Wood [NZ 72237 16992]
  25. Lound House [NZ 89159 06582]
  26. Low Dalby (House) [SE 86017 87333]
  27. Mill Bank House [NZ 95295 03742]
  28. Murkside House (olim Murk Side House) [NZ 81544 03062]
  29. Newlands House [TA 01010 95820]
  30. Newton House [NZ 88712 03927]
  31. Newton House Plantation [NZ 88943 01540]
  32. Nook House [NZ 94840 05597]
  33. Pretty House [NZ 94215 02632]
  34. Shooting House Rigg [NZ 90183 02592]
  35. South House Farm [NZ 95082 03725]
  36. South Loftus [NZ 72814 17862]
  37. South Loftus Farm [NZ 72202 17843] and [NZ 72705 17880]
  38. Southwaite House (17th century)
  39. Toft House (farm) [NZ 86350 08950]
  40. Whitfield House [NZ 83256 02006]
39
icorn, icken ON íkorni [169] OE ácwern squirrel    
-ing, -ings, -ingas, -ingham   OE ing, -ingas hám descendants or sons of, inhabitants or people of, race, clan
  1. Bedlington's Lane [NZ 93996 05567]
  2. Easington [NZ 74583 18306]
  3. Easington End Farm [NZ 73950 18050]
  4. Easington Farm [NZ 73950 17950]
  5. Easington Hall [NZ 74550 18050]
  6. Easington Hall Farm [NZ 74698 18140]
  7. Fyling (Fielinga 1160, Figclinge, Figelinge, Figlinge DB), Fyling Hall (altera Fielinga 1160) [NZ 93815 04301] [70]
7
-ing, -ings ON eng OE ing water meadow, pasture (in marshy places) [46]
  1. Abbot Ings [SE 96935 88828]
  2. Bedlington's Lane [NZ 93996 05567]
  3. Broad Ings Farm [NZ 88150 10167]
  4. Moor Ings [SE 51549 88360]
  5. Moor Ings Bank [SE 52121 87560]
  6. Suffield Ings [SE 98187 89322]
6
intack, intak(e) ON intak   land taken in or enclosed
  1. Hawsker Intake Road [NZ 92115 06022]
  2. Intake Beck [NZ 91718 07734]
  3. Intake Farm [NZ 87743 04156]
  4. Intake Wood [NZ 80452 04915]
4
keld, kel, kell, kill ON kelda [34] OE celde spring, deep water-hole, stream
  1. Cop Keld Beck [SE 98165 92902]
  2. Cross Keld Trough [NZ 94301 05828]
  3. Keldhowe Point [NZ 85543 14558]
  4. Keldhowe Steel [NZ 85565 14644]
  5. East Keld Farm [NZ 94917 05586]
  6. Keld Runnels [SE 99150 89850]
  7. Keld Runnels Farm [SE 99252 89822]
  8. Keld Runnels Road [SE 99034 89597]
  9. Keldy Grain [SE 88500 93247]
  10. Skelder Cottage [NZ 84630 08940]
  11. Skelder Farm (olim Skelder New Inn) [NZ 84915 09011]
  12. Tom Keld Hole [NZ 83863 02424]
  13. West Skelder Farm [NZ 84207 10474]
13
kettle ON ketil [45] OE cietel kettle, cauldron
  1. Kettle Howe [SE 68693 97999]
  2. Kettle Well Cottage [NZ 93150 02250]
2
kirk ON kirkja [170] OD kirk
OE cirice
church
  1. Church Plantation [NZ 85001 12922]
  2. Church Street [NZ 90155 10820]
  3. Kirk Beck [SE 96932 90541]
  4. Kirk Field [NZ 83971 10451]
  5. Kirk Gate [SE 96627 91357]
  6. Kirkless (Farm) [SE 98629 93885]
  7. Kirkless Plantation [SE 98243 93742]
  8. Kirk Moor (Kirkmoor) [NZ 92209 02137]
  9. Kirk Moor Beck [NZ 91981 03027]
  10. Kirk Moor Gate [NZ 91761 02800]
  11. Kirk Moor Plantation [NZ 91929 02897]
11
knaggy ON nagga [171] OE ge-gnidan rub, grumble, quarrel, maunder
  1. Knaggy House Farm [NZ 89720 06041]
1
knapp, knab, knave, knepp, nap, neap ON knappr [172] OE cnæpp, copp a knob, top, summit of a hill    
knipe, knip ON gnúpr, gnípa [173]   steep hill, peak
  1. Gnipe Howe (Gnip 1160; olim Nype Howe) [NZ 93583 08541]
1
knott, knoll ON knott, knútr [174] OE cnoll, hnol, hnoll knoll, knowe, hill top, summit (a knot)    
lama ON lamb [99] OE lamb lamb
  1. Lamplands [NZ 82044 06777]
1
land ON land [98] OE land land, piece of ground
  1. Cloughton Newlands [TA 01294 95974]
  2. Goathland (Godeland, Gotheland, early 12th century probably OE Godan land) [NZ 82789 01364]
  3. Goathland Banks [NZ 87401 05592]
  4. Goathland Moor [NZ 84913 01749]
  5. Good Lands [SE 97001 92794]
  6. Gowland Farm [SE 99102 95895]
  7. Gowland Lane [SE 99103 96083]
  8. Greenlands Farm [NZ 83789 03830]
  9. Greenland's Howe [NZ 86881 03559]
  10. Lamplands [NZ 82044 06777]
  11. Linglands Cottage [SE 99036 96153]
  12. Linglands Farm [SE 98377 96061]
  13. Newlands Dale [TA 01409 96128]
  14. Newlands Farm [TA 01049 96149]
  15. Newlands House [TA 01010 95820]
  16. Newlands Inn [TA 01048 95953]
  17. Newlands Lane [TA 01086 94718]
  18. Newlands Low Road [TA 01576 96031]
  19. Stockland Beck [SE 91596 93693]
  20. Strickland Dump [NZ 95750 03850]
20
lang ON langr OE lang long, tall
  1. High Langdale End [SE 93071 95238]
  2. Langdale End [SE 94470 91230]
  3. Langdale Forest [SE 90997 95746]
  4. Langdale Rigg [SE 92988 94455]
  5. Langdale Rigg End [SE 92988 94650]
5
lask, lod ON lágr (not found in OE) low    
lax ON lax OE lex, leax, læx a salmon    
lee, lith ON hlið, hlíð [100] OE hlið a side, a gate
slope, hillside
  1. Barley Carr Dike [SE 92722 96028]
  2. Barley Carr Rigg [SE 91358 96228]
  3. Barley Carr Slack [SE 92239 96138]
  4. Barley Carr Tongue [SE 92546 96503]
  5. Bickley Gate [SE 91375 91352]
  6. Caley Beck [NZ 85923 06842]
  7. Caley Becks Farm [NZ 85734 06603]
  8. Caley Beck Wood [NZ 85837 06946]
  9. Cockley Head [SE 95990 93933]
  10. Dunsley [NZ 85985 11118]
  11. Dunsley Beck [NZ 86638 11513]
  12. Everley [SE 97215 88890]
  13. Everley Bank Wood [SE 97395 89143]
  14. Everley Banks [SE 97075 89358]
  15. Everley Bridge (now Wrench Green Bridge) [SE 96798 89272]
  16. Flock Leys [SE 97283 91130]
  17. Galley Hill Slack [NZ 85652 08838]
  18. Hipperley Beck [SE9 2300 94434]
  19. Holey Gill [NZ 84237 05926]
  20. Hulleys [TA 00225 96227]
  21. Moorgate Lees [NZ 91150 10050]
  22. Nattley Griff [SE 88522 90894]
  23. Parsley Beck [NZ 87286 02963]
  24. Parsley Beck Rigg [NZ 86288 03270]
  25. Selley Park [SE 97665 88710]
  26. Thirley Beck [SE 98322 95206]
  27. Thirley Beck Cottage [SE 98419 95428]
  28. Thirley Cotes (Farm) [SE 97594 95070]
  29. White Leys [NZ 88708 11121]
29
leek, leake ON lœkr, lækr [101] OE leccan brook, rivulet    
ler, lar ON leir OE clæg (clægig) clay, earth, loam, but also mud, especially on the beach
  1. Fewler Gate Wood [SE 94955 91900]
  2. Larpool Cottages [NZ 89993 09689]
  3. Larpool Hall (Leirpel 1160) [24] [NZ 89796 09352]
  4. Larpool Lane [NZ 89960 09592]
  5. Larpool Wood [NZ 89801 09145]
5
lin ON lin OE lin flax
  1. Lins [NZ 82538 02282]
1
lind ON lind OE lin a lime tree
  1. Lind Head [SE 99463 93954]
  2. Lindhead Beck [TA 00205 93776]
  3. Lindhead Bridge [SE 99322 93808]
  4. Lindhead Gorse [SE 99667 93803]
  5. Lindhead Lodge [SE 99666 94294]
  6. Lindhead Road [SE 99857 93617]
6
ling ON lyng OE ling ling, heather
  1. Bedlington's Lane [NZ 93996 05567]
  2. Ling Hill [NZ 92797 09974]
  3. Ling Hill Farm [NZ 92482 10037]
  4. Ling Hill Plantation [NZ 91368 01838]
  5. Linglands Cottage [SE 99036 96153]
  6. Linglands Farm [SE 98377 96061]
  7. Lingy Plantation [SE 90193 87064]
7
linger ON lengja OE lengen linger, tarry, lengthen
  1. Lingers Beck [NZ 94484 05339]
  2. Lingers Toft [NZ 94671 05348]
  3. Little Lingers Beck [NZ 94741 05495]
3
lythe ON hlíð OE hlíð (1) a slope, mountain side (2) a side (3) a gate, gateway
  1. Hagger Lythe [NZ 84821 12964]
  2. Lythe Hall [NZ 89950 11350]
  3. Lythe Bank [NZ 85435 13142]
  4. Lythe Bank Lodge [NZ 85530 13011]
  5. Lythe Beck [NZ 83531 04404]
  6. Lythe Beck Plantation [NZ 83698 04639]
6
land, lowne, lound, lount, lunt, lum ON lundr [67]   sacred grove, tree, copse
  1. Lound House [NZ 89159 06582]
1
mar(r), marsh ON marr OE mere a fen boggy ground, mere, lake, sea
  1. Great Marfit Head Slack [SE 85551 92281]
  2. Little Marfit Head [SE 85425 92740]
  3. Little Marfit Head Slack [SE 85307 92603]
  4. Marfit Head [SE 85470 92518]
  5. Marnar Dale [NZ 95150 04750]
  6. Marnar Dale Beck [NZ 95152 04814]
6
math ON mugr OE (1) mæp, (2) mæd (1) a mowing, that which is mown, cutting of grass (2) mead, meadow, pasture
  1. Willymath Bridge [TA 01503 92779] [65]
1
meols, -mell, -mells ON melr   dune, sandbank, sand-hill grown with bent-grass    
mickle, michel, much ON mikill OE mycel (1) much (2) great, large, tall, of stature    
mel, mid ON (1) miðr, (2) meðal OE middel, medel (1) mid, midst, middle (2) among, between, in the middle, middling, the average
  1. Far Middle Sike [NZ 91143 03119]
  2. Middle Grain Beck [NZ 83735 02315]
  3. Middle Rigg [NZ 91153 03571]
  4. Middle Rigg [NZ 91524 06249]
  5. Middle Rigg [SE 79413 96989]
  6. Middleton Beeld [SE 84085 02340]
  7. Middlewood Farm [NZ 94745 04624]
  8. Middlewood Lane [NZ 94620 04367]
  9. High Mitten Hill [NZ 92107 06830]
  10. Low Mitten Hill [NZ 92150 07250]
  11. Mitten Hill [NZ 92050 06950]
  12. Mitten Hill Beck [NZ 91958 06879]
  13. Mitten Hill Farm [NZ 92131 06954]
  14. Nigh Middle Sike [NZ 91185 03746]
14
mir, mire, myre ON mýrr OE mire bog, swampy moorland, mire
  1. Arkilmire [38]
  2. Foulesike alias Wawe-myres (13th century), Tranmires [SE 95750 98604]
  3. Higher Row Mires [SE 75285 97050]
  4. Lower Row Mires [SE 75685 96863]
  5. Mires Lane [NZ 86689 10787]
  6. Mires Slack [NZ 91079 02785]
  7. Mires Well [NZ 86588 10806]
  8. Miry Sike Wood [SE 93362 91300]
  9. Murk Mire Moor [NZ 79826 02364]
  10. Row Mires Rigg [SE 75231 97619]
  11. White Mires [SE 77306 96861]
  12. White Mires Slack [SE 76690 96190]
12
mor(e), moor, mur ON mǫr OE mór a moor, heath, barren upland, waste land
  1. Aislaby Moor [NZ 85183 08936]
  2. Allerston (High Moor) [SE 88250 93550]
  3. Blakey Moor [SE 87150 94150]
  4. Burn Howe Moor [SE 94399 98243]
  5. Fylingdales Moor [SE 92465 99710]
  6. Goathland Moor [NZ 84913 01749]
  7. Howdale Moor [NZ 95693 01260]
  8. Jugger Howe Moor [SE 94070 99508]
  9. Kirk Moor (Kirkmoor) [NZ 92209 02137]
  10. Kirk Moor Beck [NZ 91981 03027]
  11. Kirk Moor Gate [NZ 91761 02800]
  12. Kirk Moor Plantation [NZ 91929 02897]
  13. Little Moor [TA 00465 95312]
  14. Little Moor Slack [TA 00654 95004]
  15. Moorgate Lees [NZ 91150 10050]
  16. Lockton Low Moor [SE 85627 92770]
  17. Moorgates [SE 84381 99429]
  18. Moor Ings [SE 51549 88360]
  19. Moor Ings Bank [SE 52121 87560]
  20. Moors Rigg [SE 86603 96207]
  21. Murk Mire Moor [NZ 79826 02364]
  22. Newgate Moor [SE 87048 92769]
  23. Silpho Moor [SE 96275 94030]
  24. Sneaton High Moor [NZ 87996 00876]
  25. Sneaton Low Moor [NZ 89771 03877]
  26. Staintondale Moor [SE 98766 99409]
  27. Stony Marl Moor [NZ 94878 00552]
  28. Suffield Moor [SE 98245 92592]
  29. Troutsdale Moor [SE 91695 88860]
  30. Ugglebarnby Moor [NZ 89019 05140]
  31. Widow Howe Moor [NZ 86883 00101]
  32. Wykeham High Moor [SE 91550 95850]
32
murk ON myrkr [94] OE myrc murky, dark, darkness, gloom, thick mist
  1. Low Hollins Farm (olim Murk Hollins) [NZ 80850 04450]
  2. Murk Beck Slack [NZ 82816 06859]
  3. Murk Esk [NZ 82459 04314]
  4. Murk Esk Cottage [NZ 81644 02740]
  5. Murk Head [SE 95152 95683]
  6. Murk Head Wood [SE 94828 95641]
  7. Murk Hole [NZ 94903 01712]
  8. Murk Mire Moor [NZ 79826 02364]
  9. Murk Side [NZ 81678 02629]
  10. Murkside House (olim Murk Side House) [NZ 81544 03062]
  11. Murk Side Wood [NZ 81699 03347]
11
-mine, -myn ON mynni [93] OE fleot, gemyð, múða mouth of river, fjord    
ne, new ON nýr [195] OE niwe new
  1. Cloughton Newlands [TA 01232 95893]
  2. Cloughton Newlands Farm [TA 01198 96064]
  3. Low Newbiggin [NZ 85291 06872]
  4. Low Newbiggin North (Farm) [NZ 85309 07059]
  5. Low Newbiggin South [NZ 85021 06762]
  6. Maybecks New Plantation [NZ 89588 03071]
  7. Newbiggin Hall (Farm) [NZ 83991 06830]
  8. Newclose Rigg [SE 87211 89439]
  9. Newgate
  10. Newholm (Neuham 1160) [NZ 86764 10322]
  11. Newholm Beck [NZ 86572 11206]
  12. Newholm Green [NZ 86550 10750]
  13. Newlands Dale [TA 01409 96128]
  14. Newlands Farm [TA 01049 96149]
  15. Newlands House [TA 01010 95820]
  16. Newlands Inn [TA 01048 95953]
  17. Newlands Lane [TA 01086 94718]
  18. Newlands Low Road [TA 01576 96031]
  19. New May Beck [NZ 89928 03311]
  20. Newton Farm [NZ 89079 03903]
  21. Newton House [NZ 88712 03927]
  22. Newton House Plantation [NZ 88943 01540]
  23. New Wath Scar [NZ 82115 00602]
23
nab ON nabbi, knollr [196] OE cnoll knoll, rounded top of a larger hill (see ness below)  
-nes, -ness, nab ON nes [197] OE næs headland, cape, promontory
  1. Ashness [NZ 87199 08107]
  2. Bay Ness [NZ 95179 06294]
  3. Bay Ness Farm [NZ 94832 06535]
  4. Black Nab [NZ 92238 10803]
  5. Clock Case Nab [NZ 95508 07088]
  6. Coneygarth Nab [SE 86284 89917]
  7. Crook Ness [TA 02747 93385]
  8. First Nab [NZ 89750 11550]
  9. Hackness (Hagenesse DB) [SE 97245 90255]
  10. Hackness Head [SE 96516 90340]
  11. Hackness Head Wood [SE 96306 90604]
  12. Lector Nab [NZ 88850 11750]
  13. Long Nab [TA 03132 94125]
  14. Nab End [TA 00195 97177]
  15. Ness Point [NZ 96012 06150]
  16. Ness Quarry [NZ 95509 06197]
  17. Ness Ruck [NZ 96042 06019]
  18. Miller's Nab [NZ 97071 02668]
  19. Saltwick Nab [41] [NZ 91505 11330]
  20. Sandsend Ness [NZ 86111 13822]
  21. Scalby Nab [SE 99537 90193]
  22. Scalby Nabs [SE 99815 90067]
  23. Second Nab [NZ 89550 11550]
  24. The Nab [NZ 95645 04135]
  25. Wainess Hill Wood [NZ 91968 91115]
25
nook, hook ON hnúka [198] OE hnoc, hnocc bend, hook, angle
  1. Hook's House [NZ 94565 05846]
  2. Nook House [NZ 94840 05597]
2
nor, nar ON norðr [199] OE norð north
  1. Marnar Dale [NZ 95150 04750]
  2. Marnar Dale Beck [NZ 95152 04814]
  3. North Head [NZ 92704 91124]
  4. North Head Wood [NZ 92582 91190]
4
-od, -odd ON oddr, oddi [200] OE ord point of land, triangle, odd number    
over ON yfir [201] OE ofer over, above
  1. Overdale [NZ 84719 13961]
  2. Overdale Farm [NZ 84703 14190]
  3. Overdale Wyke [NZ 85648 14390]
3
ox, ax ON öx, öxar [202] OE æxe axe
  1. High Oxam Wath [SE 91641 93766]
  2. Oxdale Slack [SE 99622 94888]
2
pap ON papi [203] OE préost, priost priest, cleric
  1. Priest's Sike [NZ 85649 13106]
1
peak ON pic [204] OE pic a point, a pointed tool, pike (fish), pointed hill
  1. Low Peak [NZ 97203 02115]
  2. Old Peak [NZ 97997 02460]
  3. Peak Chapel
  4. Peak Scar [SE 53034 88393]
  5. Peak Scar Gill [SE 52641 88472]
  6. Peak Scar Road [SE 53096 88272]
  7. Peak Scar Top [SE 53459 88270]
  8. Peak Scar Wood [SE 52642 88391]
  9. Peakside [NZ 97829 01607]
  10. Peak Steel [NZ 97993 02627]
  11. Peak Windmill
11
porri ON porri [283] OE Æ'nýge a one-eyed person
  1. Porrits [NZ 96282 02691]
1
pretty ON prettr (prettugr) [205] OE prættig a trick (tricky)
  1. Pretty House [NZ 94215 02632]
1
pund ON pund [206] OE púnd enclosure    
qui, quoy ON kví [207] OE graef pen, fold, enclosure    
ra, ro ON[207] OE a corner, nook, a roe deer, roe-buck    
raise, rose ON hreysi [208] OE ræran a cairn, heap of stones
  1. Raisbeck Farm [NZ 92139 07207]
1
rake ON hrífa [209] OE ræce a rake    
ram(na), raven ON hrafn, hramn, hramns [210] OE hræfn, hræfen, hræm, hræmn, hrem, hremn a raven
  1. Raven Hill [NZ 98192 01276]
  2. Ravenscar [NZ 98184 01341]
2
raw ON hrar, bráð [211] OE hræw, hreáw raw meat, raw flesh (varmar bráðir, carcass, the corpses of the newly slain)
  1. Raw (Fyling Rawe, 16th century) Rawe [NZ 93850 05520]
  2. Raw (Row) Beck [NZ 93890 05293]
  3. Raw Lane [NZ 93827 05792]
  4. Raw Pasture [NZ 94456 06759]
  5. Raw Pasture Bank [NZ 93983 06421]
  6. Raw Pasture Beck [NZ 93794 07220]
  7. Raw Pasture Lane [NZ 94361 06577]
7
rea ON refr [212] OE ryðða male fox, dog, wolf
  1. Reasty Hill [SE 96325 94541]
  2. Reasty Hill Top [SE 96230 94385]
  3. Reasty Quarry [SE 96392 94471]
  4. Reasty Road [SE 96045 94757]
4
reans, reins, rand ON rönd [213] OE rand land on a boundary, border, rim, edge    
rigg, ridge ON hryggr [214] OE hrycg ridge, rigg
  1. Barley Carr Rigg [SE 91358 96228]
  2. Bent Rigg [NZ 99143 00410]
  3. Bent Rigg Farm [NZ 98442 00823]
  4. Bent Rigg Lane [NZ 99030 00337]
  5. Black Rigg [SE 78815 96746]
  6. Black Rigg Beck [SE 79188 96884]
  7. Blea Hill Rigg [NZ 90339 00761]
  8. Brown Rigg Beck [NZ 92206 00288]
  9. Brown Rigg Road [SE 98205 98430]
  10. Broxa Rigg [SE 95301 90859]
  11. Burn Howe Rigg [SE 91675 98762]
  12. Clenfield Rigg [SE 85585 88949]
  13. Cowgate Rigg [SE 96953 97153]
  14. Crook Beck Rigg [SE 74766 98147]
  15. Derwent Head Rigg [SE 89237 96761]
  16. East Rigg [NZ 94750 02950]
  17. Flainsey Rigg [SE 86891 86566]
  18. Foster Howes Rigg [NZ 87689 00559]
  19. Hallow Rigg
  20. Howth Rigg [SE 75920 97266]
  21. Gale Hill Rigg [SE 81217 96937]
  22. Hollin Rigg [SE 99617 91487]
  23. Langdale Rigg [SE 92988 94455]
  24. Langdale Rigg End [SE 92988 94650]
  25. Lease Rigg [NZ 81846 04594]
  26. Leith Rigg [NZ 92222 03363]
  27. Leith Rigg Wood [NZ 92127 03193]
  28. Lilla Rigg [SE 87717 98154]
  29. Limperdale Rigg [SE 52003 86489]
  30. Little Cowgate Rigg [SE 97136 96986]
  31. Long Rigg [NZ 91550 06150]
  32. Long Rigg Beck [NZ 91387 05840]
  33. Loose Howe Rigg [SE 86070 96497]
  34. Low Rigg (Farm) [NZ 91550 06350]
  35. Lun Rigg [SE 92104 95456]
  36. Maw Rigg [SE 91589 94224]
  37. Merricks Rigg [SE 98216 91373]
  38. Middle Rigg [NZ 91153 03571]
  39. Middle Rigg [NZ 91524 06249]
  40. Middle Rigg [SE 79413 96989]
  41. Moors Rigg [SE 86603 96207]
  42. Moss Rigg [NZ 82661 00263]
  43. Newclose Rigg [SE 87211 89439]
  44. Oak Rigg [SE 94628 93864]
  45. Oak Rigg Gill [SE 94738 93541]
  46. Oak Rigg Wood [SE 94850 93650]
  47. Parsley Beck Rigg [NZ 86288 03270]
  48. Peathead Rigg [SE 88979 90025]
  49. Pike Hill [NZ 84680 01832]
  50. Pike Hill Rigg [NZ 85242 02254]
  51. Pike Rigg [SE 93553 97426]
  52. Pye Rigg [SE 96930 99813]
  53. Pye Rigg Howe [NZ 96657 00053]
  54. Pye Rigg End [NZ 96624 00278]
  55. Pye Rigg Slack [SE 97222 99541]
  56. Randy Rigg [NZ 81411 01774]
  57. Rigg End (Farm) [SE 75065 93379]
  58. Rigg Farm [NZ 91446 06186]
  59. Rigg Hall [NZ 91652 05825]
  60. Rigg Hall Farm [TA 00712 98490]
  61. Rigg Mill [NZ 90954 07477]
  62. Rigg Mill Beck [NZ 91202 06865]
  63. Rigg Mill Wood [NZ 90922 07380]
  64. Rigg Noodle [SE 90818 91482]
  65. Row Mires Rigg [SE 75231 97619]
  66. Sandsend Rigg [NZ 85740 12445]
  67. Shawn Riggs [NZ 89476 09052]
  68. Shawn Riggs Beck [NZ 89650 08851]
  69. Shooting House Rigg [NZ 90183 02592]
  70. Smeffell Rigg [SE 85443 91338]
  71. Standing Stones Rigg [NZ 92073 03959]
  72. Standingstones Rigg [SE 97719 96979]
  73. Stoneclose Rigg [SE 86232 88738]
  74. Stony Rigg [NZ 84163 03520]
  75. Sutherbruff Rigg [SE 86704 87333]
  76. Tom Cross Rigg [SE 85662 97282]
  77. Topping Riggs [NZ 90080 08081]
  78. Topping Riggs Wood [NZ 89575 08356]
  79. Two Howes Rigg [SE 83134 99296]
  80. White Cliff Rigg [SE 87152 86118]
  81. Worm Sike Rigg [SE 87769 96588]
  82. Wreahead Rigg [TA 00174 91151]
  83. Yondhead Rigg [SE 88037 91023]
  84. York Cross Rigg [NZ 87566 01535]
84
ris, rys, rice ON hrís [165] OE hris shrubs, brushwood, the top of a tree, thin branch
  1. Rice gate Wood [SE 95019 93754]
 
1
rod, rudda ON rudda [215] OE ród, rodd, rud a coarse kind of club, rod
  1. Rudda Farm [SE 98059 99616]
  2. Rudda Road [SE 97770 99381]
2
raw, roe, rot, rop, rath ON rjóðr [164] OE read, rud red
  1. Raw (Fyling Rawe, 16th century) Rawe [NZ 93850 05520]
  2. Raw (Row) Beck [NZ 93890 05293]
  3. Raw Lane [NZ 93827 05792]
  4. Raw Pasture [NZ 94456 06759]
  5. Raw Pasture Bank [NZ 93983 06421]
  6. Raw (Row) Pasture Beck [NZ 93794 07220]
  7. Raw Pasture Lane [NZ 94361 06577]
7
ron, rona, roo, roonies ON hraun [216] OE hreó a rough place, a wilderness
  1. Root Hill [SE 96656 92764]
1
ros, ross ON hross [217] OE hors horse    
rom, rum ON rúm [218] OE rúm room, space
  1. Rumsdale Plantation [SE 69957 88779]
1
ruth, rod ON ruð, rjóðr, ryðja [219] OE ród a clearing in a wood, a 'clearing', open space in a forest    
sal, salt ON salt [220] OE sealt salt
  1. Saltwick [NZ 91585 10820]
  2. Saltwick Bay [NZ 91997 10984]
  3. Saltwick Hole [NZ 91777 10946]
  4. Saltwick Nab [41] [NZ 91505 11330]
4
sand, sam, saun, soun ON sandr [221] OE sand sand
  1. Sandybed Wood [SE 98893 99321]
  2. Sandy Gate (Pike)
  3. Stoupe Beck Sands [NZ 96032 03414]
3
scar, skerry ON sker [163] OE carr rock, scar, reef, skerry (small rocky island covered by the sea at high tide)
  1. Beck Hole Scar [NZ 82314 02273]
  2. Billet Scar [NZ 97291 02456]
  3. Blue Scar [NZ 85596 06740]
  4. Boltby Scar [SE 50890 86095]
  5. Cat Scar Beck [NZ 82215 05981]
  6. Clarke Scars [SE 48653 90853]
  7. Cowling Scar [NZ 95784 04652]
  8. East Scar [NZ 95622 04950]
  9. Flat Scars [NZ 96368 03198]
  10. High Scar [NZ 95761 03889]
  11. Hundale Scar [TA 02593 94963]
  12. Landing Scar [NZ 95550 04985]
  13. Low Scar [NZ 95936 03846]
  14. Middle Scar [NZ 95829 03889]
  15. Mill Scar [NZ 83677 01857]
  16. Mill Scar Wood [NZ 83558 01660]
  17. New Wath Scar [NZ 82115 00602]
  18. Peak Scar [SE 53034 88393]
  19. Peak Scar Gill [SE 52641 88472]
  20. Peak Scar Road [SE 53096 88272]
  21. Peak Scar Top [SE 53459 88270]
  22. Peak Scar Wood [SE 52642 88391]
  23. Ravenscar [NZ 98770 01673]
  24. Roulston Scar [SE 51346 81574]
  25. Scar Wood [SE 94824 97398]
  26. Scarry Wood [NZ 88375 04487]
  27. Skerry Hall [NZ 93552 05090]
  28. The Scar [NZ 90935 11407]
  29. Water Ark Scar [NZ 82950 02240]
  30. West Scar [NZ 95351 05164]
30
scarth, shar, garth, scar ON skarð, skarði (also personal name) [239] OE carr, sceard notch, hack, hare-lip, in the edge of a thing, gap hence mountain pass (also personal name Skarði)
  1. Ravenscar [NZ 98770 01673]
1
-scough, skew, -sco(e), shaw, shaugh ON skógr [238] OE sceaga (small) wood, forest
  1. Scograinhowes (lost)
  2. Scugdale [SE 74737 93174]
2
satt, seat, sett, -side, -shead, -ster ON sætr [237] OE side shieling, summer mountain pasture
  1. Browside Farm [NZ 95763 02441]
  2. Cock Lake Side [NZ 89851 00431]
  3. East Side Farm [TA 00250 98250]
  4. Farsyde House Farm [NZ 95130 04398]
  5. High Seat [SE 93710 96504]
  6. Louven Howe Side [SE 89016 99948]
  7. Thackside Farm [NZ 81669 01735]
  8. Way Side Farm
8
sef, seave ON sef [236] OE secg (also a personal name) sedge, seave
  1. Seavey Bog [NZ 84209 15172]
  2. Seaveybog Hill [NZ 84227 15077]
  3. Seavey Sike [NZ 99055 01235]
  4. Seive Dale [SE 86201 88410]
4
sel, sile ON selja [235] OE sealh, salwig a sallow, willow    
sike, syke ON sík [234] OE sic sike, small stream or gulley, gutter
  1. Black Sike [SE 95925 98212]
  2. Far Foulsyke [NZ 73458 18230]
  3. Far Foul Syke [NZ 73775 18227]
  4. Far Middle Sike [NZ 91143 03119]
  5. Foulesike alias Wawe-myres (13th century)
  6. Foul Sike [NZ 91250 02450]
  7. Foulsike Farm [TA 00820 91315]
  8. Foulsike Farm [NZ 91338 02394]
  9. Foulsyke Bridge [NZ 73144 18203]
  10. Foulsyke Farm [TA 00973 91376]
  11. Hempsyke Hall [NZ 88223 06089]
  12. Hempsyke Farm [NZ 88478 05879]
  13. Miry Sike Wood [SE 93362 91300]
  14. Near Foul Syke [NZ 73416 18327]
  15. Near Foulsyke [NZ 73288 18260]
  16. Nigh Middle Sike [NZ 91185 03746]
  17. Priest's Sike Slack [SE 76080 97366]
  18. Seavey Sike [NZ 99055 01235]
  19. Sliving Sike [SE 86706 99754]
  20. Sliving Sike Slack [SE 86883 99896]
  21. Worm Sike [SE 87646 96968]
  22. Worm Sike Rigg [SE 87769 96588]
22
sil ON sild [233] OE hæring herring    
ska ON skagi [232]   cape, headland, peninsula    
scale, skill, gill, kill ON skáli [37] OE schele temporary hut, shieling, hovel
  1. Coldgill Spring [SE 99642 91077]
  2. Scalby (Scalebi, Scallebi DB) [TA 01495 90951]
  3. Scalby Hayes [SE 99874 91671]
  4. Scalby Nab [SE 99537 90193]
  5. Scalby Nabs [SE 99815 90067]
  6. Skell Dykes [SE 99250 87450]
  7. Skelton Bank Wood [NZ 94205 02329]
7
scrape ON skrapa [270] OE scrapian, screopan, scrypan scrape, scratch
  1. Scraper Lane [NZ 91139 08475]
1
scree ON skriða [271]   landslip, scree    
skeo ON skjá   hut for drying fish or meat    
skeith, sketh ON skeið [272] OE spyrd a course, track, race, especially a race-course; possibly also a boundary road, a boundary, shed as in watershed
  1. Hesketh Dike [SE 51546 87810]
  2. Hesketh Grange [29] [SE 50318 86955]
  3. Hesketh Hall [SE 49991 86999]
3
skir, shir-, sher- ON skíra [273] OE scir pure, clear, bright
  1. Skivick Crag [SE 80952 97971]
1
slack ON slakki [274] OE slæc slack, shallow valley, depression in a hillside or between two hills, hollow in the ground
  1. Barley Carr Slack [SE 92239 96138]
  2. Beck Slack [SE 83940 99161]
  3. Bellsdale Slack [SE 97479 91109]
  4. Biller Howe Dale Slack [NZ 90677 01769]
  5. Biller Howe Nook Slack [NZ 90908 00677]
  6. Birchwath Slack [NZ 78415 02011]
  7. Bridge Stone Slack [NZ 90652 01461]
  8. Broadlands Slack [SE 96700 97190]
  9. Corngate Slack [SE 97945 88503]
  10. Cowgate Slack [SE 97065 96495]
  11. Cracoe Slack [SE 49228 89538]
  12. Ewe Pond Slack [NZ 90676 00115]
  13. Far Grain Slack [NZ 83811 01958]
  14. Galley Hill Slack [NZ 85652 08838]
  15. Grain Slack [SE 88918 90653]
  16. Great Marfit Head Slack [SE 85551 92281]
  17. Greengate Slack [SE 97744 90214]
  18. Grey Heugh Slack [NZ 90855 02344]
  19. Harding's Slack [NZ 90260 05956]
  20. Hardhurst Slack [SE 97467 97130]
  21. Haynes' Slack [SE 99141 95658]
  22. Howl Slack [SE 84169 90164]
  23. Howth Slack [SE 75693 97339]
  24. Jugger Howe Slack [SE 94407 98367]
  25. Lenfield Slack [SE 95933 91213]
  26. Leech Bog Slack [SE 89611 99778]
  27. Limekiln Slack [NZ 94450 07850]
  28. Little Marfit Head Slack [SE 85307 92603]
  29. Little Moor Slack [TA 00654 95004]
  30. Mires Slack [NZ 91079 02785]
  31. Moss Slack [NZ 82653 00110]
  32. Mucky Hole Slack [SE 91180 99837]
  33. Murk Beck Slack [NZ 82816 06859]
  34. Nun Slack [NZ 97517 00204]
  35. Oxdale Slack [SE 99622 94888]
  36. Pen Howe Slack [NZ 85718 03527]
  37. Priest's Sike Slack [SE 76080 97366]
  38. Pye Rigg Slack [SE 97226 99536]
  39. Raindale Slack [NZ 95233 07036]
  40. Robbed Howe Slacks [NZ 86946 01544]
  41. Rustifhead Slack [SE 85284 89926]
  42. Seavy Slack [SE 90063 90416]
  43. Sliving Sike Slack [SE 86883 99896]
  44. Soulsgrave Slack [NZ 90667 04721]
  45. Spa Hill Slack [NZ 84434 04179]
  46. Stony Gate Slack [NZ 91756 05267]
  47. Thorn Hill Slack [SE 88827 93626]
  48. Tim Wash Slack [SE 90168 98055]
  49. White Mires Slack [SE 76690 96190]
  50. Wedland Slack [SE 84371 90391]
  51. Wood Slack [SE 87051 96830]
51
-slet, sleigh ON slétta [162] OE sliht smooth, plain, level, level field
  1. Sleights [NZ 86484 07562]
  2. Sled Hill [SE 51915 87334]
2
slep, slap, sleap ON sleipr [275] OE slæp slippery place
  1. Slape Stone Beck [SE 47375 97035]
1
sma- ON smár [276] OE smæl small, little
  1. Smay Lane [NZ 94966 05919]
  2. Smailes Moor Farm [NZ 95079 06173]
2
snaith, snod, snade, sned, snead, snett, sneyd, snett ON sníð, sneitt, sneið [277] OE snad, snæd something which is cut off, isolated wood, clearing in a wood
  1. Snainton Dikes [SE 90880 89305]
  2. Sneaton (Sneton, Snetune 1160 and DB) [NZ 89500 07500]
  3. Sneaton Castle [NZ 87955 10621]
  4. Sneaton Corner [NZ 91509 03645]
  5. Sneaton High Moor [NZ 87996 00876]
  6. Sneaton Low Moor [NZ 89771 03877]
  7. Sneaton Thorpe [32] [NZ 90992 06135]
  8. Sneaton Thorpe Beck [NZ 90277 05635]
  9. Sneaton Thorpe Lane [NZ 90688 06304]
  10. Sneaton Thorpe Wood [NZ 90177 05713]
  11. Snod Hill [26] [SE 86471 97287]
11
so, shep ON sauðr, sauðir [278] OE scæp, scep, sceáp, sceop, scép sheep
  1. Sheep Beeld [NZ 83683 02416]
  2. Sheepfold [NZ 83700 02283]
 
south, sut, sud, suff, son, sid ON suðri [160] OE suth south
  1. South End [TA 01283 92745]
  2. South End Farm [TA 01358 92816]
  3. South House Farm [NZ 95082 03725]
  4. Suffield [SE 98566 90557]
  5. Suffield Heights [SE 97550 89650]
  6. Suffield Hill [SE 98350 90450]
  7. Suffield Ings [SE 98187 89322]
  8. Suffield Mere [SE 98801 90784]
  9. Suffield Moor [SE 98245 92592]
  10. Sutherbruff Rigg [SE 86704 87333]
10
sow ON saurr [231] OE sol, slím (1) mud, dirt (2) soil, filth, mire, dirt, a place to roll in (3) slime, mud, mire
  1. Sow Beck [SE 94547 89828]
1
spaun, spon ON spánn [159] OE spon (see also scid, speld) chip, shaving, shingle    
-staffe ON staðr [158] OE stede place, site, position    
stack, stakk ON stakkr   a sea rock, stack    
stain, stan, sten, stone ON steinn [20] OE stan stone, rock [47]
  1. Adder Stone [SE 87843 90136]
  2. Adderstone Rigg [SE 88254 90121]
  3. Adderstone Wood [SE 87963 90251]
  4. Bridestone Griff [SE 87381 91248]
  5. Bridge Stone Slack [NZ 90652 01461]
  6. Graystone (Farm) [NZ 86980 10837]
  7. Graystone Hills [NZ 91504 04199]
  8. Greystone Farm [TA 01144 95744]
  9. Grey Stones [SE 86733 96102]
  10. Grundstone Wath [SE 77601 96881]
  11. Hawsker-cum-Stainsacre CP [NZ 92477 08719]
  12. High Bride Stones [SE 87256 91478]
  13. High Staindale [SE 88604 90453]
  14. Low Bride Stones [SE 87474 91223]
  15. Low Staindale [SE 86871 90511]
  16. Slape Stone Beck [SE 47375 97035]
  17. Stain Dale [19] [SE 88149 90474]
  18. Staindale Beck [SE 86794 89999]
  19. Staindale Lake [SE 88114 90322]
  20. Stainsacre [20] [NZ 91574 08327]
  21. Stainsacre Dale [NZ 91381 08155]
  22. Stainsacre Bridge [NZ 91556 08076]
  23. Stainsacre Dale [NZ 91381 08155]
  24. Stainsacre Hall [NZ 91237 08303]
  25. Stainsacre Lane [NZ 91607 06655]
  26. Staintondale (Steintun DB) [SE 98974 98408]
  27. Staintondale Moor [SE 98766 99409]
  28. Stoneclose Rigg [SE 86232 88738]
  29. Stone Hill Heads [SE 88000 94360]
  30. Stone Hill Slack [SE 88207 94272]
  31. Stonesty Wood [SE 98150 90450]
  32. Stony Gill [SE 95888 93860]
  33. Stony Leas [SE 88811 99210]
  34. Stony Marl Howes [NZ 95618 00672]
  35. Stony Marl Moor [NZ 94878 00552]
  36. Stony Wood [SE 93162 95383]
  37. Tinkler's Stone [NZ 95838 03645]
  38. Whinstone Ridge [NZ 84626 03162]
38
stang, -stang ON stǫng [157] OE steng pole, stake, stang    
stath, -teth ON stæð [66] OE stæp a shore, bank, landing place    
stav ON stafr [156] OE stæf staff, post, stick, stave    
steel, still ON stigi [230] OE stigel stile, ladder, fence
  1. Blea Wyke Steel [NZ 99128 01535]
  2. Peak Steel [NZ 97993 02627]
2
stove, stew ON stofn [229] OE stofn tree stump, stoven    
stour, storr ON stórr [155] OE stór big, great, vast
  1. Storr Lane [SE 96768 90277]
  2. Storry Hills [TA 00024 93262]
2
storr, stord, stort ON storð [228]   brushwood, young wood, plantation
  1. Storr Lane [SE 96768 90277]
  2. Storry Hills [TA 00024 93262]
2
strait ON strait OE streit strait    
strand, strant ON strönd, strœnd [153] OE strand strand, beach, shore, old river bank
  1. Whitby Strand [3] (Witebi DB)
1
strom ON straumr [152] OE stréam stream, running water    
stoupe, stoop, stowp ON staup OE steap a steep declivity or slope, a pitch, precipice
  1. Stoupe Bank Farm [NZ 95747 03362]
  2. Stoupe Bank Lane [NZ 95350 03650]
  3. Stoupe Beck [NZ 95307 03200]
  4. Stoupe Beck Sands [NZ 96032 03414]
  5. Stoupe Brow [18] [NZ 96387 01930]
  6. Stoupe Brow Bank [NZ 95750 03450]
  7. Stoupe Brow Beacon [NZ 97095 01200]
  8. Stoupe Brow Cottage Farm [NZ 95774 03360]
  9. Stoupe Brow Farm [NZ 96652 02195]
  10. Stoupe Cross Farm [NZ 90992 10791]
10
stye, stie ON stígr [151] and [286] OE stíg, stie a steep ascent or pass, narrow footpath
  1. Normanby Stye Batts [286] [NZ 95192, 07558] and [NZ 95120 07520]
  2. Pursglove Stye [NZ 94450 08150]
  3. Pursglove Stye Batts [NZ 94450 08250]
  4. Reasty Hill [SE 96325 94541]
  5. Reasty Hill Top [SE 96230 94385]
  6. Reasty Quarry [SE 96392 94471]
  7. Reasty Road [SE 96045 94757]
  8. Stonesty Wood [SE 98150 90450]
8
sug(g) ON segja [285] OE sægan to say, tell, declare, proclaim
  1. Suggitt Plantation [NZ 93827 02395]
1
swallow ON svelgr [226] OE swelgan swirl, whirlpool, swallower; to swallow
  1. Swallow Head [NZ 93685 02979]
  2. Swallow Head Farm [NZ 93785 02742]
2
swart ON svartr [150] OE blæc black, dark
  1. Swarthlands Farm [TA 00951 92161]
  2. Swarth Howe [SE 96945 94082]
2
sweinn, swin, swan, grise ON svín [227] OE swin pig, wild-boar, swine
  1. Swanbeck Farm [SE 99350 90050]
  2. Swinesale [SE 99350 90050]
  3. Swines Gill [SE 96415 93855]
  4. Swinesgill Rigg [SE 96289 93893]
4
ta(i)ng, tong(e) ON tangi [225] OE tang, twang cape, tongue of land
  1. Barley Carr Tongue [SE 92546 96503]
1
tarn ON tiorn, tjǫrn, tjörn [224]   tarn, small mountain lake without tributaries
  1. The Tarn [NZ 82350 00152]
1
thorn(e), thurn, thean, -tron, -terne ON þorn [48], þynir OE þyrne thorn bush, thorny place
  1. Hawthorns [SE 97979 88982]
  2. Hawthorn Wood [SE 98291 89092]
  3. Jingleby Thorn [SE 89419 89600]
  4. Jingleby Thorn Plantation [SE 89612 89645]
  5. Thirley Beck [SE 98322 95206]
  6. Thirley Cotes (Farm) [SE 97594 95070]
  7. Thorn(e)y Browe (16th century [14]) [NZ 94597 01755]
  8. Thorney Brow Farm [NZ 94690 01687]
  9. Thornfields Farm [NZ 93285 04568]
  10. Thorn Hill [NZ 88625 04631]
  11. Thornhill Farm [NZ 83787 00104]
  12. Thorn Hill Head [SE 88962 94159]
  13. Thorn Hill Slack [SE 88827 93626]
  14. Thorn Key Howes [NZ 91488 03334]
  15. Thorn Key Wath [NZ 91296 03194]
  16. Thorn Park (Farm) [SE 98406 88115]
  17. Thorny Beck [SE 98536 97709]
  18. Whitethorn [SE 86203 90848]
18
thorpe ON þorp [223] OE þorp, þrop small village, settlement "smaller village due to colonisation from a larger one e.g. Sneaton Thorp" (rare in Norway but common in Denmark)
  1. Fyling Thorpe or Fylingthorpe (Fielinga 1160, Prestethorpe, 13th century, Nortfigelinge DB) [NZ 94073 04713]
  2. Mowthorp(e) (Farm) [SE 98073 88278]
  3. Mowthorp Bridge [SE 97996 88233]
  4. Mowthorp Cottage [SE 98063 88207]
  5. Mowthorpe Road [SE 98191 87980]
  6. Sneaton Thorpe [32] [NZ 90992 06135]
  7. Sneaton Thorpe Beck [NZ 90277 05635]
  8. Sneaton Thorpe Lane [NZ 90688 06304]
  9. Sneaton Thorpe Wood [NZ 90177 05713]
  10. Thorpe Beck [NZ 93910 05081]
  11. Thorpe Green [NZ 94136 04821]
  12. Thorpe Hall [NZ 94594 04939]
  13. Thorpe Hall [NZ 94594 04939]
  14. Thorpe Lane [NZ 94924 05265]
14
threll, trail ON þræll [149] OE þræl thrall, serf, slave    
throstle ON þrostr [222] OE þrēasce song thrush
  1. Throstle Nest [NZ 87329 06132]
1
ting, thing ON þing, þingvǫllr [148] OE þing assembly, court, meeting place of parliament
  1. Thingwall [7] [NZ 89886 11056]
1
tir ON tyri, tyrfi [190]   dry resinous fir-tree used for making a fire    
toft ON topt, tupt [39] OE toft site of a single house, farm, homestead
(a mark of Danish settlement, as distinguished from Norwegian)
  1. Allan Tofts [39] [NZ 83050 02976]
  2. Barnby Tofts Farm [NZ 82142 13937]
  3. Hartoft Beck [SE 75757 94736]
  4. Hartoft Bridge [SE 74874 92566]
  5. Hartoft Bridge Farm [SE 74895 92766]
  6. Hartoft End [SE 74944 92951]
  7. Hartoft Rigg [SE 74651 95670]
  8. Hartoft Wood [SE 75792 93541]
  9. High Toft Hills [TA 00646 92441]
  10. Lingers Toft [NZ 94671 05348]
  11. Low Toft Hills [TA 00821 92604]
  12. Toft House (farm) [NZ 86350 08950]
  13. Tofta Farm [SE 98175 98448]
  14. Tofta Hill [SE 98476 98480]
  15. Tofta Road [SE 98358 98505]
15
ton, farm ON tún [27] OE tún farm, hedged enclosure, homestead
(in Norse deeds each farm is called a tún)
  1. Allerston (High Moor) [SE 88250 93550]
  2. Bedlington's Lane [NZ 93996 05567]
  3. Burniston (Brinitun, Brinnistun DB) [TA 00806 92974]
  4. Cloughton [44] [TA 00551 94650]
  5. Easington [NZ 74583 18306]
  6. Easington End Farm [NZ 73950 18050]
  7. Easington Farm [NZ 73950 17950]
  8. Easington Hall [NZ 74550 18050]
  9. Easington Hall Farm [NZ 74698 18140]
  10. East Ayton [SE 99675 85175]
  11. Ebberston [SE 91886 92142]
  12. Ebberston Low Moor [SE 91137 91101]
  13. Egton (Egetune DB) [NZ 81137 06477]
  14. Hamilton [NZ 92757 05313]
  15. Harton House [NZ 93946 05305]
  16. Hutton Mulgrave (Mulegrif 1160, Hotone, Hotune DB) [21] [NZ 83874 10131]
  17. Lockton [SE 83961 89856]
  18. Lockton Low Moor [SE 85627 92770]
  19. Newton Farm [NZ 89079 03903]
  20. Newton House [NZ 88722 03913]
  21. Newton House Plantation [NZ 88943 01540]
  22. Sneaton (Sneton, Snetune 1160 and DB) [NZ 89500 07500]
  23. Sneaton Castle [NZ 87955 10621]
  24. Sneaton Corner [NZ 91509 03645]
  25. Sneaton High Moor [NZ 87996 00876]
  26. Sneaton Low Moor [NZ 89771 03877]
  27. Sneaton Thorpe Beck [NZ 90277 05635]
  28. Sneaton Thorpe Wood [NZ 90177 05713]
  29. Staintondale (Steintun DB) [SE 98974 98408]
29
trough ON trog [161] OE trog a long, narrow container, open on top, for feeding or watering animals, trough, tray
  1. Cross Keld Trough [NZ 94301 05828]
1
twatt, thwaite, waite ON þveit, þvait [189]   "piece cut out or off", village, small settlement, paddock, meadow, forest clearing
  1. Agatwayt and Langthwayte Close (13th century)
  2. Bertwait and Setwait (1160) [30]
  3. Braithwaite Cottages [NZ 82624 03227]
  4. Calfthwaite (olim Calf Thwaite) Farm [35] [SE 99220 97737]
  5. Raithwaite [NZ 86915 11517]
  6. Raithwaite Gill [NZ 86662 11492]
  7. Raithwaite Hall [NZ 86896 11609]
  8. Raithwaite Lodge [NZ 87150 12050]
  9. Raithwaite Plantation [NZ 87045 11871]
  10. Southwaite House (17th century)
  11. Thwaite Head [SE 85485 89724]
  12. Thwaite Wood [SE 85160 89666]
  13. Wait Cliff [SE 91627 91361]
  14. Waitcliff End [SE 91883 91416]
  15. Waitcliffe Howe [SE 91210 91054]
15
vat, vatn ON vatn [147] OE wæter water, enclosed body of water
  1. Water Ark Pool [NZ 82897 02204]
  2. Water Ark Scar [NZ 83062 02288]
2
upgang ON upp-gangr (1) upp-ganga (2) [188] OE ūpgang (2) (1) a pass or stile - up + walk (2) a rising, sunrise, approach, ascent, landing, incursion inland
  1. Upgang [NZ 88216 11908]
1
vird, virda, war ON varða, varaði [154]   beacon, heap of stones, cairn, a pile of stones or wood to 'warn' a wayfarer as to the course of the way    
voe ON vágr [146] OE wæg creek, small sheltered bay, a fishing-place in northern Norway    
wall, wix, wick ON veggr [108] OE weall wall    
wed ON veiðr [105]   place for fishing, hunting
  1. Wedland Slack [SE 84371 90391]
1
wall, well ON vǫllr, völlr [104] OE weald, wald field, level ground, meadow
  1. Park Wall [NZ 93458 03064]
  2. Gaskel Well [NZ 72050 18050]
2
-wang ON vangr [187] OE wang cultivated field, garden, in-field, piece of land near a house, enclosed land among open strips    
warp ON varpa [107] OE (2) wearp, warp (1) throw, cast (2) warp, threads stretched lengthwise in a loom; twig, osier
  1. Ruswarp (Risewarp 1160) [NZ 88418 09314]
  2. Ruswarp Bank [NZ 88767 09337]
  3. Ruswarp Carrs [NZ 87663 08542]
  4. Ruswarp Hall [NZ 88950 09350]
4
-wath, -with, -worth ON vað, vaða [106] OD wæthil from ON vaðill)
OE wæd
ford, to wade through water
  1. Birchwath Slack [NZ 78415 02011]
  2. Blawath Beck [33] [SE 82104 96402]
  3. Blawath Crag [SE 81208 97677]
  4. Briggswath [23] [NZ 87348 08475]
  5. Cow Wath Bank [NZ 83631 01346]
  6. Cow Wath Beck [TA 02101 91235]
  7. Gainforth Wath [SE 97278 98670]
  8. Gainforth Wath Road [SE 97431 98624]
  9. Grundstone Wath [SE 77601 96881]
  10. Healwath Beck [SE 95547 99567]
  11. Helwath Beck [SE 95020 99089]
  12. Helwath Bridge [SE 95490 99520]
  13. Helwath Grains [NZ 95991 00248]
  14. Helwath Road [SE 95545 99369]
  15. Helwath Wash Fold [SE 94897 98599]
  16. Helwath Wood [SE 94884 98819]
  17. High Oxam Wath [SE 91641 93766]
  18. New Wath Scar [NZ 82115 00602]
  19. Prior Wath [SE 98778 97684]
  20. Prior Wath Road [SE 99089 98417]
  21. Quarry Wath [TA 00397 93670]
  22. Thorn Key Wath [NZ 91296 03194]
22
-well ON vel OE wel well
  1. Coney Well Spring [NZ 97443 01040]
  2. Dowbrow Well [NZ 95318 06155]
  3. Hinderwell [22] [NZ 79615 16764]
  4. Holygill Well [NZ 71039 16479]
  5. Kettle Well Cottage [NZ 93150 02250]
  6. Teydale Well [SE 97554 97652]
6
west ON vestr [103] OE west westerly
  1. West Beck [SE 81327 99667]
  2. West Lodge [NZ 93645 03943]
2
whin ON hvein [186] OE gorst, gost, georst gorse, furze
  1. Whin Bank Plantation [NZ 93448 03965]
  2. Whin Brow [TA 01266 95376]
  3. Whin Covert [SE 99625 86869]
  4. Whin Green [NZ 87006 07784]
  5. Whin Hill [SE 99950 98850]
  6. Whinny Wood [NZ 89950 05350]
  7. Whinstone Ridge [NZ 84626 03162]
  8. Whinstone Cottages [NZ 82097 04031]
  9. Whinstone Quarries [NZ 81902 04217]
9
white ON hvítr [185] OE hwít white
  1. Peter White Cliff [NZ 96213 03026]
  2. Whitby [3] (Witebi DB)
  3. White Beck [SE 92125 90760]
  4. White Cliff (Whitecliff) Beck [NZ 71422 18310]
  5. Whitecliff (White Cliff) Wood [NZ 71215 18400]
  6. White Cliff Rigg [SE 87152 86118]
  7. White Leys [NZ 88708 11121]
  8. White Mires [SE 77306 96861]
  9. White Mires Slack [SE 76690 96190]
  10. White Stone Hole [NZ 94967 07785]
  11. Whitethorn [SE 86203 90848]
11
wick, wyke ON vík, wic [184]   bay, cove, creek [64]
  1. Blea Wyke [NZ 98796 01590]
  2. Blea Wyke Lodge [NZ 98938 00920]
  3. Blea Wyke Point [NZ 99258 01340]
  4. Blea Wyke Steel [NZ 99128 01535]
  5. Catwick (Farm) (House Farm) [NZ 90872 05941]
  6. Cloughton Wyke [TA 02617 95155]
  7. Deepgrove Wyke [NZ 85828 14004]
  8. Ground Wyke [NZ 95633 05273]
  9. Ground Wyke Hole [NZ 95420 05057]
  10. Hardwick Farm [SE 95818 95636]
  11. Hayburn Wyke [TA 01262 97068]
  12. Hayburn Wyke Hotel [TA 01502 96980]
  13. Hayburn Wyke Wood [TA 00809 97030]
  14. Loop Wyke [NZ 84732 14785]
  15. Maw Wyke [NZ 94150 08306]
  16. Maw Wyke Hole [NZ 94132 08380]
  17. Overdale Wyke [NZ 85648 14390]
  18. Saltwick [NZ 91585 10820]
  19. Saltwick Bay [NZ 91997 10984]
  20. Saltwick Hole [NZ 91777 10946]
  21. Saltwick Nab [NZ 91505 11330]
  22. Sandsend Wyke [NZ 86833 12754]
  23. Skivick Crag [SE 80952 97971]
  24. Wykeham High Moor [SE 91550 95850]
  25. Wyke Lodge [SE 99382 97602]
25
-with, -ved ON viðr [102] OE widu, wudu wood    
wy, wig, weigh ON[183] OE wíg holy, sanctuary, temple, sacred place, idol, temple [63]    
wragby ON wraggi [280]   Wraggi's farmstead/homestead
  1. Wragby [40] [NZ 93650 00350]
  2. Wragby Farm [NZ 93604 00395]
  3. Wragby Wood [SE 93122 99920]
3
wreay, wray, wro(e), ray, roe, -row, -rea ON vrá [182] OE scéat, sceatt, scætt nook of land, corner, wray, outlying piece of land  

Footnotes

[1] '1160'

A place-name designated '1160' is one of the hamlets and places which existed circa 1160 in the manors and towns comprising the "lands, possessions, forests, churches, tithes and liberties" the corpus of the endowment of William de Percy (as augmented by Alan his son and William his grandson) in 1096 to his brother Serlo (the prior) and the monks of Whitby of the churches of St. Peter and St. Hilda as described in "Early Yorkshire Charters" (1914) William Farrer at page 200 as taken from the "Whitby Cartulary" (1879) J. C. Atkinson.


[2] Silpho, Silpho Brow, Silpho Brow Farm and Silpho Moor

Silpho 'Silpa's Barrow'. Possibly Danish female personal name Silpa (Latin spelling of a Hebrew name meaning 'drop, tear (of myrrh)' or 'intimacy'); alternatively Old Norse silfr, 'silver'. Silfow - Yorkshire Lay Subsidy R. 30 Edward I (1301) (Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 1897).

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 205

silfr n. silver; … money


"Words and Places" Isaac Taylor (1936) at page 138

Chapter VIII

The Northmen

The Norse haugr, a sepulchral mound, is often found in the names of mountains crowned by conspicuous tumuli. The name of the old Viking who lies buried here is often preserved in the first portion of such local names. Thus, Silver How, Bull How, Scale How, and Butterlip How, are, probably, the burial-places of the forgotten heroes, Sölvar, Böll, Skall, and Buthar Lipr.


"The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names" Eilert Ekwall (1960) at pages 422 & 409

Silpho YN [Sifthou 1145-8, Silfhou 12, 1230 Whitby Silfho 1231 Ass]. Most probably an OE Scylf-hoh 'ridge with a peak or with a plateau', Scandinavianized. As the sound sh was unknown to early Scandinavian, an s might be substituted for it. The first element is really OE scylfe. See SCYLF.

O.E. scylf, scelf 'rock, crag', no doubt also 'ledge' and 'bank of a river', is a common element in place names. There was also O.E. scylfe, scilfe 'ledge, shelf', but probably used in other senses too. The two are not always easy to keep apart. The exact meaning of the elements in place names is often difficult to determine … O.E. scylfe, scilfe is the first element of … SILPHO …


"The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" A. H. Smith, Volume V (1979) at pages xxv and 115

Introduction (at page xxv)

"… Silpho in the south of the wapentake and Sneaton and Wragby contain Danish personal names …"

Whitby Strand Wapentake

4. SILPHO 23 C 4

  • Sifthou (sic) 1145-8 Whitby Cartulary (Surtees Society Publications 69, 72, MS 15th Century)
  • Silfhou, -how 1155-65, 1230, circa 1265-78, early 14 Whitby Cartulary (Surtees Society Publications 69, 72, MS 15th Century)
  • Silfho 1231 Yorkshire Assize Rolls, unpublished (Public Record Office)
  • Silfow(e) 1301 Yorkshire Lay Subsidy, 1301 (YAS 21), 1395 Whitby Cartulary (Surtees Society Publications 69, 72, MS 15th Century)
  • Silfey 1577 Saxton's Map of Yorkshire (1577)

vide haugr. The first element is probably the Old Danish personal name Sylve (Nielsen, Olddanske Personnavne, (1883). Compare Silton 201 infra.


[3] Whitby

Streanæshalc, Streneshalc, Streoneshalch, Streoneshalh, Streunes-Alae in Lindissi (7th and 8th centuries); Prestebi (11th century); Hwitebi, Witebi (12th century - Chartulary of Whitby); Whitebi (13th century); Qwiteby (14th century). According to the English Place-Name Society's "Key to English Place-Names" - ON hvítr, 'white' (M.E., O.E.) hwit 'white' and ON by 'farmstead or village' giving 'White farm/settlement' or 'Hviti's farm/settlement'. Alternatively, the first member could be derived from Old West Scandinavian viti 'a beacon, kindled as a warning signal'.

Prestebi from O.E. preost 'priest', (genitive plural preosta) per "The Chief Elements used in English Place-Names" (1924) Allen Mawer at page 49.


"The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names" Eilert Ekwall (1960) at page 513

Whitby Chs [Witebia circa 1100, -beria circa 1150, -bi circa 1190 Chester], W~ YN [Witebi DB, circa 1150 SD, Hwitebi 1104-8 SD, Quietby 1218 FF]. 'White village or town'. Whitby YN is recorded in its OScand form in a verse of the 12th century (Heimskringla) as Hvitaby (dat).


"The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" A. H. Smith, Volume V (1979) at pages xxv, 111 and 126

Introduction (at page xxv)

"… In Whitby Strand it is known traditionally that the Danes Ingwar and Ubba destroyed the monastery of Streonæshalch (Whitby Cartulary, 1), but the Danes do not seem to have settled there to any great extent … In Whitby Strand, therefore, the very high proportion of Scandinavian names must be due to Norwegian influence."


IV. WHITBY STRAND WAPENTAKE

  • Wytebistrand 1200-22 Guis, 1294 Ebor
  • Libertate de Whiteby 1231 Ass

'Whitby shore' vide Whitby 126 infra and strand. Whitby Strand was a liberty and at the time of the DB survey all its parishes were in the wapentake of Langbargh except Harkness which was in Pickering Lythe. As late as the end of the 13th century the lord of Aislaby manor (in Whitby parish) did suit at the wappentake court of Langbargh (compare Whitby 718). Whitby Strand (the older name of the district) was first called a wapentake in 1316 (Pat.R.).


7. WHITBY 16 F 11

  • Witebi, -by, Wytebi, -by 1086 DB et passim to 1298 YI
  • Wyttebeia, -beya 1138 Dugd iii. 545 passim

Aspirated forms appear in the 12th century and are practically the only forms found after the 13th:

  • Whitby 1138 Whitby et passim
  • Whi-, Whyteby circa 1150-60 YCh 828 et passim to 1361 FF

Over-aspirated forms are of sporadic appearance:

  • Quietby 1218 FF (p), 1267 Ebor
  • Qwyteby 1423 Baildon

The name appears also in the Heimskringla as Hvitabyr. 'Hviti's farmstead' from the ON by-name Hviti (gen. Hvita) and by.

Whitby was by early tradition identified with the Streonæshalch of Bede (compare Simeon of Durham, Hist. Dunelm. Eccles., Rolls Series, i. 111). Variant forms of the name in Bede are Streanshalh, Streonæshalch, Streaneshalh, Streneshælc. The OE Bede has Streonshalh, Strineshalg, whilst the ASC (sub anno 680) has Streonsheal. For this name v. Strensall 13 supra. Bede translates the name as sinus fari, which offers difficulty. The best explanation seems to be to look upon Bede's fari as a mistake for fare or farae, from Medieval Latin fara 'strain, descent' which is, of course, the meaning of OE streon, here used as a personal name, while healh is rendered by sinus.


"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 114 & 116

  • hveiti n. wheat
  • hveitiakr (gen. -akrs) m. wheat-field …
  • hvítr adj. white … form as nickname ('white-haired') …
  • Hvítramannaland n. the land of the white men …

[4] Broxa

Old Norse brokkr, 'badger' (OE brocc and brocc-hol 'badger hole') giving 'badger's island'.

"Notes and Queries" (22 January 1870) J. C. Atkinson (Danby in Cleveland) at page 105

As to Broxa and Silpho: the former, temp. Henry I., was written Brocesay; in the Abbot's Book (Whitby) Brocchesay, Broechesey, Brocehesei, &c.; in 1146, Brokesay; in 1316, Brokesey; &c.

This termination, varying through a, ay, ey, ei, eie, may be either Anglian or Old Danish. In Tordisa, Thordisa, other ancient forms of which are Tkordesay, Tordsay, Thordeisa (the old name of what is now East Row Beck, near Whitby), I have no doubt it is Old Norse á, river, stream. If Anglian, the a or ey will mean islet, the name for which, as formed by a stream whether constantly or only periodically, is in this district almost invariably holm. Thus, there must be some forty or fifty holms in Cleveland alone.

Brock (or Broch, in its more ancient form) is a prefix of frequent occurrence in the district Broxa lies in; and in some instances it would seem to be a personal name, as in Brotton, Broughton, both formerly Broctun. In Broch-hole Beck, Brock-rigg, &c, the animal probably supplies the name.

On the whole, I think that, as Thordisa is "Thord's stream" Brocchesay is fully as likely to be Brock's stream as Badger's island.

I may add that, in close vicinity to Broxa, the local names Thirley, Thirlsey, Hella, Cockrah occur. Silpho, in the Abbot's Book, and in a deed dated 1146, is written Silfhou; in 1316 it stands Silfou; in 1396 Silfhow. The suffix in this case is, beyond doubt, the 0ld Norse haugr, Norwegian haug, Swedish hög, Danish höj, Jutlandish hyv, &c. Silf may be the Old Danish Sölvi, or Anglian Sealf. The fact that the Scandinavian houe is suffixed in many instances, in the district in question, to Anglian names is both patent and interesting. I instance only in Glap Howe (Anglian Glappa or Clappa) near Skelton, Lil-houe (Anglian Lilla), Basin Howe (Anglian Basing or Besing), Sexhow (Anglian Saexa), Potto (anciently Pothow, Pottowe; Anglian Putta) - all in Cleveland. Gnipe Howe, Swart-houe or Swarth Howe (two or three of the name), Stanghow (two of the name), and many others, are 0ld Danish in both their elements. Naturally, out of the vast number of conspicuous objects which most of these "Celtic" burial-mounds or houes are, not a few would be specially named by the Anglian colonists, and many of these probably renamed by the Scandinavian settlers. I have been able to trace only three of the Anglian names of places with any certainty. The Anglian names of houes still surviving become, therefore, doubly interesting.


"The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names" Eilert Ekwall (1960) at page 422

Broxa YN [Brokesaye 1090-6 YCh 855, Brokesey 1316 FA]. First element perhaps Broc personal name. The second may be OE gehæg, 'enclosure'.


"The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" A. H. Smith, Volume V (1979) at page 111

Whitby Strand Wapentake

Hackness

1. Broxa 23 C 4

  • Brokesay(e), -eye 1090-6 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters, 3 volumes, 1914 ff 855) et passim to 1335 Pleas of the Forest, Public Record Office, Duchy of Lancashire, Miscellaneous Books, volume 1 (MS late 14th century)
  • Brochesei 1155-65 Whitby Cartulary (Surtees Society Publications 69, 72, MS 15th Century)
  • Broxhay 1335 Pleas of the Forest, Public Record Office, Duchy of Lancashire, Miscellaneous Books, volume 1 (MS late 14th century)
  • Brokessay 1395 Whitby Cartulary (Surtees Society Publications 69, 72, MS 15th Century)

'Broc's hunting enclosure' vide (ge)hæg. The position does not admit of a second element e.g. For the possibility of such a personal name, vide MLR xiv. 235.


[5] Allison Head Wood, Grime Gill and Grime Moor

Old Norse personal names: Allison, Grim from ON personal name Grímr.

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 85 & 86

  • Gríma f. Hebridean woman, wife of Kotkell
  • Grímhildr f. wife of Atli, sister of Gunnarr and half-sister of Hǫgni
  • grimmðarnáttúra f. fierce nature, fierceness
  • grimmr adj. fierce
  • Grímr m. Þórðr Kolbeinsson's farmhand
  • Grímr geitskǫr m. 10th-century Icelander
  • Grímr Njálsson
  • Grímsnes n. area in southern Iceland

"On the Danish Element in the Population of Cleveland, Yorkshire" J. C. Atkinson published in The Journal of the Ethnological Society of London (1869-1870) Vol. 2, No. 3 (1870) at page 352

"… we also meet with a very large proportion of personal names which are not only English in their origin, but most certainly Scandinavian. I take as types of this class of names (and only a few out of many) Milburn, Mewburn, Osburn, Allison, Jordison, Towlson, Lockson, Colson, Birkell, Horne, Horden, Gill, Keld, Rigg, Ness, Lax, Scarth, Scar … besides the manifold prefixes furnished by such personal names as Kell or Ketel, Dane, Norma, Ugelbard, Leising, Orm, Ingialld, Bergulf, Grim, Grimkell, Baldr … we find as a rule … the geographical or physical features of the country described … by such terms as gill, foss, scar, finkel, dale, rigg, bottom, head, brae, sike, houl, bank, nab, and the like; and this without dwelling on such words as garth, intak', houe &c"


"Scandinavian Settlement Names in Yorkshire" Gillian Fellows Jensen (1972) at page 203

VIII. The age of the settlements with Scandinavian and scandinavianised names and of the names themselves.

1. The evidence of situation.

Although the personal name Grímr was common in Scandinavia and is found quite frequently independently in Yorkshire, the number of Yorkshire place names, the majority of them nature names, which apparently contain the personal names as first element is greatly in excess of the number of independent instances. Whereas it is likely that place names such as Grimsby YN (q.v.) and Grimthorpe YE (q.v.) do in fact contain the Scandina­vian personal name, it would seem more reasonable to assume that the first element in the nature names is rather Grímr/Grim, a by-name for Óðinn/Woden. The by-name may have been used with some mythological signifi­cance but it seems preferable to accept the suggestion made by Margaret Gelling (in "Place-Names and Anglo-Saxon Heathenism", University of Birmingham Historical journal, Vol. VIII, no. 1, 1961, 7-25, particularly 14) that the name Grim may have survived the conversion of the Anglo-Saxons and the Danes to Christianity and have been used as a pseudonym for the Devil. Its survival may have been assisted by association with the OE adjective grim "sharp, savage, cruel". Margaret Gelling draws attention to the fact that Grim- is fairly common as the first element of place names in south-eastern England, particularly combined with elements that denote some form of prehistoric monument. Examples are Grimsdyke or Grim's Ditch, Grimsbury, Grimspound and Grimes Graves. There are certain facts that suggest that it may be the mythological name used in a derogatory sense rather than the Scandinavian personal name that is found in some of the Yorkshire Grimstons. It has already been noticed that five of them have comparatively poor situations. Four of them are so-called lost villages (cf. below pp. 231-36), while there are only three other lost villages among the 36 remaining Grimston hybrids. Note also that Grimston Nt and Grimston Sf are lost villages (4) and that there is a lost Grimston in Leicestershire (5), while another Grimston in Leicestershire and Grimston Nf enjoy favourable English-type situa­tions.


Grímr and Grímir (personal names of Odin)

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

Grímr and Grímnir are names of Odin from his travelling in disguise. Grímr is also frequently a masculine proper name, and in compounds, Þor-grímr, Ás-grímr, Stein-grímr, Hall-grímr, etc.; and of women Gríma, Hall-gríma, etc.; prefixed in Grím-kell, Grím-úlfr, etc.: a serpent is in poetry called grímr.


[6] Ugglebarnby

"The Vikings and their Victims: the Verdict of the Names" Gillian Fellows-Jensen (1994) at page 25

One other Yorkshire place-name which contains as specific a Scandinavian by-name that would seem to have arisen in the Danelaw is Ugglebarnby (Vgleberdesbi GDB 305ra; 4N1) in the North Riding. The specific would seem to be a Scandinavian *Uglubarð 'owl-beard'. There are a number of other instances of this name in the Danelaw. In the forms Uglebert, Ugelberd it occurs on coins of Eadred, Eadwig, Edgar and Edward (Feiltzen and Blunt, 'Personal names', pp. 205–06.) and as Vgle-/Vgelbert (GDB 301rb; 1E57.59) it is recorded as the name of the Domesday tenant of Croom and Kirby Grindalythe in the East Riding of Yorkshire. It also survived into the eighteenth century as a Westmorland surname, Oglebird (A. H. Smith, The Place-Names of Westmorland 2, English Place-Name Society Vol. XLIII (Cambridge, 1967), pp. 125, 131.).


"On the Danish Element in the Population of Cleveland, Yorkshire" J. C. Atkinson published in The Journal of the Ethnological Society of London (1869-1870) Vol. 2, No. 3 (1870) at page 354

Ugelbardby 1540, Ugleberdebi 1340, Hugelbardebi 1160, Ugleberdesbi DB). Uglebert and Ugelbard were owners of land in the district in 1066


"The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names" Eilert Ekwall (1960) at page 485

Ugglebarnby YN [Ugleberdesbi DB, Ugelbardeby 1100-15 YCh 857] 'Uglubarði's BY'. Uglubarði is an unrecorded ON byname, composed of ugla 'owl' and Barði personal name.


"The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" (1979) A. H. Smith, Volume V at page 121

Whitby Strand Wapentake

Whitby

Ugglebarnby

  • Uglebedesbi 1086 DB
  • Ugelbardebi, Ugle- 1100 - circa 1115 YCh 857, 1177-89, 1222-7 Whitby
  • Uggelbardebi, -by 1145-8 Whitby, 1301 Abbr
  • Ucchelbardebi 1155-65 Whitby
  • Vgulbardebi 1181 P
  • Uglebardby 1270 Whitby
  • W-, Ugelbardby 1310 Whitby, 1335 ForP
  • Oggelberdesby 1314 NRS
  • Ugglebarnby 1613 NR

'Farm of a man nicknamed "Owl-beard"' from ON Uglubarði (compare Lindkvist lxii, and NP, ZEN sine nomine) and vide by. The change of -bardby to -barnby is due to association of the name with Barnby across the river Esk.


Ugla, 'owl'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

UGLA, u, f. [Anglo Saxon ule; English 'owl']: -an owl, nátt-ugla u, f. a night-owl. II. metaph. a hook-formed clothes-peg is called ugla, from the resemblance to an owl's beak.


[7] Thingwall - see also [148]

Tingwal, Thingwala 1160 (thought to have been located in the potato market area of Church Street).

"An account of the Danes and Norwegians in England, Scotland, and Ireland" Jens Jakob Asmussen Worsaae (1852) page 70

Section VII

Danish-Norwegian Names of Places

… The name of the village of Thingwall (Wall, Dan., Vold, a bank or rampart) in Cheshire affords a remarkable memorial of the assizes, or Thing, which the Northmen generally held in conjunction with their sacrifices to the gods; it lies, surrounded with several other villages with Scandinavian names, on the small tongue of land that projects between the mouths of the rivers Dee and Mersey. At that time they generally chose for the holding of the thing, or assizes, a place in some degree safe from surprise. The chief ancient thing place for Iceland was called like this Thingwall, namely Thingvalla (originally "þingvöllr", "þingvellir" or the thing-fields).


"On the Danish Element in the Population of Cleveland, Yorkshire" J. C. Atkinson published in The Journal of the Ethnological Society of London (1869-1870) Vol. 2, No. 3 (1870) at pages 357 to 360

"… there is one other to which it will be well to direct special attention, and it seems strange that the local historians and antiquaries of Whitby should have left it to the present writer to do so … In the "Memorial of Benefactions" to Whitby Abbey, recapitulating the grants of land and other property made to that body by Wm de Perci and his son Alan, the list begins thus (translated from the Latin): … "The town and sea-port of Whitby (Witebi), "Overbi" and "Nedhrebi" that is Stainsacre (Steinsecher), Thingwall (Thingwala), Larpool Hall (Leirpel), Spital Vale (Helredale), "Gnip" that is Hawsker (Hauchesgard) &c". Young (Hist. of Whitby, ii page 912), after giving this memorial in extenso, proceeds to remark on some of the local names involved. "Overbi", he says, "is probably High Whitby, Thingwala, Highgate-houe," and so dismisses the name … and but for the remarkable dimness of vision besetting the Whitby historians, their local Thingwall would … have taken rank with those of Shetland, Orkney, Chester, Ross-shire, and demanded co-ordination in significance alike with them and with Norwegian "þing vellir", now Tingvala; and with Islandic "þingvöllir". The fact … that a Thing-place existed at Whitby would have amply justified the presumption that the entire district to which access is thence afforded by the sea must have been not only to a notable extent under the influence of, but occupied by, men of Northern or Old Danish origin; but coming as it does as a sort of practical commentary on the enumeration given above of local names, all bearing the impress of Scandinavian coinage, and prevailing to the extent of something like 9 out of 10 of the whole, it is difficult to overrate its importance."

"… Did the old Danes merely take up and occupy and name the parts of the districts hitherto unoccupied and unnamed, or did they enter on other men's possessions and rename as well as take possession ? … The materials for the answer of such a question are unhappily very scanty; but, as far as they go, they tend to the conclusion that these northern invaders and colonists overcame and killed or ousted the former possessors of the lands, which they then proceeded to rename. Certainly the name of Whitby itself, probably much the most important place at that time in the Cleveland district, was thus changed. In the times of Anglian possession it was Streoneshalh, or Streoneshalc; and it was reserved for its new northern masters, not only to replace that name by Whitby, but either to rename existing divisions of ancient Streoneshalc, or to create new local distinctions with the characteristic appellatives, Priestby, Overby, Netherby, Stakesby, Normanby, Gnipe, Berthwait, Sethwait, and Thingwall."


"Words and Places" Isaac Taylor (1936) at pages 138 & 139

Chapter VIII

The Northmen

In Cheshire, with one remarkable local exception, we find no vestiges of Norse colonists. But the spit of land called the Wirral, between the Dee and the Mersey, seems to have allured them by its excellent harbours, and the protection afforded by its almost insular character. Here, in fact, we fund geo­graphical conditions similar to those which gave rise to the two isolated Norse colonies at the mouths of the Stour and the Yare, and the result is no less remarkable. In this space of about twelve miles by six there is scarcely a single Anglo-Saxon name, while we find the Norse villages of Raby, Pensby, Irby, Frankby, Kirby, Whitby, and Greasby. We find also the Norse names of Shotwick, Holme, Dalpool, Howside, Bamston, Thornton, Thurstanston, Birkenhead, and the Back Brook; and in the centre of the district is the village of Thingwall, a name which indicates the position of the meeting-place of the Thing, the assembly in which the little colony of Northmen exercised their accustomed privileges of local self-government.


"The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" A. H. Smith (1979) Volume V at page 128

Whitby Strand Wapentake

7. WHITBY 16 F 11

THINGWALL (lost)

  • Tingwall 1145-8 YCh 872
  • Thingwala 1155-65 Whitby

vide þingvolir. The name is undoubtedly that of the moatstead of a very strong Scandinavian colony in Eskdale. There is no clue to the site. Compare Fingay Hill 213 infra.


"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at page 94

Chapter 2

Names containing Old West Scandinavian 'ei' (Old East Scandinavian 'e')

… it is worthy of note that we are in perhaps the most Scandinavian part of Yorkshire, not far from the Thingwala of the Whitby district …


[8] Pricky Bank Wood, Prickybeck Bridge and Prickybeck Island

'Pricky' possibly from ON prýði, 'an ornament; gallantry, bravery, glory, valour'.


Prýði, 'an ornament'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

  • prýða, d, to adorn, ornament
  • prýði, f. an ornament … 2. gallantry, bravery
  • prýði-maðr, m. a brave man
  • prýði-liga, adv. finely, bravely, nobly
  • prýði-ligr, adj. fine, ornamental, noble, magnificent
  • prýðing, f. decoration
  • prýðir, m. an adorner

[9] Hilda Spring - see also [240]

Possibly St. Hilda as Hilda Spring is opposite the "supposed site of monastic cell" at Hackness Hall [SE 97090 90503].

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 102

Hildr f. a nun


"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 10 & 11

Chapter 1

Names containing distinctively Old Scandinavian inflexional forms

Hildreuuelle Ildreuuelle Yo. DoB.; … 1st member can be the genitive - normally Hildar - of the O.W.Scand female name Hildr, which, according to Lind (Lind, E. H. Norsk-isländska dopnamn ock fingerade namn fran medeltiden. Upsala 1905 f.), was in frequent use during the Viking Age. It is found in several O.Norw. place-names, e.g. Hildertun Diplomatarium Norwegicum 6 (1385), Hildarland (see further Lind, E. H. Norsk-isländska dopnamn ock fingerade namn fran medeltiden. Upsala 1905 f.) …


[10] Ramsdale Beck is named Kirk Moor Beck upstream [NZ 91981 03027] and [NZ 91802 02913] and Mill Beck downstream from Ramsdale Wood [NZ 95314 04049].


[11] Swanbeck Farm (olim Swinesale) [SE 99350 90050].


[12] Between Low and High Burrows is a Roman Camp at [NZ 81450 04150].


[13] Whitby Chartulary (Surtees Society) 520.


[14] Yorkshire Lay Subsidy R. 30 Edward I (1301) (Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 1897), 109. From the footnotes to "The Subsidy: Liberty of Whitby" at pages 107-111:

"This document adds enormously to our knowledge of the names of the inhabitants of Whitby Strand at the commencement of the fourteenth century. Whitby is not even mentioned in Kirkby's Inquest; and in the Nomina Villarum, which is printed with Kirkby (p. 327), the information given is very scanty. The names of the inhabitants also not only add to our knowledge of their callings (as in other places), but give us the information that, even at this early date, the woollen manufactures were beginning to be a home business. The fuller, the weaver, and the dyer are mentioned - all three in immediate sequence to one another in one place - Johannes le Fulur, Henricus le Teler, and Thomas Tinctor - and besides that, the name Johannes Fleming reveals the fact that the immigration of Flemish wool-workers had already commenced. Perhaps, however, the most noteworthy circumstance connected with the list of names of fifteenth-paying inhabitants of Whitby is that scarcely one of the names of the persons designated betokens any dependence upon, or connection with, the, by that time, important and influential abbey of Whitby. And another observation of the same nature may be made. No fisherman, or boatman, or merchant-man, is specified. A century later the case was different."


[15] Hogarth Hill

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at page 144.

Chapter 4

Names containing Old West Scandinavian ou, au

Not far from Hawsker is a place called Hogarth (Hill), which name may be of the same origin (as Hawsker). It is stated to be identical with Haukesgarth 1299, 1344 Calendar of the Patent Rolls.


[16] Aislaby and place-names in .

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at page 175.

Chapter 5

Names containing Old Scandinavian a

Asuluesby, Asuluebi Yo. DoB.; Asulvebi ante 1180, Asolvebi early 13th century Whitby Chartulary; Ascilbi 1278 C. Inquisitions; Asselby, Haselby circa 1280 Whitby Chartulary; Asila-, Asillaby Kirkby; Aselby late 13th century Whitby Chartulary, Rotuli Hundredorum Henry III and Edward I, Testa de Nevill Henry III and Edward I, Nomina villarum for Yorkshire 9th Edward II, 1339 f. Calendar of the Patent Rolls, &c.; Assulby 1487 C. Inq. (Calendar of Inquisitions post mortem and other analgous documents, Henry III - Edward III, Henry VII); Asilby 1394, Aslaby, Aislaby circa 1540 Whitby Chartulary; now Aislaby, near Whitby.


"Scandinavian Settlement Names in Yorkshire" Gillian Fellows Jensen (1972) at pages 6, 8, 18 & 19.

II. Place-names in

1. The element in Scandinavia and Yorkshire

… In Norway, on the other hand, the term () seems to have been generally used of an isolated farmhouse, perhaps also originally of cultivated land. At all events, however, the element would seem to have acquired the meaning "village" before the period of the Scandinavian settlements in England (cf. PNEl i 66-72).

It is generally accepted that the village names in - in England were given by the Danish settlers but, as Kr. Hald points out in KLNM II 386, the use of the element by in the sense "village" would seem to have penetrated to the north and west from the areas of densest Danish settlement and there been adopted by the Norwegian settlers. Neither those places with names in in the areas of York­shire which are generally considered to have been settled by Norwegians nor those whose names contain a demonstrably WScand first element (e.g. an Irish or Norwegian personal name) can be shown to have been any smaller at the time of the compilation of DB than the villages in the demonstrably Danish areas. It is conceivable, however, that some of the names in the areas of predominantly Norwegian settlement and perhaps elsewhere, too, may originally have contained by in the sense "farmhouse". It is noticeable that several of the names indicate places that are now completely lost or whose site is marked by a solitary house or farm or in some cases merely by archaeological remains.

The spelling by is only found once in the Yorkshire place-names in DB, namely in Asuluesby 305r, also written Asuluebi 380v. Elsewhere it is always spelt bi. The survival of Scandinavian y in DB is very unusual. Feilitzen suggests (§§ 19. 20) that this is because there was a marked phonetic difference between OE and OScand y on the one hand and AN y on the other, whereas OFr i and OE and OScand y were phonetically similar. The one surviving y spelling probably indicates that the scribe of DB was here copying from a written source.

3. The material

Aislaby. Aislaby township, Whitby Strand W, N. Asuluesby 305r, Asuluebi 380v. The first element is the Scandinavian personal name Asulfr

Baldby. Baldby, lost village whose site is marked by Baldby Fields, Whitby, Whitby Strand W, N. Baldebi 305r, 380v. The first element is either the Scandinavian personal name Baldi or an OE personal name Balda


"Scandinavian Settlement Names in Yorkshire" Gillian Fellows Jensen (1972) at pages 5, 6 and 9 to 12.

II. Place-names in

1. The element in Scandinavia and Yorkshire

… Most Danish scholars agree, in fact, that the sense of in the majority of Danish place-names is "village" … In Norway, on the other hand, the term seems to have been generally used of an isolated farmhouse, perhaps also originally of cultivated land. At all events, however, the element would seem to have acquired the meaning "village" before the period of the Scandinavian settlements in England …

It is generally accepted that the village names in - in England were given by the Danish settlers but, as Kr. Hald points out in KLNM II 386, the use of the element in the sense "village" would seem to have penetrated to the north and west from the areas of densest Danish settlement and there been adopted by the Norwegian settlers. Neither those places with names in in the areas of York­shire which are generally considered to have been settled by Norwegians nor those whose names contain a demonstrably WScand first element (e.g. an Irish or Norwegian personal name) can be shown to have been any smaller at the time of the compilation of DB than the villages in the demonstrably Danish areas. It is conceivable, however, that some of the names in the areas of predominantly Norwegian settlement and perhaps elsewhere, too, may originally have contained by in the sense "farmhouse". It is noticeable that several of the names indicate places that are now completely lost or whose site is marked by a solitary house or farm or in some cases merely by archaeological remains.

2. The first elements in the place-names in

(i) Personal names

Altogether the survey includes 210 býs. A study has been made of the first elements in these names and this reveals that 119 býs or approximately 57% have either certainly or most probably a personal name as their first element. Of these personal names 108 or approximately 90% are Scandinavian, 7 English, 3 Irish, and one probably Continental Germanic.

a) Scandinavian personal names

… The possible reasons for the dominance of by-names in the Yorkshire place-names have been discussed in Scandinavian Personal Names in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire and the conclusion reached there is that by-names were chosen as the first element of place-names in preference to more common personal names either because the people in the immediate neighbourhood of the settlements in question wanted to avoid any possible doubt as to the identity of the tenant or owner or because these people were accustomed to call him by his by-name.

Altogether 81 different Scandinavian personal names are found in the Yorkshire býs and 23 of these do not appear in place-names of a younger type nor independently in Yorkshire. It is noticeable that 19 of these 23 names are by-names. It seems that by-names often died out with the men who bore them.

It is of interest to see how many of the personal names in Yorkshire place-names are also found in Danish place-names … In all, then, 24 out of 39 instances contain personal names that are also found in Danish place-names. Of the remaining 15 instances, 4 contain names which probably arose on English soil … 7 contain names which are much commoner in WScand sources than in EScand, namely Áslákr, Ásulfr, Eindriði (4), Róðmundr; the remaining 4 names, Bergulfr, Eymundr, Eysteinn, þormóðr, are found in both West and East Scandinavia.

The following by-names found in the Yorkshire place-names reappear in Danish place-names … In all, then, 29 out of 54 instances contain personal names that are also found in Danish place-names. Of the remaining 25 instances, 6 contain names that probably arose on English soil … 10 contain names that are typically WScand (i.e. not recorded in East Scandinavia or only seldom found there), Bak, Belgr, Boltr, Hákr, Halmi, Hjalp, Holti (2), Kausi, Mildi; the remaining 9 names are found both in West and East Scandinavia, Beli, Bol(l)i, Bragi, Farmann, Feitr, Hoggvandi, Káti, Moldr, Skorn(ir) or Skorri.

The following secondary formations are also found in Danish place-names … In all, then, 6 out of 12 instances contain personal names that are also found in Danish place-names … Altogether 62 or approximately 57% of the place-names in whose first element is a Scandinavian personal name contain personal names which also appear in Danish place-names, whereas only 17 or approximately 16% contain names which are typically WScand. The remaining 27% contain names that either are of Anglo-Scandinavian origin or can equally well be West or East Scandinavian. For further discussion of the place-names which seem to contain a WScand first element cf. below pp 190-93.


[17] Hawsker

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 143 & 144.

Chapter 4

Names containing Old West Scandinavian ou, au

Hauchesgard; see p. 143: Houkesgarth, Houkesgard, Hauchesgard Yo. 12th century Whitby Chartulary; Houkasgart, Houkesgart, Okesgard, Haukesgard ibid.; Hokesgard 1166-67, Haukesgard 1175-76, Hokesgarth 1179-80 Pipe Rolls; Haukasgarth 12th century Guisbrough Chartulary; Hokesgarthe 1212 Rotuli Chartarum; Houkesgarth 1213 Whitby Chartulary; Haukesgarth 1298 Yorkshire Inquisitions, 1301 Yorkshire Lay Subsidy, 1299, 1308 f. Whitby Chartulary; Haugesgargh Nomina villarum for Yorkshire 9th Edward II; etc.; now Hawsker, near Whitby.

1st member is genitive of the O.W.Scand. man's name Haukr Old Swedish Høker, O.Dan Høk), which appears as early as La. (Landnámabók 1900) and was in frequent use in Norway and Iceland; see Lind, E. H. Norsk-islæ‚ Ændska dopnamn ock fingerade namn fran medeltiden. Upsala 1905 f. The name is identical with the appellative haukr, etc. 'hawk' - There are in M.E. records not a few place-names that have Hauk- or Haukes- as 1st member. In almost every county in Scandinavian England, and outside it, we come across compounds such as Haukwell, Haukeswell, Haucherst (Kent), Haukedon, Haukhull etc. By far the largest percentage of these are without doubt of native origin and contain M.E. hauk < O.E. havoc, N.E. hawk. An O.E. man's name of the same form seems not to be known according to Björkmann (Personennamen p. 66). But it is most likely that such a name once did exist, although it may have early fallen into disuse, and, like several other O.E. personal names, has survived only in place-names. There can hardly be any doubt, that a name like O.E. Hauekestune Cambr. CD. 907 (Eadweard), Havochestun DoB., Haukestone 1316 F.A., now Hauxton, is composed with a personal name Havoc. The same applies to Havochesberie Glo. DoB., Hauekesbiri 1252 Ch. R., 1272 C. Inq., Haukesbery 1303 F.A., now Hawkesbury, and some other cases into which I cannot enter here. Kemble's index to CD. gives from the south of England some O.E. place-names beginning with Havoces-, of which at least two or three seem to contain the personal name. And in Stanmer, Sussex, there was in O.E. times a field-name hafocunga leahge CS. 197, the former member of which looks like a patronymic derived from the personal name just mentioned. Further it is to be noted that the genitive case of the O.E. appellative hafoc is not seldom found in place-names, as may be seen from the indexes of CD. and F.A. All this being so, it is clear that we can in no case assign Scandinavian origin to M.E. place-names beginning with Hauk(es), unless spellings with the diphthong written ou, o can be adduced in support. Forms of that kind reflect a very common development of the Scandinavian diphthong in England (cf. on this above p.136 f.), which is well evidenced from Scandinavian loan-words in M.E., and such forms may be regarded as doubtless of Scandinavian origin. Apart from Hawsker, this holds good of the following names: …

2nd member is O.W.Scand. garðr (O.Swed. garþer, O.Dan garth) in the sense of 'a farm' Cf. above p.132, under Aistangarthes … 2nd member is M.E. garth (< O.W.Scand. garðr, O.Swed. garþer, O.Dan. garth) 'a small piece of enclosed ground, usually beside a house or other building, used as a yard, garden, or paddock; a fence or hedge' N.E.D. (A New English Dictionary on historical principles. Oxford 1888).

Not far from Hawsker is a place called Hogarth (Hill), which name may be of the same origin (as Hawsker). It is stated to be identical with Haukesgarth 1299, 1344 Calendar of the Patent Rolls.


[18] Stoupe Brow and Staupe

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at page 165.

Chapter 4

Names containing Old West Scandinavian ou, au

Staupe Yo. tempore Henry I, Stoupe early 12th century feminine, Stowpe 1395, Stoope, Stowpe Browe 1540 Whitby Chartulary; now Stoupe Brow, hamlet and cliff in Whitby parish.

From O.W.Scand staup in the sense of 'a steep declivity or slope, a pitch, precipice'. Stoupe Brow is a cliff, according to Bartholomew's Gazetteer 893 ft. high, which towers aloft over the shore at Robin Hood's Bay, and commands a magnificent view. The word staup in the sense just mentioned is only evidenced from Norw. place-names; see e.g. Rygh N.G. (Norske Elvenavne. Kristiania (1904) [Elvenavne] & Gamle Personnavne i Norske Stedsnavne. Kristiania (1901) [Personnavne]") V, 444 and XV, 87. It is related by ablaut to the rare verb stúpa 'to stoop', O.Swed. stupa 'to fall, tumble headlong'. The primary sense of staup may have been that of a depression or hollow where one is apt to tumble down; compare the allied O.E. adjective steap 'high, lofty', N.E. steep. In Shetlandic local names staup is applied to a track beaten by the feet of cattle (Jakobsen); compare Norw. dialect, staup 'a hole in a road, deep rut, cup, goblet', O.E. steap 'a cup, flagon', OHG., MHG. stouf 'Becher, Felsen' (Schade), German Stauff, Stauffen, as names of mountains (see Schmeller, Bayerisches Worterbuch). Whether N.E. dialect stoup 'a deep and narrow vessel for holding liquids, pail for water', etc., is of Scand. introduction, is uncertain. Its local distribution - only in some northern counties and east Anglia - is in favour of it. On M.E. stope see Björkman (Erik, 'Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English' 1900-02) p.78, with references.


[19] Stain Dale, Staindale Beck and Staindale Lake

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 83 & 84.

Chapter 2

Names containing Old West Scandinavian 'ei' (Old East Scandinavian 'e')

A great many compounded M.E. place-names exhibit O.W.Scand steinn as 1st member. In not a few cases the remaining member, too, is a Scandinavian word; the Scandinavian origin of such names admits of no doubt whatever. But sometimes this latter member is either a native word or can be native as well as Scandinavian, when the word is found in exactly the same form in both languages. Now it should be noticed that in the local nomenclature of England previous to Domesday, as far as it is on record, compounds with O.E. Stan- seem to have been very frequent. Already in the earliest charters we repeatedly come across such names as - the following forms are normalized by me - Stanburh, Stanburne, Stanford, Stanclif, Stanleah, Stantun, etc.; see further the collections of Thorpe, Gray Birch, Kemble, and Dugdale. It is true that nearly all these names are known only from the southern counties to which the bulk of the O.E. charters relate. But it is more than probable that the local nomenclature of Northern England did not differ in this respect from that of the South. That being so, it is natural that in those districts of Northern England that were densely populated by Scandinavian settlers such and similar stan-names should be apt to be Scandinavianized, and that, in these parts, we should find Steinburh, Steinhurne, Steinford, etc.; see the list below. Still it is to be admitted that as long as no earlier native instances of those names can be given, we are not in a position to decide in each particular case whether a Scandinavian form found in Middle English represents a native formation in Scandinavian disguise, or whether the name was actually coined by the new settlers in the period when the amalgamation of the two races was in progress. I have deemed it appropriate to adduce here of such names only those of which the Scandinavian forms by far outnumber the native ones in my material. Some apparently native names of which Scandinavian spellings occasionally appear, are not included in the list below, as being of little or no value in the present investigation. They belong chiefly to Yorkshire, and their English origin is rendered likely by the fact that exact equivalents are as a rule to be found in counties out of Scandinavian England. If looked upon from these points of view, the following material may prove worthy of consideration … Steinegrif.

Steindal Yo. 1247 Ch. R. (Calendar of the Charter Rolls, 1226-1326), Steindale 1260 Rievaulx Chartulary; now Staindale, near Bilsdale. 2nd member O.W.Scand dalr (O.E.Scand dal 'valley' = O.E. dæl.


[20] Akr, 'Stainsacre'

Possibly 'stony or rocky field' or (per Lindkvist) 'Steinn's cultivated land (corn-field)' or 'Stein's field' (per Ekwall).

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 114

  • hveiti n. wheat
  • hveitiakr (gen. -akrs) m. wheat-field

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 81, 82 & 83

Chapter 2

Names containing Old West Scandinavian ei (Old East Scandinavian 'e')

Stainsecre Yo. 12th, 13th centuries, Stainsecher circa 1146 (Papal confirmation), Steinsecher, Stainsker 12th century Whitby Chartulary; Steinesacr 1175-76, Steinscker 1179-80 Pipe Rolls; Staynsyker 1301 Yorkshire Lay Subsidy; Staynseeker Nomina villarum; Staynsekir 1394-95, Staynsyker 1396, Staynseker, -ekerr, Steynsekerr 14th century Whitby Chartulary; now Stainsacre.

1st member is the O.W.Scand man's name Steinn (O.E.Scand Sten), which is of common occurrence in O.W.Scand place-names; see Rygh, Personnavne. The same name seems to enter into the following M.E. place-names … 2nd member probably O.W.Scand ekra 'a cultivated piece of land, corn-field'; Norwegian dialect, ækra, Swedish dialect ükra 'field that is left fallow'. The latter word is often found in place-names in the south of Sweden.

Staininghe … This looks like an O.W.Scand derivative in -ing, either a patronymic of the man's name Steinn (cf. preceding names), or developed from the concrete noun steinn (O.E. stan) 'stone'. With regard to the presumable original type of such names, see Hellqvist, p.137. As is stated by the same author (ibd. p.98) formations of this kind seem to have been rare in the local nomenclature of Old and Mediaeval Norway, although it is true they were far from being so in that of Sweden. Compare the O.Swed. place-name Steninge, Hellqvist, p.98. Staininghe may, of course, also be composed of steinn + O.E. ing 'meadow'.

Stein … From O.W.Scand steinn (O.E.Scand sten, O.E. 'stone, rock'. The word was in frequent use - uncompounded - as a place-name in ancient Norway. For examples see the indexes of E.J. (Biskop Eysteins Jordebog. Fortegnelse over det geistlige Gods i Oslo Bispedømme omkring Aar 1400; udgiven ved H. I. Huitfeldt. Christiania 1879.), and Rygh, N.G. (Norske Elvenavne. Kristiania (1904) [Elvenavne] & Gamle Personnavne i Norske Stedsnavne. Kristiania (1901) [Personnavne]).

A great many compounded M.E. place-names exhibit O.W.Scand steinn as 1st member. In not a few cases the remaining member, too, is a Scandinavian word; the Scandinavian origin of such names admits of no doubt whatever. But sometimes this latter member is either a native word or can be native as well as Scandinavian, when the word is found in exactly the same form in both languages. Now it should be noticed that in the local nomenclature of England previous to Domesday, as far as it is on record, compounds with O.E. Stan- seem to have been very frequent. Already in the earliest charters we repeatedly come across such names as - the following forms are normalized by me - Stanburh, Stanburne, Stanford, Stanclif, Stanleah, Stantun, etc.; see further the collections of Thorpe, Gray Birch, Kemble, and Dugdale. It is true that nearly all these names are known only from the southern counties to which the bulk of the O.E. charters relate. But it is more than probable that the local nomenclature of Northern England did not differ in this respect from that of the South. That being so, it is natural that in those districts of Northern England that were densely populated by Scandinavian settlers such and similar stan-names should be apt to be Scandinavianized, and that, in these parts, we should find Steinburh, Steinhurne, Steinford, etc.; see the list below. Still it is to be admitted that as long as no earlier native instances of those names can be given, we are not in a position to decide in each particular case whether a Scandinavian form found in Middle English represents a native formation in Scandinavian disguise, or whether the name was actually coined by the new settlers in the period when the amalgamation of the two races was in progress. I have deemed it appropriate to adduce here of such names only those of which the Scandinavian forms by far outnumber the native ones in my material. Some apparently native names of which Scandinavian spellings occasionally appear, are not included in the list below, as being of little or no value in the present investigation. They belong chiefly to Yorkshire, and their English origin is rendered likely by the fact that exact equivalents are as a rule to be found in counties out of Scandinavian England. If looked upon from these points of view, the following material may prove worthy of consideration … Steinegrif.


"The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names" Eilert Ekwall (1960) at pages 3 & 436

Stainsacre Yo. [Stainsaker 1090-6 YCh 855, Steinesacr 1176 P]. 'Stein's field'. First element ON Steinn personal name. See ÆCER.

O.E. æcer, 'field, ploughed land' = ON akr) is used alone in ACRE Nf and is the second element of some names … OScand akr is found in MUKER, ROSEACRE, STAINSACRE, TARNACRE.


[21] Stonegrave, Hutton Mulgrave & Souregryff

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 85, 86 & 163.

Chapter 2

Names containing Old West Scandinavian ei (Old East Scandinavian 'e')

Steinegrif, Stanegrif Yo. DoB.; Steinegrive 12th century (?) Whitby Chartulary; Steingreua 1162-63 Pipe Rolls; Steyn-, Stayngreve, Steingrive circa 1267 Giffard's Reg. (The Register of Walter Giffard, Lord Archbishop of York 1266-79); Steingreve 1273 Calendar of the Patent Rolls, 1333 Cl. R. (Calendar of the Close Rolls (1227-1354) 1297; Steynegryve, Steyngrive 1277 Calendar of the Patent Rolls; Staingryfe, -grive, -gryf, -grif, -griff, Kirkby (The Survey of the County of York, taken by John de Kirkby, commonly called Kirkby's Inquest); Stayngrive Tax. eccl. (Taxatio ecclesiastica Angliæ et Walliæ auctoritate P. Nicholai IV. circa A.D. 1291); Steyngreve 1297 Ch. R. (Calendar of the Charter Rolls, 1226-1326); Stayngrife, Nomina villarum; Stenegriva, Stayngreve, Stangrive 1332 Rievaulx Chartulary; Stayngreve tempore Edward I Plac. Warr. (Placita de quo warranto, tempore Edward I - Edward III), 1300 Cl. R. (Calendar of the Close Rolls (1227-1354), I.N.; Stangreue 1441 Br.Mus. (Index to the Charters and Rolls in the Department of Manuscripts British Museum), etc.; now Stonegrave.

2nd member is M.E. grif, grive < O.W.Scand gryfja feminine 'a hole, pit, cavity.' The latter word is of frequent occurrence in O.Norw. place-names; compare Fritzner, and Rygh, NG (Norske Elvenavne. Kristiania (1904) [Elvenavne] & Gamle Personnavne i Norske Stedsnavne. Kristiania (1901) [Personnavne]") M.E. grif, grive are both recorded only in some place-names within the Scandinavian part of England; of these may be adduced, besides the name under notice: Sourgryff Yo. (see in Ch. 4); Grif Yo. 12th century, 1226 f., Griff, Griffe 1332 Rievaulx Chartulary, now Griff (near Rievaulx); Griva Warw. late Henry II, Gryff 1496 Br.Mus. (Index to the Charters and Rolls in the Department of Manuscripts British Museum), now Griff; Grif Derb. 1286 ibid., now Griff (in Bradborne); Hormesgrif (M.S. M. Ormesg[r]iue) Yo. 12th century Whitby Chartulary; Scineregrive ibid., now Skinningrove; Grif Yo. DoB.; Mulegrif after 1180, Mulegrive early 13th century Whitby Chartulary, now Mulgrave; etc. (further in Part II). M.E. grive must have been the earlier form of the two after the borrowing. From it was developed, by a sort of back-formation, M.E. grif with voiceless spirant, in conformity to the O.E. and M.E. sound-laws respecting the quality of medial and final f, and on the analogy of such cases as O.E. clif [-f-], dative singular, clife [-v-], N.E. cliff, in place-names Cliffe, and Clive (< M.E. clive); O.E. græf, M.E. grafe with the [-v-] of the inflected forms generalized, N.E. grave, but graff, graffe in the present Yorkshire and many other - also northern - dialects, with the voiceless sound of the old uninflected forms generalized (see E.D.D., gr. §279). In a similar way M.E. grif has come down in the Yorkshire and some other northern dialects as griff [f] 'a deep valley wdth a rocky, fissure-like chasm at the bottom; a deep, narrow glen, a small ravine' E.D.D. (The English Dialect Dictionary, ed. by J. Wright. 1-6. London 1898- 1905, Vol. 6 includes The English Dialect Grammar, by J. Wright; quoted as E.D.D. gr). The N.E.D. (A New English Dictionary on historical principles. Oxford 1888) gives griff with the sole comment 'origin obscure'; furthermore, the word has been dealt with by Wall (Scandinavian elements in the English dialects, Anglia XX), who confines himself to connecting it with O.W.Scand grof and some other Scandinavian words of more distant relationship. He includes it in his List B, which comprises words that can be either Scandinavian or English. In the face of the above material, the Scandinavian origin cannot be doubted.

Chapter 4

Names containing Old West Scandinavian 'ou', 'au'

Sourgryff Yo. 14th century Whitby Chartulary … 2nd member is M.E. grif 'a hole, pit, cavity'. On its etymology see p.85, under Stonegrave.


Editor's note: it is unclear why M.E. grif is preferred by Lindkvist over ON gryfja 'hole, pit') unless the late (14th century) reference is thought to be the earliest.


[22] Hinderwell, 'Hilda's well' - see also [240]

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 10 & 11.

Chapter I

Names containing distinctively Old Scandinavian inflexional forms.

Hildreuuelle, Ildreuuelle Yo. DoB.; Hilderwelle circa 1146 (Papal confirmation), ante 1180 feminine Whitby Chartulary; Hilderwel 1202, Hilderwell, Hylderwell 13th century Guisbrough Chartulary; Hilderwell 1226 Gray's Reg. (The Register, or Rolls, of Walter Gray, Lord Archbishop of York 1225-1255), Kirkby (The Survey of the County of York, taken by John de Kirkby, commonly called Kirkby's Inquest), 1286 Patent Rolls, Tax. eccl. (Taxatio ecclesiastica Angliæ et Walliæ auctoritate P. Nicholai IV. circa A.D. 1291), 1314 C. Inq. (Calendar of Inquisitions post mortem and other analgous documents, Henry III - Edward III, Henry VII) Nomina villarum, 1332 f. Patent Rolls, 1339 f. C. Inq. (Calendar of Inquisitions post mortem and other analgous documents, Henry III - Edward III, Henry VII), 1475 Patent Rolls; Hilderwelle 1302 Feod. mil. Eb. (Feoda militum in Com. Ebor. (Knights' Fees in Yorkshire 31st Edward I); Hildrewell 1314 C. Inq. (Calendar of Inquisitions post mortem and other analgous documents, Henry III - Edward III, Henry VII), 1347 Patent Rolls; Hyldeswell I.N.; Hilierwell 1344 C. Inq. (Calendar of Inquisitions post mortem and other analgous documents, Henry III - Edward III, Henry VII); Hylderwella 1394/95 Whitby Chartulary; Hilderswell 1374, Hylderwell 1375 C. Inq. (Calendar of Inquisitions post mortem and other analgous documents, Henry III - Edward III, Henry VII); Hynderwell 1490 C. Inq. (Calendar of Inquisitions post mortem and other analgous documents, Henry III - Edward III, Henry VII); now Hinderswell.

1st member can be the genitive - normally Hildar - of the O.W.Scand female name Hildr, which, according to Lind (Lind, E. H. Norsk-isländska dopnamn ock fingerade namn fran medeltiden. Upsala 1905 f.), was in frequent use during the Viking Age. It is found in several Norw. place-names, e.g. Hilderton D. N. (Diplomatarium Norwegicum, I-XIX) 6 (1385), Hilldarland (see further Lind, E. H. Norsk-isländska dopnamn ock fingerade namn fran medeltiden. Upsala 1905 f.). A parallel to the former name, on English territory, is perhaps Hildertona, Hildreton Nhb.

2nd member M.E. welle 'a spring, fount' = N.E. well.


[23] Briggswath, 'plank bridge ford' - see also [106]

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at page 27

Chapter 2

Names containing Old West Scandinavian 'ei' (Old East Scandinavian 'e')

Braythwath … 2nd member O.W.Scand vað, O.Swed. vaþ, O.Dan. vað 'a ford'. The place is situated on the Cod Beck, a tributary of the Swale. Compare N.E. dialect wath with the same meaning; the word occurs only in the Scandinavian counties of Northern England (see The English Dialect Dictionary 1898-1905) and is apparently Scandinavian loan.


[24] Larpool

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at page 71

Chapter 2

Names containing Old West Scandinavian ei (Old East Scandinavian e)

Leirpel; see p.71: Leirpel Yo. early 12th century, Lairpel circa 1146, Leirpelle 1351, Lairpell, Layerpelle, Lairepell 1395, Larepoole circa 1540, Whitby Chartulary; now Larpool … 1st member being leir n. 'clay, loam; mud, especially on the beach' (O.E.Scand Ler), or leirr m. 'loamy soil' … Besides leir and leirr there was in O.W.Scand an allied formation leira (or leiri) which signified 'a loam-field, loamy or muddy shore'. Like leirr this latter word is found sporadically uncompounded as a place-name in Norway (see further Rygh, Indl.), and traces of the words occur, too, in Scandinavian England. A document of A.D. 1332 in the Chartulary of Rievaulx speaks of a plot of land in Nalton (Yo.) as 'una perticata terræ … quaelig; vocatur Leir'. It is by no means improbable that this field-name represents O.W.Scand leirr.


[25] Raincliffe and Rain Dale

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at page 74

Chapter 2

Names containing Old West Scandinavian 'ei' (Old East Scandinavian 'e')

Rancleiff [by Scarburgh] Yo. 1405 Pat.R.; Reynclyf 1461, Raynclyff 1475 Pat.R.; now Raincliff, near Scarborough. 1st member perhaps as in preceding name (Raynhull).

1st member may be O.W.Scand rein f. 'a strip of land which forms the boundary of a tilled field or an estate'. O.E.Scand ren; on M.E. rene 'border', see Björkman (Erik, 'Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English' 1900-02) p.63. This etymology goes well with the meaning of the 2nd member, M.E. hil, hul 'hill'. The former word appears to have been common to several Teutonic languages, and it may be appropriate to consider, in some measure, the sense-development it has undergone in them. In Norw. dialect (Aasen) rein has retained the meaning of the O.W.Scand word; moreover, it signifies a narrow ridge or elevation of the ground, a long bank of earth or gravel … we find rain used of a long slope, a slope descending towards a fen or river (Bavarian), the slope of a hill (Swiss) … 2nd member was originally O.W.Scand kleif 'a ridge of cliffs or shelves in a mountain side', subsequently replaced by the native M.E. clif, N.E. cliff, or O.W.Scand klif. …


[26] Snod Hill

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 80 & 81

Chapter 2

Names containing Old West Scandinavian 'ei' (Old East Scandinavian 'e')

Esneid Esnoid, Esnoit, Yo. DoB.; Snaid 1100-09 York Hist. (The Historians of the Church of York and its Archbishops); Snayth 1101-09 f., Snaith circa 1109-14 Selby Chartulary; Sneid 1154 ibid., 1168-69 f. Pipe R. (The Great Roll of the Pipe for the 5th year of Henry II, 1158-80), 12th century York Hist. (The Historians of the Church of York and its Archbishops); Sneit 1176-77 f. Pipe R. (The Great Roll of the Pipe for the 5th year of Henry II, 1158-80), 1210-12 Liber rub. (Liber rubeous de scaccario: the red book of the Exchequer); Sneyth 1189 Selby Chartulary, 1241 Rot. fin. exc (Excerpta e Rotulis Finium, 1216-72), 1242 Lanc. Inq. (Lancashire Inquests, Extents and Feudal aids, 1205-1333), 1151 f. Br. Mus. (Index to the Charters and Rolls in the Department of Manuscripts British Museum), 1270 Giffard's Reg. (The Register of Walter Giffard, Lord Archbishop of York 1266-79. Surtees Soc. 1904), 1267-76 N. Reg. (Historical papers and letters from the northern registers, 1216-1415), Tax. eccl. (Taxatio ecclesiastica Angliæ et Walliæ auctoritate P. Nicholai IV. circa A.D. 1291), 1291 Baildon (Notes on the Religious and Secular Houses of Yorkshire), 1255, 1300 f. Pat.R., 1343 Cl. R. (Calendar of the Close Rolls (1227-1354) 1297, etc.; Snay 1234 Cl. R. (Calendar of the Close Rolls (1227-1354) 1297; Snaith Ch. R. (Calendar of the Charter Rolls, 1226-1326); Snayth 1251 Ch. R. (Calendar of the Charter Rolls, 1226-1326), Rot. H. (Rotuli Hundredorum, tempore Henry III et Edward I), 1285 Baildon (Notes on the Religious and Secular Houses of Yorkshire), Tax. eccl. (Taxatio ecclesiastica Angliæ et Walliæ auctoritate P. Nicholai IV. circa A.D. 1291), 1292, 1304 Selby Register, Mon. III (Monasticon Anglicanum, I-VIII), Nomina villarum, 1318 f., 1427 Pat.R., 1378 Poll-tax (poll-tax 2 Richard II), etc.; now Snaith.

From O.W.Scand sneið f. 'a slice, piece', (sniða 'to slice, lop, cut'), here either used in a sense adopted from the O.E. equivalent snad, snæd, viz. 'a piece of land', or like the Norwegian dialect sneid and Danish sned (in local names, see Steenstrup, Da. Stednavne, p.103, and Indledende Studier, p.42) applied to a slope. The town of Snaith lies on a ridge of elevation, which slopes gently northwards to the so-called Snaith Marsh and the River Aire. On the southern side extend the Cowick Car and the Pollington Car. As applied to a piece of land, sneið is not recorded in the O.Scand. languages, to the best of my knowledge. Nor is any instance to be found among the Norwegian place-names hitherto dealt with in Rygh, N.G (Norske Elvenavne. Kristiania (1904) [Elvenavne] & Gamle Personnavne i Norske Stedsnavne. Kristiania (1901) [Personnavne]"). An allied word is MHG. sneite f. …


[27] Old Scandinavian tún

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at page 7

Chapter 1

Names containing distinctively Old Scandinavian inflexional forms

Bernertone … 2nd member O.Scand. tún 'a hedged or fenced plot, enclosure within which a house is built, the farm-house with its buildings, a homestead', etc. = O.E. tun. Further details about this word when occurring in M.E. place-names of more or less certain Scandinavian origin, will be given in Part II. Cf. also Introd. Chapter V.


"The Vikings in Lakeland: Their Place-Names, Remains, History" (1939) William Gershom Collingwood, Saga Book XXIII at pages 348 & 349

Place Names

In drawing the ethnographical map, it has been usually assumed that names in ham are Saxon, in ton Anglian, and in by Danish. This is true when we find considerable groups, but it does not hold for isolated instances. There are many names ending with ham in Anglian districts; some in ancient Norway are practically parallel, for Thrándheimr, Unarheimr, Stafheimr, and Sœheimr would become Thrandham, etc., in English; and Medalheimr in Iceland, is simply Middleham. Consequently an occasional Dearham or Brigham, Spunham or Waitham, do not prove the presence of Saxons in Cumberland and the Lake districts.

Ton, again, though not common as a place-name ending in Scandinavia, is found in Tunsberg and Sig-túnir: and ton in old Norse means just what it means in Lake district names: not 'town', but the ground on which a group of farm buildings stands. Where we get i>-ington we may assume an Anglian family settlement; and where (as in Low Furness) there is a group of -tons near -ington or -ingham, we have the tokens of Anglian population. But a casual -ton in a Norse context - like Kettleton in Galloway, Colton and Ulverston in Furness, etc. - may be regarded as a Norse settlement.

By is also common enough in Norway and Iceland (in the form of bœr) to be no proof of exclusively Danish settlement. Where we find a distinct group of bys, there we may assume Danish origin, but an odd Sowerby or Kirkby does not imply a Danish colony.


"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 244

tún n. enclosure, farmyard, infield (with suffixed def. art.); court(yard); gen. pl. túna to the dwelling, abode


"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

TÚN, n. [a word widely applied and common to all Teutonic languages; the Gothic is not on record; Anglo Saxon tûn; English 'town'; O. H. G. zûn; German zaun; Norse tûn]: -properly a hedge; this sense is still used in the German zaun; but in Scandinavian the only remnant seems to be the compound tun-riða (see B). II. a hedged or fenced plot, enclosure, within which a house is built; then the farm-house with its buildings, the homestead; and lastly, a single house or dwelling: in Norway tun is = Dan. gaards-plads, the quadrangle or premises annexed to the buildings; whereas '' answers to the modern Icelandic 'tún': in Norse deeds each single farm is called tún, í efsta túni í Ulfalda-stöðum, D. N. ii. 534: the same usage of the word town remains in Scotland, see Scott's Waverley, ch. ix, sub fin.: … B. Compounds:

  • tún-annir, f. pl. haymaking in the in-field
  • um sumar um túnannir, i. e. in July
  • tún-barð, n. the outskirt of an in-field
  • tún-brekka, u, f. the brink or edge of an in-field
  • tún-fótr, m. the outskirt of a home-field
  • tún-garðr, m. a 'town-garth', fence of a tún
  • tún-göltr, m. a home-boar
  • tún-hlið, n. the gate of a castle, in the Norse sense
  • tún-krepja, u, f., botanically, a cryptogamous plant resembling the lichen tribe, tremella
  • tún-riða, u, f. a 'hedge-rider', a witch, ghost; witches and ghosts were thought to ride on hedges and the tops of houses during the night
  • túna-sláttr, m. = túnannir, as also the season, the 12th and following weeks of the summer
  • tún-svið, n. the tún-space
  • sem túnsvið kringlótt, a field like a round tún-enclosure
  • tún-svín, m. = túngöltr
  • tún-sækinn, part. of cattle, greedy to enter and graze in a tún
  • tún-völlr, m. a strip of the in-field

The ancient Scandinavians, like other old Teutonic people, had no towns; Tacitus says, "nullas Germanorum populis urbes habitari satis notum est … colunt discreti ac diversi, ut fons, ut campus, ut nemus placuit", Germ. ch. 16. In Norway the first town, Níðarós, was founded by the two Olaves (Olave Tryggvason and Saint Olave, 994–1030), and this town was hence par excellence called Kaupang, q. v. But the real founder of towns in Norway was king Olave the Quiet (1067–1093); as to Iceland, the words of Tacitus, "colunt diversi ut fons, etc., placuit", still apply; 120 years ago (in 1752), the only town or village of the country (Reykjavík) was a single isolated farm. In the old Norse law, the 'Town-law' is the new law attached as an appendix to the old 'Land-law'.


[28] Sneck Yate Bank from Old Norse snókr 'a snake' or snákr 'a snake' (only in poetry), gat 'hole, opening' and either banki 'earthen incline, bank of a river' or bakki 'bank of a river, earthen incline, slope'. See also Sneck Yate and Sneck Yate Plantation.


[29] Hesketh, Hall and Grange

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 29 & 64

Chapter 2

Names containing Old West Scandinavian 'ei' (Old East Scandinavian 'e')

Bruneskayth … 2nd member O.W.Scand skeið, recorded in several meanings, of which the following may be quoted from Fritzner: (1) a race-course (2) a portion, piece (3) a ridge of earth or sand that forms a natural transit from one place to another (4) a cart-road between the corn-fields of a farm. Which of these meanings should be assigned to skeið in the present ease is uncertain. For further particulars see below under Hesketh …

Hesteskeith, Hestescaith Yo. tempore Henry II Rievaulx Chartulary; Hesteskeid, Hestechait, Hestelscaith, -sceit, Hescaid, 12th century ibid., Hestescheith 1160 (Papal confirmation), Heste(l)scarth 1189 (the copy in Pat.R., 3 Richard I, has Hestescaith) ibid., Hestscayth 13th century, Heskayth 1272 ibid.; Hestescarth 1252, Heyscayth 1268 Ch. R. (Calendar of the Charter Rolls, 1226-1326); Heskayth tempore Edward I. Plac. Warr.; Heskethe 1542 N.C. wills (North Country Wills 1383-1558); now Hesketh (Grange), near Boltby.

From O.W.Scand hestaskeið 'a race-course', the compound being made up of hestr (O.Swed. hæster, O.Dan. hæst) 'a horse', and skeið, on which see above p.29, under Brunstock. The name is of unmistakeably West Scandinavian origin; the same formation is represented by the O.Norw. place-name Hæsta skædi E.J. Other instances occur in Lancashire and Cumberland as … Heskaith …


"The Chief Elements used in English Place-Names" Allen Mawer (1924) at page 53

skeið, ON. Found in Norse place-names in more than one sense but all going back to the primary idea of 'separation', the word being allied to shed in watershed. Its exact sense in English place-names needs investigation … In Hesketh (2La, 2Y) it is compounded with hestr and denotes 'track marked off for or suitable for horse-racing'.


"The Origin of English Place Names" (1960) P. H. Reaney at page 163

Chapter Seven

The Scandinavian Element

Pure Scandinavian Place-Names

ON hestaskeið 'race-course' survives as Hesketh (La, NRY) and thrice as Hesket in Cumberland. Horse-racing was a favourite sport of the Scandinavians.


[30] Bertwait, Setwait and þveit place-names.

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 96 to 101, 102, 103 & 121

Chapter 2

Old West Scandinavian thornveit in Middle English place-names

O.W.Scand. þveit f. properly meant 'a cut-off piece'; when occurring in place-names it seems to have been applied to an isolated parcel of land, a clearing, or an out-lying cottage with its paddock. Cf. Norwegian dialect tveit 'a clearing in the forest, a plot of grass-land in the forest or among cliffs', etc. Of cognate words should be noticed the collateral form þveiti 'a unit of weight or money', and þveitr 'incision, cut'; besides, representing other grades of ablaut, O.E. þwitan 'to cut, shave off', and geþivit 'what is shaved off, chip'. It is stated by Rygh (Indl. p.83) that þveit enters into about 600 Norwegian place-names, of which one third are uncompounded. With regard to the further distribution of the word as a place-name element Rygh adds that it is not found in Iceland, nor in the Norwegian colonies in the West, but that during the Viking Age it was introduced into northern England from Denmark. Yet, as has subsequently been pointed out by Jakobsen (Shetlands øernes Stednavne), the word actually occurs in some Shetlandic place-names; it is also found, sporadically, in Scotland, as may be learnt from Johnston, Place-names of Scotland, Introduction p.69. From the local nomenclature of the Isle of Man it seems to be missing. The statement of Rygh that þveit in North England place-names is to be attributed to Danish influence, which view is likewise put forward in Cleasby-Vigfusson's Dictionary, is altogether unfounded and untenable. See below.

In the E.Scand. languages we find O.Dan. tved(e): meadowland, a tongue of land, peninsula; often used in place-names, apparently with much the same meaning as the O.W.Scand equivalent (see Stenstrup, Da. Stednavne, p.105). Cf. Swedish dialect tvet 'chip', etc. (Rietz), also frequent in Swedish place-names in the sense of 'a detached plot of cultivated land' (see Sveriges Ortnamn). On the Norman place-names supposed to contain the same word see Fabricius p.317 f.

Passing on to the English territory we look in vain for the word in the M.E. vocabulary, as far as this is covered by the investigations of Björkman (Scandinavian Loan-words). That, however, it was in appellative use in Scandinavian England is evidenced by a passage in a charter signed by Henry II (1154-89) and relating to the Priory of Carlisle (Mon. VI, i), which specifies some pieces of land in Ireby, Cumb. as 'Langethweit, et Stalethweit, et alios Thweiter qui pertinent ad Langethwest'. Here we have before us the O.W.Scand accusative plural, normally þveitar - not recorded as appellative in O.W.Scand. literature? - with the inflexional -ar reduced, as usual, to -er in M.E. Moreover, the word still survives in N.E. dialect thwait (Lakel. Yo., Lanc.): (1) a forest clearing, a piece of land fenced off or unenclosed, a low meadow, (2) a fell, the shelving part of a mountain-side, (3) a single house, small hamlet.

O.W.Scand. þveit is preserved, lastly, in a great number of English place-names. Those marked on the modern maps have been enquired into by Worsaae (Minder) and Browne (Transact, of Philological Society 1880-81), who arrive at somewhat divergent results as to their frequency in the several counties. The instances considered by these two writers are by far outnumbered by those from the M.E. records adduced by myself below. This is illustrated by the following tabular view comprising the entire material:

New English thwaite-names according to Middle English þveit-names, dealt with below
  Worsaae Browne
Cumberland 43 6 52
Westmorland 14 4 23
Lancashire 14 2 43
Yorkshire 9 2 83
Lincolnshire - - 1 1
Nottinghamshire - - 5
Derbyshire - - 2
Leicestershire - - 3
Northamptonshire - - 1
Norfolk 2 2 7
Suffolk 1 1 2
  83 17 232

A glance at the Maps of the Ordnance Survey will show that in Yorkshire and the three north-western counties there are nowadays not a few other thwaite-names, in addition to those recorded in M.E. Such is particularly the case in Cumberland, where according to Taylor (Isaac, 'Names and their histories' 1898 at page 377), whose calculations I am for the present not in a position to verify, more than a hundred instances in all are to be found. It appears, then, that many of the present names of this kind came into existence only in the N.E. period. This fact holds good, even though due allowance has to be made for the possibility that some of those names did exist in M.E. times, though they happen not to be recorded in the sources of the present work. Now it should be remembered, for one thing, that a great percentage of the M.E. þveit-names dealt with below were field-names, that have, in progress of time, become obsolete, or at any rate have disappeared from the map. Furthermore, a considerable number of the modern thwaite-names had, during the M.E. period, quite different terminals, which in N.E. times were exchanged for -thwaite owing, to the influence exercised by the host of names composed with this terminal. A few examples may be adduced by way of illustration. The present Stangerthwaite in Wm. was in the 14th century Stangrewath (see above p.16). Ickenthwaite in North Lanc. - not given by Wyld & Hirst - was as late as A.D. 1534 Yccornewyth (see Furness Reg., Mon. V), from O.W.Scand. ikornaviðr = ikorna-skógr 'squirrels' wood'. Thornthwaite, near Boltons Cumb., on the river Waver, was Thoraldwath 1294 Cl. R. (Calendar of the Close Rolls (1227-1354), Thoraldewathie 1350 C. Inq. (Calendar of Inquisitions post mortem and other analgous documents, Henry III - Edward III, Henry VII), from O.W.Scand. póraldr or póraldi personal names, and vað 'a ford'. Considerations of space forbid me to treat of any more similar cases.

As may be seen from the tabular summary above, the M.E. þveit-names formed a characteristic feature of the local nomenclature in the northern, esp. north-western counties, whereas in those south of the Humber they were few and far between. Still more than thirty instances do occur in the Southumbrian counties, where the word þweit as a place-name element is by no means so rare as is asserted by Taylor (Isaac, 'Names and their histories' 1898) on the basis of the modern nomenclature.

With regard to the origin and age of the M.E. þveit-names some further remarks may be appropriate. Not one reliable instance seems to be on record in the O.E. period. Domesday has a very few, belonging to Yo. and Norf. Several others appear during the latter half of the 12th century in the monastic chartularies and registers, the Pipe rolls and in various other local documents. But the majority of these names are not met with until the 13th and 14th centuries, or even later. Their gradual appearance in literature reflects, to a certain extent, a progressive process of settlement, in the course of which a large proportion of them were coined, and the localities indicated by them were growing in importance. In many cases, when a þveit-name occurs for the first time in the records, it is expressly said to design a campus, or pastura, or cultura, or clausum, a meadow, vaccary, &c. It seems, in fact, that, as far as the earlier half of the M.E. period is concerned, the bulk of these names are to be regarded as mere field-names, mostly designations of reclaimed land, or of out-of-the-way places, which, as time went on, were built upon and permanently inhabited; many of them then formed some kind of dependencies of an old manor or demesne. In the same direction points the evidence that may be gathered from the quality of the 1st members of these names. For as 1st members we not seldom find the name of a township or a village, or else some other place-name, at times one that has not come down to our own times and, in consequence, cannot be precisely located. In other cases we find names of different varieties of corn, plants or trees, or words embodying some conspicuous natural feature of the spot.

It is a matter of special interest that in the case of a fairly great number of the names treated below, exact parallels can be adduced from O.Norw. territory, not nearly so often from O.E.Scand. This squares well with the fact that most M.E. þveit-names belong to counties, the local nomenclature of which is, in several other respects, demonstrably O.W.Scand. in form, as that of the three north-western counties (Lanc., Cumb., Wm.) and Yorkshire. On the other hand it is possible, or even probable, that at least in certain Southumbrian counties the þveit-names owed their origin to Danish settlers. The O.Dan., tved seems to have been of rather frequent occurrence in the oldest Danish place-nomenclature, as far as we can form an opinion on this with the aid of the LCD. and contemporary charters and deeds in SRD. compared with the material given by Steenstrup (l. c), and Madsen (Sjælandske Stednavne, p.251). But still the numerical superiority of the corresponding O.Norw. names is salient. Such facts go a long way to disprove the view held by Rygh and others (see above) that the occurrence of thwaite in North English place-names would be due to Danish influence.

As to the natural site of the places designated by thwaite it is true of nearly all north of the Humber that they belong to the most mountainous and rugged districts. Very often they are situated on mountain-sides sloping towards a lake, river or a valley. On the Cumberland thwaite-names an early 16th century writer, John Denton (see above p.30 n.), makes the following reflections:

But in several parts and pieces as they are marked by nature, differing in form and quality of soil or otherwise by the inhabitants inclosed from the barren wastes of the fells, such pieces of land are now and were of old called Thwaites in most places of the shire, sometimes with addition of their quality, as Brackenthwaite of fearns, Sivithwaite of rushes' etc.

The spelling of þveit in place-names seems to have presented great difficulties to the mediaeval scribes, to whom the proper form and meaning of the word must often have been unfamiiliar, if we may judge as much from the many corrupt spellings. This is also evident from the circumstance that þveit was occasionally mistaken for a different word, such as vað 'ford', wei 'way', &c, see below Langthwaite Yo., Braworth, Steinþveit. In the 13th and 14th centuries we not seldom come across the writing -weit, which seems to represent a continuation of the late O.E. tendency to drop the interdental spirant þ between consonants; examples are given by Kluge in Paul's Gr. (Paul, H. Grundriss der Germanischen Philologie, 1901-09) at page 1008, and, from Gaimar, by Rathmann, p.41, Anm. 3; cf. also the place-name Norwolde Norf. 1302 F.A. (Inquisitions and Assessments relating to Feudal Aids, etc. 1284-1431), but Northwolde 1316 f. ibid., now Northwold. The spirant must have been particularly subject to being lost, when it got into contact with a dental sound belonging to the 1st member; see, e.g. Gunthwaite, Geghestueit, Estweyt; cf. also Ruhwaith, Storthwayt, &c. On spontaneous dialectal development depends the loss of w in thweit, which is well instanced in North English local records, where spellings like -theit, -thait are to be found from the 12th century onwards. From the material brought together in Ellis, E.Engl. Pronunciation V, p.605 (cf. also in Hope's Glossary) may be learnt that in many place-names in Cumberland -thwaite is still in our days pronounced without the w. [th-at].

Here belongs the following M.E. material:

Thwayte, Thwaite Yo. 1372, Twayte 1424 Cal. Inq. (Calendarium Inquisitionum post Mortem sive Escaetarum (Henry III - Richard III); now (Hilla) Thwaite, near Hackness

Thwait sub Huglawe Yo. 1308 Whitby Chartulary; near Whitby

Bertwait Yo. ante 1180, Berthuait circa 1146 (Papal confirmation) Whitby Chartulary - In the Whitby district. Site unknown. From O.W.Scand berr, 'bare, naked', (O.Swed., Dan. bar, O.E. bær, M.E. bar); or perhaps rather O.E., M.E. bere 'barley', N.E. dialect bear, retained only in Scotland, Nhb., Yo., Li., Shrop. and Suff. Also O.W.Scand ber 'berry' might possibly be taken into consideration.

Setwait Yo. early 12th century, Whitby Chartulary. (cf. ibid. p.118 n.); near Whitby. Apparently from O.W.Scand sjár, sær (M.E. ) 'lake, sea'. An exact parallel is the O.Norw. Sæþuæit BK (Björgynjar Kálfskinn, 14th century).


"The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" A. H. Smith, Volume V (1979) at page 330

Field and other minor names

þveit is a common element in field-names. Usually the first element is descriptive of size, shape etc., … the name of a neighbouring feature as … Setwait (1155-65) in Hawsker near the sea (O.E. ) …


[31] haugr, 'a hill, mound, cairn'

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 137 & 138

Chapter 4

Names containing Old West Scandinavian 'ou', 'au'

Among my own material which is given below the reader will miss one category of names that he may have expected to find here. I am referring to the numerous names that contain O.W.Scand. haugr (O.Swed. högher, O.Dan. høgh) 'a hill, mound, cairn'. Of this word there occur in M.E. place-names several forms: hogh, hough, howe, hou, &c. They coincide in spelling with contemporary forms of O.E. hoh (ho) 'heel', M.E. hoge, howe, how (< O.E. hoge, dative singular) and - especially in the north - hogh, hough, which latter word was, too, very frequent in place-names almost everywhere in Scandinavian England. Having primarily meant 'heel', it was already in O.E. applied to 'a promontory, a projecting ridge of land, a height ending abruptly or steeply'; cf. North East dialect hoe. Now if we find a M.E. name terminating in -howe, &c. it is clearly impossible to determine, from a phonological point of view, which of the two words we have before us. In a few cases the character of the other member affords something in the nature of a clue to a plausible derivation, but as a rule we are left to what can be gathered by means of topographical investigations. Since I have not been in a position, for the present, to undertake any with the thoroughness and accuracy which would be desirable, I have preferred to give a survey of these names in the later, non-phonetical, part of the present work.


"Ragnarr Lothbrók and his sons" (1909) Professor Allen Mawer, Saga Book VI at page 82

… There was certainly a tradition that Ívarr was buried in England. We read in Ragnar Loðbró's Saga how, on his death-bed, he gave orders that his body should be buried in a place which was exposed to attack, and prophesied that, if this was done, foes coming to the land would meet with ill-success. The story went that Harald Hardrada landed near Ívar's how, and fell on his expedition. William the Bastard came and broke open Ívar's how and burned his body and then gained possession of the land. In the story of Heming, quoted in Orkneyinga Saga, Harald Hardrada lands in the Cleveland district, and asks Tosti what a certain hillock is. Tosti says that it is Ívar's how, and Harald declares that to be of evil omen. When William the Conqueror lands he orders Ívar's bones to be burnt.


"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 96

haugr m. (grave-) mound


[32] Sneaton Thorpe and Sourebi

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 162 & 163

Chapter 4

Names containing Old West Scandinavian 'ou', 'au'

From O.W.Scand. saurar, nominative plural of saurr 'mud. dirt, excrements' (O.Swed. sör, O.Dan. sør), which word was frequently used - when simplex, in the plural - in place-names to design swampy soil … Cf. the O.Norw. place-name af Saurum B.J., and the Icelandic Saurar (Kålund). In England the word is found in M.E. as sowre, soore, and in N.E. dialect as saur 'liquid manure, dirt, black mud, soil', known only from some northern counties, especially Yo. - O.W.Scand. saurr occurs, besides, in the following M.E. place-names:

Sourebi Yo. ante 1180, Saurebi circa 1150, Soureby 1282, 1354 Whitby Chartulary; supposed to be identical with the present Sneaton Thorpe, see Whitby Chartulary p.398 n. … "and unto these had been added the lands of Sourebi (supposed to be Sneaton-Thorp), consisting of four carucates" - Whitby Chartulary at page lxvii

2nd member as in Aismunderby, p.3. Many places in Norway were called Saurby, see E.J. (Biskop Eysteins Jordebog. Fortegnelse over det geistlige Gods i Oslo Bispedømme omkring Aar 1400; udgiven ved H. I. Huitfeldt. Christiania 1879.) and N.G. (Norske Elvenavne. Kristiania (1904) [Elvenavne] & Gamle Personnavne i Norske Stedsnavne. Kristiania (1901) [Personnavne]") Cf. also the above-mentioned Icelandic Saurbœ La. (Landnámabók 1900) … 2nd member is O.W.Scand. boer, býr m. (O.Swed. byr, O.Dan. by) 'farm-buildings, a farm, abode, the farm-yard and buildings'. Cf. Fritzner. See also Introduction Ch. V.


"The Vikings and their Victims: the Verdict of the Names" Gillian Fellows-Jensen (1994) at page 21

Changing of names in England would seem on the whole to have been a more gradual process. With the passage of time, the Danes began to detach specialised units from the old English estates and give them names in -bý whose specifics indicated their function or their topographical situation, for example … Sowerby in the North Riding (Sourebi GDB 305ra; 4N/1) 'the settlement on sour ground' … This type of name occurs not only in the Danelaw proper but also across the Pennines in Cumbria and Lancashire and even across the Irish Sea in the Isle of Man, where we find Dalby 'the settlement in the valley'.


[33] Blawath, Blawath Beck and Blawath Crag - see also [23] and [106]

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at page 178

Chapter 5

Names containing Old Scandinavian 'a'

Blawad, Blawat Yo. 12th century, Blawathgile 1200-01 Rievaulx Chartulary, now Bloworth? See ib. p.32 n. 2.

Blawath Yo. early 13th century, (passim) Guisbrough Chartulary; according to Cary's map now Blowith Beck in the south of Glaisdale (cf, Guisbrough Chartulary I p.103).

2nd member is O.W.Scand. vað = O.E. wœd 'a ford, shallow water' Bosw. Toller (Anglo-Saxon Dictionary 1882-98). Cf. further p.27 n. 1. … 2nd member O.W.Scand. vað, O.Swed. vaþ, O.Dan. vath 'a ford' … Cf. N.E. dialect wath with the same meaning; the word occurs only in the Scandinavian counties of Northern England (see The English Dialect Dictionary 1898-1905) and is apparently Scandinavian loan.


[34] Kelda

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at page 28

Chapter 2

Names containing Old West Scandinavian 'ei' (Old East Scandinavian 'e')

Braithekeld Yo. 1202 Ped. fin. Eb. (Pedes finium Ebor. tempore Ricardi I., 1191-99). A spring near Hutton Conyers.

2nd member M.E. keld (in place-names), N.E. dialect keld, kell (Nbh, Cumb., Yo., Lanc.) 'a fountain, spring', most probably from O.W.Scand. kelda (O.Swed. kälda, O.Dan. kyœldœ) with the same meaning. Frequent in North English place-names.


[35] Caltwayt

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 113 & 183

Chapter 2

Old West Scandinavian þveit in Middle English place-names

Caltwayt Yo. 1227 Bracton. Not identifiable.

From O.W.Scand. kaldr 'cold'; cf. the O.Norw. place-name Kaldaþveit, postulated by Rygh, N.G. (Norske Elvenavne. Kristiania (1904) [Elvenavne] & Gamle Personnavne i Norske Stedsnavne. Kristiania (1901) [Personnavne]") VI, for the present Kaltvet. Kaldr may here have had the same application as kalinn in prec. name; noteworthy is, moreover, that M.E. cald, cold was employed of soil in the sense of 'slow to absorb heat, from its impervious clayey nature and retentiveness of moisture' N.E.D. (A New English Dictionary on historical principles. Oxford 1888) - Or perhaps from O.W.Scand. kál 'cabbage'; M.E. cale, cf. Björkman (Erik, 'Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English' 1900-02) p.106, and below Ch. 5.

Chapter 5

Names containing Old Scandinavian 'a'

Kalegarth [cultura] Yo. tempore Edward I Plac. Warr. (Placita de quo warranto, tempore Edward I - Edward III); in Appletreewick. From O.W.Scand. kál-garðr 'a cabbage-garden', O.Swed. kalgarðer, O.Dan. kalgarth; to this word goes back New English dialect, kalegarth, quoted by E.D.D. (The English Dialect Dictionary 1898-1905) from Yo. and the northernmost comities. There are strong reasons in favour of the assumption that the M.E. northern cal, cale, kale 'cabbage', and its modern representative New English dialect kale, kail, depend on O.Scand. kal; so may the isolated O.E. cal in Æfric's Gloss. inasmuch as the current O.E. form was cawel, cawl (from Latin caulis; as for the further development see N.E.D. (A New English Dictionary on historical principles. Oxford 1888), and Björkman (Erik, 'Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English' 1900-02). In the same direction points the evidence afforded by the distribution of N.E. kale in the English dialects, where, with one exception, it is not found outside Scandinavian England. - M.E. kale resp. O.Scand. kal may further enter into … Caltwayt Yo., see above p.113.


[36] Cracoe and Crachou

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 185 & 186

Chapter 5

Names containing Old Scandinavian 'a'

Crachele Yo. DoB.; Crakehale 1269, Crachale 1282 C. Inq. (Calendar of Inquisitions post mortem and other analogous documents, Henry III - Edward III, Henry VII); Crakehall Kirkby; Crachall Nomine villarum; Crakhale 1331 C. Inq. (Calendar of Inquisitions post mortem and other analogous documents, Henry III - Edward III, Henry VII); now Crakehall, near Patrick Brompton.

Perhaps from the O.W.Scand. personal name Krákr or the feminine Kráka. But it may be more likely that we have here O.W.Scand. kráka (O.Swed. kraka, O.Swed. krakœ) 'a crow', or krákr 'a crow or raven', used as a surname. Both of them are recorded in literature in that application (F. Jonsson, Tilnavne; Kahle, Altwestnord. Beinamen), and are preserved in some O.Norw. place-names. Scandinavian loan is most probably the personal name Craca in LVD., and, likewise, M.E. crake, New English dialect (only in Scandinavian England, Shropshire and Scotland) crake 'a crow, rook' [cf. Björkman (Erik, 'Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English' 1900-02) p. 95). Kráka (and krákr ?) occurs in several other M.E. place-names; as a general rule it is impossible to decide, in each particular case, whether we have before us the appellative or the personal name. The latter seems to enter into a Yo. double of the name now under consideration, viz.

Crachou Yo. 1257 Ch. R. (Calendar of the Charter Rolls, 1226-1326); Crachhou Kirkby; Crakehowe 1302 Feod. mil. Eb. (Feoda militum in Com. Ebor. (Knights' Fees in Yorkshire 31st Edward I), 1334 C. Inq. (Calendar of Inquisitions post mortem and other analgous documents, Henry III - Edward III, Henry VII); Crakhowe Nomine villarum, 1378 Poll-tax (poll-tax 2 Richard II); now Crakoe.

2nd member perhaps M.E. hou O.W.Scand. haugr 'a hill, mound, cairn'; see the comments on this word p.137. (see below)

Chapter 4 at page 137

Names containing Old West Scandinavian ou, au

Among my own material which is given below the reader will miss one category of names that he may have expected to find here. I am referring to the numerous names that contain O.W.Scand. haugr (O.Swed. högher, O.Dan. høgh) 'a hill, mound, cairn'. Of this word there occur in M.E. place-names several forms: hogh, hough, howe, hou, &c. They coincide in spelling with contemporary forms of O.E. hoh (ho) 'heel', M.E. hoge, howe, how (< O.E. hoge, dative singular) and - especially in the north - hogh, hough, which latter word was, too, very frequent in place-names almost everywhere in Scandinavian England. Having primarily meant 'heel', it was already in O.E. applied to 'a promontory, a projecting ridge of land, a height ending abruptly or steeply'; cf. North East dialect hoe. Now if we find a M.E. name terminating in -howe, &c. it is clearly impossible to determine, from a phonological point of view, which of the two words we have before us. In a few cases the character of the other member affords something in the nature of a clue to a plausible derivation, but as a rule we are left to what can be gathered by means of topographical investigations. Since I have not been in a position, for the present, to undertake any with the thoroughness and accuracy which would be desirable, I have preferred to give a survey of these names in the later, non-phonetical, part of the present work.


[37] Skáli, Scales, Scalby and Scalebec

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 189, 190 & 191

Chapter 5

Names containing Old Scandinavian 'a'

Scales … From O.W.Scand. skáli 'a hut, shed, put up for temporary use, sometimes at a considerable distance from the farm' (Norwegian dialect skaale: no O.E.Scand. equivalent recorded), which meaning is particularly obvious in compounds such as lauf-skáli, leik-skáli, fiski-skáli. On O.W.Scand. territory the term came soon to be employed chiefly of the house among the farm-buildings that was intended for sleeping in, svefn-skáli (cf. Guðmundsson, Privatboligen p. 206 &c.). In England there is as yet no evidence of a similar specialized application of the word, which appears in M.E. as scale 'shanty', the sole reference in Björkman (Erik, 'Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English' 1900-02), being from the northern Cursor Mundi. To the north is confined, too, its modern continuation, New English dialect (Cumb., Wm.) scale "a temporary hut or shelter, wooden shed'.

O.W.Scand. skáli occurs, moreover, in about 40 M.E. place-names, to be found almost exclusively in the northern counties of Yo., Lanc., Cumb., Wm., where they form a marked characteristic of the local nomenclature. The word seems to have been used here in the same sense as was stated above to have been the earliest on record, and in which it occurs in some O.Norw. place-names (see Rygh, Indl.). Of the greatest interest are those M.E. names of this kind into which it enters, generally in the plural, as last member; as first member we find, as a rule, a personal name, a place-name, or a descriptive word, referring either to the situation of the building, the purpose for which it was used, or to its form and structure. Several noteworthy and suggestive compounds of the two last-named categories are included in the list below.

… But to return to O.W.Scand. skáli: It is derived … from a Teutonic Skawalan. Although there are no phonetical difficulties in the way of such a derivation, it seems to me preferable to connect the word with O.W.Scand. skál (O.Swed. skal, O.Dan. skaal) 'a bowl, dish, scale of balance', as is suggested by Guðmundsson (o. c., p.207), who, in support of his view, calls attention to the compound skál-hús = skáli. Our skáli would then primarily have denoted a bowl-shaped hut. Buildings of such a form are proved to have existed since primeval times in Iceland, Shetland, the British Isles ('beehive houses'), and elsewhere in northern Europe (see ib. p.107 f.); in Iceland they are still to be found and especially used for confining sheep in. Again, the aforesaid O.W.Scand. skál (< Teutonic skæo) has several cognates in the Continental Teutonic languages, such as Old Saxon scâla, … When faced with such facts one might feel disposed to wonder if an O.E. equivalent to these words did not once exist; we should then expect an Anglian form scel or a weak scela, which would be precisely the ground-word presupposed by a native M.E. shele. In other words, the possibility is not out of the question that O.W.Scand. skáli and M.E. shele are - at any rate approximately - etymological equivalents, which have undergone the same development in meaning. It must be regretted that the material to go upon in O.E. is so very scanty and does not suffice for forming any definite conclusions, the nearest cognate here being scealu 'a shell, dish, cup &c' with short stem-vowel. Accordingly the whole problem remains, for the present, practically unsolved.

We now pass on to the other M.E. place-names containing O.W.Scand. skáli.

Scalebec Yo. 12th century Whitby Chartulary; near Liverton. 2nd member is O.W.Scand. bekkr (O.Swed. bäkker), or M.E. beck 'a stream'.


"The History of Whitby, and of Whitby Abbey, before the Conquest" Lionel Charlton (1779) Book II at pages 132 and 133

893. Grant by Robert de Livertun to the monks of Whitby of two bovates and a toft in Livertun and 18 acres of Land. 1170-1180

Chartulary of Whitby f. 59

… About the year 1163 the aforesaid Robert of Livertun gave, granted etc … Some time after this, the same Robert of Livertun gave, granted and by his charter confirmed to God and St Peter and St Hylda of Wyteby … the land which is between the water of Scineregrive and Scalebec, as far as the footway coming from Grenerig; and also the land on the other side of Scalebec, between the said footway and the tillage land of the countrymen, as far as the toft of the two aforesaid oxgangs …

at page 187 of the Chartulary of Whitby:

M. Scinnergriue. It seems to be impossible now, owing to the change of local names during recent times, to identify tlie streams here named, or indeed any of the places specified, with rare exceptions. There are two becks which meet at the northern limit of Liverton, one of which is now called Kilton Beck, and the other White Cliff Beck, and which with their united streams flow on to Skinningrove. Scalebeck is probably Kilton Beck, but it is impossible to decide. Grenerig is Gerrick.


"Early Yorkshire Charters; being a collection of documents anterior to the thirteenth century made from the public records, monastic chartularies, Roger Dodsworth's manuscripts and other available sources" William Farrer 1861-1924 (published 1914 in four volumes) at page 237

Volume II

At page 237

The Memorials of the abbey record the gifts of Robert de Liverton as consisting of ½ carucate quit of Danegeld with additions which William, dean (of Cleveland?), sold to them. In the confirmation of Henry II (1175-1180) the donor is described as Robert son of Nigel de Liverton. The additions, namely 18 acres and a toft in Liverton, were ostensibly given by Robert de Liverton, but the person from whom they were acquired may have been William de Herlesei, who attested the donation.

At a later date Robert de Liverton gave to the monks land and wood between the water of Schinnegrive and the water of Scalebec to the road of Grenerig, which runs from Schinnegrive to Scalebec; land of Lusekeldesic, from the sea road to Duncildehalc and from the tilled land, formerly the monks', to Scortebutes; and a toft of 2 acres in 2 parcels; attested by Henry de Percy, Peter de Bradelai, and two others.


"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 209

skáli m. hall (usually without dividing walls), the main living area of a medieval house; ofan allr skálinn all the upper part of the hall; at skáli in the house; shed, hut for sleeping in: sumir skálarnir some of the sleeping huts.


Skáli, 'a hut, shed, put up for temporary use'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

SKÁLI, a, m. [cp. Scotish 'shieling'; Ivar Aasen skaale = shieling]: -a hut, shed, put up for temporary use; this is the earliest Norse sense, and it is still so used in Norway … II. a hall (höll is only used of the king's hall) … the skáli is a detached building; drykkju-skáli, a drinking hall; svefn-skáli, a sleeping hall:

  • skála vist at Rauðabjörgum, of a fisherman's hut
  • skála búi, a hut dweller = a robber
  • leik-skálar, play-shielings, put up when people assembled for sports
  • gufu-skálar, 'steam-shieling' a local name, of bathing-sheds
  • fiski-skálar, fishing shielings; it also remains in local names as Skála-holt

[38] Arkilmire

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 205 & 206

Chapter 6

Names containing Old Scandinavian 'y'

The only place-name element which belongs to this chapter is M.E. mire < O.W.Scand. myrr f. 'moor, bog, swampy ground' … All the M.E. names that contain the Scandinavian word are to be found in northern England. I have noted the following instances:

Compare, however, next page, foot-note 6 … With regard to Mirefelt, Myrehage, Mireschogh and Mireton it is possible, from a formal point of view, that the 1st member is, instead, from M.E. mire 'an ant', borrowed from Scandinavia; cf. Björkman (Erik, 'Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English' 1900-02) p.115. In any case the names are to be included here.

Arkilmire Yo. 13th century Guisborough Chartulary; Arke(l)mire 13th century Rievaulx Chartulary; near Normanby


[39] -Toft place-names e.g. Allan Tofts (Aleinetoften) and Hartoft Rigg (Haretoft).


"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 208 to 212 & 217

Chapter 7

Names containing Old Scandinavian 'o'

From O.E., M.E. toft 'a piece of ground, a slightly elevated, exposed site, campus', an adoption of O.Dan. toft 'an enclosed home-field' (husætoft, see Lund; cf. O.Swed. tomt, topt, toft), or O.W.Scand. topt, tupt 'a piece of ground, messuage, homestead, a place marked out for a house or building' … The meaning of 'messuage', i.e. a portion of land, intended to be occupied, or actually occupied, as a site for a dwelling-house and its appurtenances, is to be assigned to the Latinized forms toftum, tofta, which are of constant occurrence in Old and Middle English records of various descriptions, especially in charters transferring landed property. In such documents the phrase cum tofto et crofto is met with, over and over again.

As a place-name element the O.Scand. toft, topt is frequently found in Norway and, more particularly, in Denmark and Sweden … Some instances exist, moreover, in Iceland (La.), in the Shetlands … in Scotland … in the Faroes … besides, there are a great number in Normandy, for examples of which see below. From Mediaeval England I have noted more than a hundred place-names containing the word, which are scattered nearly all over Scandinavian England, from Suffolk in the south up to Northumberland, Durham and Westmoreland in the north; the last three counties, together with Lancashire and Cumberland, have only one instance each. The scarceness of the word in the local nomenclature of the northern counties is noteworthy in view of the fact that New English dialect toft (tuft Yo.) is in general use even in that part of the country - see E.D.D. (The English Dialect Dictionary 1898-1905). Of the material given below about four fifths belong to Yo.), Li and Norf.

An examination of the compounded M.E. toft-names will show that comparatively many of them contain a native word as 1st member, either an appellative or a personal name. All things considered it is clear that toft was adopted in the native language at a very early period. [The word seems to have been introduced here in the form toft and prior to the O.W.Scand. transition ft > pt which … was in operation about A.D. 1000. When that is so, and the word occurs both in O.W.Scand. and O.E.Scand. local nomenclature, all attempts at deciding whether the English toft-names are of West or East Scandinavian extraction are doomed to failure from the outset, the more as the 1st members of the compound names are anything but suggestive on this point.] Furthermore it is interesting to notice that exact parallels to several of these names can be cited from the numerous toft-names of Normandy, the total number of which is put down by Taylor (Words and places, p. 123) at about one hundred. Among the early Norman instances adduced by Fabricius (p.312 f.) we find Breitot, Hotot, Esketot or Esquetot, Langetot, Wictot or Wigetot, &c., all of which re-appear in Scandinavian England. As may be seen from these spellings, the Norman form of toft was tot - with the f regularly dropped before the consonant t - which, indeed, occurs in all the names of the present kind given by Fabricius (1. c.) and Joret (p.52-54). Under such circumstances it is not surprising that the same tot is used repeatedly in the place-name spellings of Domesday, which is wholly in keeping with the Norman orthography of this record, while it is hardly ever found in our subsequent sources. We now pass on to the remaining material:

Tofthous Yo. 1291 A. Plac. (Placitorum in domo capit. Westmonast. asservatorum abbreviatio. Tempore regum Richard I - Edward II); Tofthouse, Thouhouse Kirkby now lost. Near Harewood. This name is etymologically identical with New English dialect toft-house 'the house attached to a toft' (E.D.D. 'The English Dialect Dictionary' 1898-1905).

Ailwintoft Yo. 1310 Ch. R. (Calendar of the Charter Rolls, 1226-1326); in Scaling near Easington, N. Riding. 1st member is the M.E. personal name Aylwine for which cf. above p.192 n. 6.

Aldwinetoftes, Aldenetoftes Yo. 13th century, Aldenetoftes 1332 Rievaulx Chartulary; now Antofts. 1st member is O.E. Ealdwine, Aldwini, personal name. From this is, perhaps, Aldene in DoB. (cf. Aldenescheles p.190). M.E. Aldewyn, Aldyn, &c.; cf. Bardsley, under Alden.

Aleinetoften Yo. 1204 Rot. Ch. (Rotuli Chartarum in Turri Londinensi asservati, 1199-1216); Aleinstoftes Rot. H. (Rotuli Hundredorum, tempore Henry III et Edward I); Aleintoftes 1297 Yo. inq. (Yorkshire inquisitions 1241-95), 1372 Cal. Inq. (Calendarium Inquisitionum post Mortem sive Escaetarum (Henry III - Richard III); near Scalby and Scarborough. 1st member is the common M.E. personal name Aleyn, Alayn, of which numerous instances are to be found in early M.E. records. Cf. Aleynscheles p.190. Bardsley (q.v.) states it to be of Norman introduction.

Alwaldtoftes Yo. 1292 Pat. R. (Calendar of the Patent Rolls, 1216-1485); Alwaldetoftes 1295, Allewartoftes 1296 Yo. inq. (Yorkshire inquisitions 1241-95); near Liglethwaite? From O.W.Scand. Olvaldi, O.Dan. Alwaldi, personal name; or, possibly, O.E. &ARlig;lfweald. Cf. Alwaldeby, p.175 n.3.

Arnaldetoftes Yo. 12th century f. Whitby Chartulary; near Ayresome. From O.W.Scand. Arnaldr O.E.Scand. Arnald, personal name; or M.E. Arnald < O.E. Earnweald (on record?) ?

Haretoft Yo. Nomine villarum, 1349 Cal. Inq. (Calendarium Inquisitionum post Mortem sive Escaetarum (Henry III - Richard III); now Hartoft. From M.E. hare (O.E. hara) or (O.N. hari 'a hare') O.Swed. hari, Danish hare 'a hare'.

(More -toft place-names from Beltot to Werkhustoft on pages 213 to 225


"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

TOPT, tomt, tupt, toft, tuft; the vowel is short, and toft makes a rhyme to opt … the word is identical with English 'tuft'. B. A green tuft or knoll, green, grassy place, then generally like mid. Lat. toftum, English toft, a piece of ground, messuage, homestead … göra kirkju ok hvergi tuft eyða, build a church, and not lay waste the toft … en ef hón er eigi til, þá skal kaupa tuft þar sem menn vilja svá sem menn meta, purchase a toft where to launch the ship … 3. a square piece of ground with walls but without roof (cp. tjalda), this is the special later Icelandic sense … búðar-tópt, the square walls of a hut without a roof.


[40] Wragby (see also [280] Wraggi)

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at page 208

Chapter 6

Names containing Old Scandinavian 'y'

Wragmire Cumb. 1362 Test. Karl. Not identifiable … Perhaps from the O.W.Scand. man's name Ragi (< Wragi), O.Dan. Wraghi, which is found in the Lincolnshire place-name Wragheby (see above p.197 n.). Or Wrag- might possibly be an orthographical error for Wrang-, in which case it is to be explained as in Wrangeflat, see p.197 n. 1


"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

Ragi, a, m. a proper name, Landnáma. Raga-bróðir, m. a nickname, id.


"Scandinavian Settlement Names in Yorkshire" Gillian Fellows Jensen (1972) at pages 6 & 7

II. Place-names in

1. The element in Scandinavia and Yorkshire

… In Norway, on the other hand, the term () seems to have been generally used of an isolated farmhouse, perhaps also originally of cultivated land. At all events, however, the element would seem to have acquired the meaning "village" before the period of the Scandinavian settlements in England (cf. PNEl i 66-72).

It is generally accepted that the village names in - in England were given by the Danish settlers but, as Kr. Hald points out in KLNM II 386, the use of the element by in the sense "village" would seem to have penetrated to the north and west from the areas of densest Danish settlement and there been adopted by the Norwegian settlers. Neither those places with names in in the areas of York­shire which are generally considered to have been settled by Norwegians nor those whose names contain a demonstrably WScand first element (e.g. an Irish or Norwegian personal name) can be shown to have been any smaller at the time of the compilation of DB than the villages in the demonstrably Danish areas. It is conceivable, however, that some of the names in the areas of predominantly Norwegian settlement and perhaps elsewhere, too, may originally have contained by in the sense "farmhouse". It is noticeable that several of the names indicate places that are now completely lost or whose site is marked by a solitary house or farm or in some cases merely by archaeological remains.

The volumes of the EPNS, however, record no less than 69 instances of place-names in in Yorkshire which are first recorded in post-DB sources. There are 25 in YN, 7 in YE, and 37 in YW. Only 12 of these names are borne by townships or parishes … Of these, 12 probably contain Scandinavian personal names, namely … Wragby YN (Wrauby 1344, Vragi, PNYN 118), and Wragby YW (Wraggebi 1160-70, Vragi, PNYW 2, 89) …


[41] Saltwick Nab

(Whitby) 'salt bay headland' from ON salt 'salt', ON vík or wic 'bay, cove, creek' and ON nes 'headland, cape, promontory'.


[42] Eller

Possibly from Ælla (Ella, Ille), the first certain king (560-588) of Deira, a kingdom (559-664) in Northern England which probably emerged when Anglian warriors conquered the Derwent Valley in the third quarter of the fifth century. It extended from the Humber to the Tees, and from the sea to the western edge of the Vale of York. The origin of all four place-names - Eller Beck, Eller Beck Bridge, Eller Beck Head and Little Eller Beck - is ON bekkr 'a brook, stream', and it was common for the ancient names of rivers to survive the place-name Scandinaviasisation during the Scandinavian colonisation which took place between circa 900 and 1086.


"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at page LIX

Chapter 5

Some general remarks on the Scandinavian place-nomenclature in England in Old and Middle English times

Of M.E. nature names which contain Scandinavian elements there is an almost endless host preserved in our charters and other records of a more local character. Among them we meet with names of woods and groves, hills and mountains, valleys, bays and inlets, fens and marshes, fords, &c. Relatively few in number are the names of lakes and rivers … Most of the river-names in England seem to be very ancient and of Celtic origin, and they were not discarded either by the Anglo-Saxon or the Scandinavian invaders … Many of the northern M.E. names of streams and brooks which terminate in -beck without doubt embody O.W.Scand. bekkr and not the native beck (cf. this word in Björkman (Erik, 'Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English' 1900-02) p.144), more particularly when the preceding member is a Scandinavian word, as in Stainbec p.89 … There is no reason for doubting the Scandinavian origin of such a name as a whole.


"The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names" Eilert Ekwall (1960) at pages 163 & 165

Ellerbeck YN [Elre, Alrebec, DB, Elrebeck 1243 FF], Ellerburn YN [Elreburne DB, -burn 1225 Ep, Alreburne circa 1160 YCh 380]. 'Alder brook'. See ALOR, Elri.

O.Scand elri 'alders, alder grove' is the first element of several names, as ELLERBECK, ELLERKER. Cf. ELLERS, ELLERTON.


[43] Staintondale

"The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names" Eilert Ekwall (1960) at pages 436 & 438

Staintondale YN (Steintun DB … A Scandinavianized form of STANTON, O.E. Stantun.

O.E. Stan-tun, which probably as a rule means 'TUN on stony ground'. Sometimes a Stanton was named from some prominent stone or stones …


[44] Cloughton, Cloughton Beck, Cloughton Newlands and Cloughton Wyke

"The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names" Eilert Ekwall (1960) at page 113

Cloughton YN [Cloctune DB, -ton 1191 ff, Clotton 1195 Pipe Rolls]. 'TUN in a ravine' Cf. CLOH

O.E. cloh, M.E. clo dialect 'ravine'. See … CLOUGHTON.


[45] ON Ketil, Kettle Howe and Kettle Well Cottage

Possibly also from ON personal name Ketill (OSwed Kœtil, ODan Ketil): 'Ketill's cairn' and 'Ketill's well' - see below "The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" A. H. Smith, Volume V (1979) at pages xxiv & 332:


"The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" A. H. Smith, Volume V (1979) at pages xxiv & 332

Introduction (at page xxiv)

Pickering Lythe Wapentake

Thornton Dale

KETTLETHORPE (lost)

  • Chetelestorp 1086 (Domesday Book), circa 1250 (Malton Cartulary) 118

'Ketill's village'; vide þorp. A common Scandinavian personal name.


Norse Place-names in Gower (Glamorganshire) (1900) Saga Book of the Viking Club Vol II, Alexander G. Moffat at page 114

Kettles, Kittle Hill, Kittle, Kytehull, Personal name. S. O. Addy writes in Notes and Queries, May 2nd, 1896, p. 345:

"I see no reason why Kettlewell should not mean 'Kettle Fields' because, according to ancient custom, the kindling of a fire on land and the boiling of a kettle (pot) thereon, was proof of possession. See Grimm's 'Rechtsalterthümer,' 1854, p. 107."


[46] Place-names ending in -ing: Abbot Ings, Broad Ings Farm, Moor Ings, Moor Ings Bank and Suffield Ings.

"The Chief Elements used in English Place-Names" (1924) Allen Mawer at page 24

Much more common in field-names than place-names and it has been assumed in explanation of place-names in -ing far too frequently. Ekwall (English PN in -ing, 28-9) shows that it must not be assumed unless the early forms show eng rather than ing).


[47] Steinn and place-names ending in -stan and tun

"The Chief Elements used in English Place-Names" (1924) Allen Mawer at pages 55 & 56

There has been much confusion between place-names in stan and those in tun preceded by the genitive singular in -es of a personal name or common noun, for both alike in modern English naturally end in ston.

steinn, ON, 'stone, rock' cognate with O.E. stan. It is very common in place-names in numerous Staintons and Stainforths but is not always easily distinguished from the personal name Steinn. It is often replaced in the present-day form by English stan or stoneStonegrave Y.


[48] þorn, þyrne and þyrnir place-names

"The Chief Elements used in English Place-Names" (1924) Allen Mawer at pages 59 & 60

þorn, O.E., ON, 'thorn-bush'. Places whose name begins with Thorn- must, for the most part, have been so called owing to the presence of some thorn-bush close at hand, but some Thorntons and the like may denote enclosures actually made from thorn-bushes …

þyrne, O.E., 'thorn-bush' … In Scandinavian England it is impossible to distinguish it from ON þyrnir.


[49] Coverdale Pasture Plantation, Gowerdale Wood, Gowerdale Windypits, Limperdale Gill, Limperdale Rigg, Sneverdale Rigg, Whisperdales, Whisperdales Beck and Whisperdales Farm

"The Origin of English Place Names" (1960) P. H. Reaney at pages 163 & 164

Chapter Seven

The Scandinavian Element

Pure Scandinavian Place-Names

… Undoubted proof that a place-name was given by a Scandinavian-speaker is provided by the survival of Scandinavian inflexional forms. The OSc genitive in -ar survives in … Amotherby (NRY) … This ON inflexion is also used in compounds formed from older place-names: … Such compounds are usually found in areas known to have been at least partly colonised by Norwegians and are rare in preponderatingly Danish districts … In Norway this r of the genitive was normally preserved; in Danish and Swedish it was lost, particularly before a consonant, the normal ODa genitive becoming -a and later -e.


[50] Beck Hole, Beck Hole Road and Beck Hole Scar

"The Origin of English Place Names" (1960) P. H. Reaney at page 166

Chapter Seven

The Scandinavian Element

Scandinavianised Place-Names

Word-substituition

… Substitution of a Scandinavian word for an English synonym is common: … Holebec c1180 'stream in the hollow' (OE broc, ON bekkr 'stream') …


[51] Cober and Cober Hill.

"The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names" Eilert Ekwall (1960) at page 114

Cober River, Cornwall [Coffar 1284, 1286 Assize Rolls, Chohor 1336 Charter Rolls] Unexplained.


Derivation unknown but see Cobers Laithe [SD 86175 53599] and Cobers Laithe Camp (Nappa) [SD 86702 53404] (North Yorkshire) believed to be an Iron Age camp or settlement which has yet to be excavated. Derivation of first element 'cobers' unknown but second element is from ON hlaða 'a barn'.


[52] Airy Hill and Airy Hill Farm.

"The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" A. H. Smith, Volume V (1979) at pages 49 and 126

Ryedale Wapentake (at page 49)

Hovingham

1. Airyholme 22 J 9

  • Erghum 1138 (Dugdale's Monasticum vide 350)
  • Ergum 1218 (Yorkshire feet of Fines), 1236 (Calendar of Close Rolls)

'(At) the shielings' vide erg. The word is derived ultimately from OIr airgh 'a place for summer pastures in the mountains', and as Airholme stands on the top of a hill overlooking Wath Beck in the hilly district south of Hovingham, it seems probable that the meaning of the name is 'summer pastures'. The phonology of this word is of interest; the MIr form was airge but this does not indicate a diphthong; medial -i- is here used to indicate the palatial quality of OIr a, whilst gh represents a spirant consonant aspirated from original stopped g between vowels. The pronunciation, therefore, of OIr airgh would be [ærg]. This would normally develop into [erj(ɘm)] in Yorkshire.

Whitby Strand Wapentake (at page 126)

7. Whitby 16 F 11

Airy Hill

  • Ergum 1090-6 (YCh 855 et passim to 1314 North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd Series)
  • Hergum 1155-65 (Whitby Cartulary)

vide erg and cf. Airyholme 49 supra.


"The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names" Eilert Ekwall (1960) at pages 4 and 168

Airyholme YN near Malton [Erghum 1138 Mon], YN in Ayrton [Ergun DB]. 'The shielings', the dative plural of erg.

ON erg, ærgi 'a shieling, i.e. a hill pasture, a hut on a pasture', from MIr airge 'a dairy, Ir airghe, Gaelic airidh 'a shieling', is common in place-names in Cumbria, Lancashire, Westmorland, Yorkshire. The element is usually combined with Scandinavian first elements, and the names must be looked upon as Scandinavian. The vowel of the word varies a good deal between e and a. This is due to various substitutions for the Irish sound. Erg is the second element of several names … It is often used alone as a place-name usually in the plural … The following go back to the dative plural ergum, ærgum: Airyholme …


"A Viking-Age Shieling in Skarðsvík, Fugloy, Faroe Islands" Anna Katrin Matras, Hákun Andreasen and Steffen Stummann Hansen (2003) at pages 207 to 211

How do we explain the occurrence of an originally Old Irish term for shieling sites in the Faroe Islands ? According to Matras, the term was brought here by Viking-Age settlers who had become acquainted with it in Scotland, where the Scots-Gaelic language derives from Old Irish. Dahl did not touch upon this question of origin either in his publication of the shieling site Ergidalur or in an article published the following year. The linguist Fellows-Jensen suggested in 1980 that the term œrgi/áirge referred to a specific type of shieling, which was unfamiliar to the Scandinavian settlers when they arrived in the Celtic-speaking world and, consequently, they adopted the local term. She suggested that the Isle of Man was the most likely place that this occurred. Mahler points out that the Faroese landscape is quite different from the homeland of its early settlers, which he assumes to have been Norway, and he proposes that this may have forced them to introduce a somewhat different shieling model than the one they were used to. He suggests that they found this in the Celtic-speaking regions to the south and hence the adoption of the term œrgi into Faroese.

Fellows-Jensen has recently re-stated her views on the origins of the term œrgi:

"Although the word is recorded in Old Irish sources … it would not seem to have been used there as a place-name element denoting a shieling and it is thus very unlikely that the Norse can have adopted the element from the Irish. It is probable then, that they became acquainted with the word in a sense such as 'summer grazing land' in the areas which are known to have had a Gaelic-speaking population in the period of the Norse settlement, that is the Western Isles, the western seaboard of Scotland or the Isle of Man … The Isle of Man might seem a likely place for the Norse form to have developed because the inhabitants were Gaelic-speaking before the arrival of the Norse".

In her 1980 paper she explained why she excluded Ireland as the source of the term:

"Although there are a few possible occurrences of the element áirge in place-names in Kerry, it seems hardly likely that the Vikings adopted the generic in the sense 'summer milking-place' in Ireland. The Viking settlements in that country were small and rather urbanised and practically restricted to the areas surrounding Dublin, Wexford, Waterford, Cork and Limerick".

In the authors' opinion it seems strange that Fellows-Jensen does not accept that the Old Irish term áirge, as it was used in Ireland in the Early Medieval period, was used in place-names to denote a shieling. It seems clear that it must have been used, to the extent that the Irish historical and literary sources indicate what the meaning of the term actually was. Kelly, for instance, based on his study of these sources, notes that: "In summer, cows were milked away from the farm at a contemporary milking-place (áirge)". Clearly, one can argue that if a term is used in literary and historical sources to describe a specific activity then this term is very likely to have been used as an element in the names of places connected to this type of activity. In the authors' view the opposite argument, which appears to form Fellows-Jensen's viewpoint, cannot be supported: if an activity-specific term does not exist as a place-name element, then this means that the concept behind the term was not practised. This is arguing on the basis of negative evidence.

The basis for Fellows-Jensen's belief, that the Scandinavian settlers did not adopt the term áirge in Ireland, is clear. She states:

"The Viking settlements in that country were small and rather urbanised and practically restricted to the areas surrounding Dublin, Wexford, Waterford, Cork and Limerick".

This statement does not stand up to examination, however, and is incorrect on several grounds. The traditional view of the character of Scandinavian settlement in Ireland and of the interaction of the Scandinavians with native Irish society has been transformed in recent decades. For instance, Bradley has demonstrated that there was a significant Scandinavian or Hiberno-Scandinavian presence in the rural areas surrounding the urban centres, and that some of these areas were very sizeable. For example, the total area of the hinterland of Scandinavian Dublin, Dyfflinarskiri, approximately matches that of Viking-Age Orkney. Recent work by Sheehan, Stummann Hansen and Ó Corráin has demonstrated, by means of archaeological, historical and onomastic evidence from the southwest coast of Ireland, that there is likely to have been a developed network of Scandinavian or Hiberno-Scandinavian settlements along this coastline serving as way-stations for shipping between the urban centres. Therefore, it is clear that there were significant amounts of Scandinavian settlement in rural environments in Ireland. In such contexts, there would have been many interchanges of knowledge and practices, including interchanges relating specifically to farming.

Fellows-Jensen's comment on the prevalence of the áirge element in Ireland, furthermore, is not correct. The element occurs, for instance, in the following place-name examples: … All of these names located in upland locations, though the elevation of those in County Limerick is slight. The latter locations, however, do contrast markedly with the rolling plains of the adjacent Golden Valley.

All authorities agree that the occurrence of the place-name element œrgi in the Faroe Islands derives from the Celtic-speaking world. However, there is disagreement about where specifically it derives from and about how it was transmitted to the Faroe Islands. It is the view of the authors that its adoption may well indicate that a sizeable section of the Viking-Age settlers of the Faroe Islands had their roots in Hiberno-Scandinavian communities, and there is further archaeological and linguistic evidence to support this hypothesis (see for instance Stummann Hansen and Sheehan, submitted). These settlers, probably bilingual, would already have been familiar with the term œrgi and it was only natural that they transplanted this term into the landscapes of their new homeland - the Faroe Islands.


[53] Bridge Holm Lane and Brigholm

Brygholm (13th century) Whitby Chartulary [Surt. Soc.], 520). Brigholme (formerly listed under Brig Garth) is a Grade II listed building (English Heritage ID 327802) located at NZ 95249 04957 (54.4311, -0.5332 and YO22 4SF).


"The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" (1928) A. H. Smith, Volume V, at page 129

LANGBARGH EAST WAPENTAKE

BRIDGE HOLME (6")

  • Brigholme 1301 (Yorkshire Lay Subsidy 1301) (p)

vide brycg, holmr.


"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 33

bryggja f. quay, jetty


"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

BRYGGJA, u, f. [v. brú, Scot. brigg], a pier, landing-stage, gangway … The piers were movable, and were carried about in trading ships; hence such phrases as, skjóta bryggjum (skut-bryggja), to shoot out the gangway, for embarking or loading the ship. 2. seldom = bridge. In English local names, Stanfurðu-bryggja, Lundúna-bryggja, Stamford-bridge, London-bridge … combinations:

  • bryggju-búð, f. a pier-shop
  • bryggju-fótr, m. the head (end) of a pier
  • bryggju-ker, n. a tub at the pier
  • bryggju-lægi, n. a lying with the gangway shot out
  • bryggju-mangari, a, m. a 'bridge-monger', shopkeeper at a landing-pier
  • bryggju-sporðr, m. the end, head of a pier

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

HÓLMR prop. holmr, also hólmi, a, m. [Anglo Saxon holm; Northern English holm and houm] - a holm, islet, esp. in a bay, creek, lake, or river …


[54] Barnby see also [74]

"Scandinavian Settlement Names in Yorkshire" Gillian Fellows Jensen (1972) at page 19

II. Place-names in bý

2. The first elements in the place-names in bý

3. The material.

Barmby, Barnby, Bernebi

5. Barnby township, Langbargh E W, N. Barnebi 38ov.

The first element is probably the genitive plural of the appellative barn "child" … but possible alternative suggestions are the Scandinavian personal names Barn, Barni … or Bjǫrn, Bjarni … If the first element is barn or Barn(i), the spellings in e show Anglo-Norman interchange of a and e. If the first element is Bjǫrn or Bjarni, spellings in e represent the normal form the diphthongs ja and take in English sources and spellings in a show the Anglo-Norman interchange mentioned above.


[55] Danby see also [74]

"Scandinavian Settlement Names in Yorkshire" Gillian Fellows Jensen (1972) at page 25

II. Place-names in

3. The material

Danby, Denaby, Denby

1. Danby Parish, Langbargh East Wapentake, North (Riding) Danebi 327v, 328r, 380v, Danebia 333r … The first element is the genitive plural of the folk-name "Danes", presumably indicating isolated Danish settlements (DEPN; PNYN 131 etc) … In (Danby) the form is the Scandinavian genitive plural Dana suggesting that the names may have been given by Norwegians in Norwegian dominated areas …


"The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" A. H. Smith, Volume V (1979) at pages xxv and 131

Introduction (at page xxv)

… Danby in Cleveland, the only other name pointing to Danish settlement, though in Langbargh East, belongs to the geographical district of Eskdale, and if the name Danby has any racial significance it suggests that the Danes were only present there in small numbers. In Whitby Strand, therefore, the very high proportion of Scandinavian names must be due to Norwegian influence. In the north of the Riding there are a few traces of Danish colonisation

Langbargh East Wapentake

1. DANBY 16 J 5

Danebi, Daneby 1086 DB et passim to 1328 Banco
Danby 1285 KI et passim
Danby Forest 1665 Visit

'Village of the Danes' vide by. For the significance of this name, vide Introduction xxv.


[56] bátr, 'a boat'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

BÁTR, m. : -a boat, either a small open fishing vessel or a ship-boat. In Iceland only small boats are called so, those of two or four oars; an eight-oared boat is a 'ship' … Compounds:

  • bát-festr, f. a rope by which a boat is made fast
  • bát-lauss, adj. and bátleysi, n. being without a boat
  • bát-maðr, m. a boatman
  • sjá fyrir báti sínum, to go one's own course, to mind one's own business
  • báts-borð, n. the side of a boat
  • báts-farmr, m. a boat's freight
  • bát-stafn, m. a boat's prow

[57] Widdy Head

'Widdy' possibly from ON viðir (sea), viðr (wide) or Viðrir (Odin), whilst 'head' is from ON hofuð giving, respectively, 'Sea Head', 'Wide Head' and 'Odin's Head'.


[58] Boði - Skaldic Project

"The etymology of boði in a marine context is disputed. Most ON dictionaries see it as deriving from boða 'to announce' (boði 'messenger, proclaimer'), i.e. a wave which, breaking over a submerged reef or skerry, 'announces' or 'bodes' the hidden rocks …"


Boði, 'a messenger'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

boði, a, m. 1. [vide boð 4, cp. Anglo Saxon boda], a messenger, used in poetry … sendi-boði, a messenger, fyrir-boði, aforeboder. 2. especially as a nautical term, a breaker 'boding' hidden rocks … the phrase, vera sem boði á skeri, like a breaker on a skerry (rock), of a hot-tempered man, never at rest. Compounds: boboðia-fall, n. the dash of breakers … boboðia-slóð, f. the surf of breakers …


[59] Bownhill Wood

From the shape of the wood the name is possibly derived from ON beinn 'straight, right' and OE hyll 'hill' or ON hallr 'rock, stone'.

The surname 'Bown' is related to ON beinn and is believed to have come from 'De Bohun' from the La Manche region of Normandy, brought to England in 1066 by William the Bastard, the great-great-great-grandson of Rollo, a Viking who became the first ruler of Normandy. A Humphrey De Bohun was recorded as owning land in the Norfolk section of the Domesday Book. Over the years De Bohun became Boun, and then Bown or Boon.


[60] See also bygghlaða, 'barley barn'.


[61] Nelly Ayre Foss

Nelly is a spelling variant of Nellie, a diminutive of the female given names Eleanor and Helen; thus translates as Eleanor's (Helen's) gravel bank and waterfall.


[62] brekka

As in þingbrekka 'thing/assembly slope'


[63] Vé-ey, an island in Romsdal in Norway …


[64] Creek

Also ON kriki and ME creke.


[65] Willymath Bridge

'Willy' possibly from OE wileg, welig 'a willow' or wille 'a well'.


[66] Stæð

"A landing place is called 'stade' at Hithe in Kent."

"A Compendius Anglo-Saxon and English Dictionary (1848) Joseph Bosworth at page 208"

Stade Street Slipway, Stade Street, CT21 6DT (51.065839, 1.08514).


[67] Lundr

Lund occurs in local names in Northern England (the ancient Denelagu), as Gilsland, and is a mark of Norse or Danish colonisation.


[68] Breck (Whitby, lost)

From 'Breche' 1086 Domesday Book, derives from Old Norse brekka, 'a slope', and is possibly the hillside adjacent to the south and west of Baldby Closes.

  • Breche 1086 (Domesday Book)
  • Brecca(m) 1086 (Domesday Book), 1100 - circa 1115 (Early Yorkshire Charters) 857, 1133 (Whitby Cartulary)

'The slope'; vide brekka and Introduction xxvii. See also footnote [75]


[69] Dalr, Ramsdale

Ramesdale 1210 - Dugdale's Monasticon, 1817-1830, Volume iv. 319

Cartae ad Rossedalense Coenobium in agro Eboracensi spectantes (Charter relating to Rosedale Nunnery in Yorkshire) 2 Edward III m25 n82 (1329 ?)

Donationem insuper, concessionem, et confirmationem quas Matill quae fuit uxor Americi de Scardeburgh per cartam suam fecit praedictis monialibus de sex lagenis olei annuatim infra xv dies post festum Nativitatis sancti Johannis Baptistae, de quodam tofto in Burtondale jacente inter toftum beati Nicholai et toftum Siwardi Pistoris, et de quodam alio tofto super Ramesdale, infra murum quod fuit Willielmi filii Gamelli imperpetuum percipiendis.

… The grant in addition, grant, and confirmation by the charter of which he made all Matill Scarborough who was the wife of the aforesaid Americi six decanters of oil annually during the fifteen days after the feast of the nuns of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist, of St. Nicholas and of a certain toft in Burtondale toft Siwards Pistoris lying between the toft , and of one another on the Ramesdale toft, within the receiving of the wall, which was for ever of William the sons of Gamell.


"The Vikings in Lakeland: Their Place-Names, Remains, History" (1939) William Gershom Collingwood Saga Book Vol. XXIII at page 350

"4. Not only the meaning, but also the grammar of the Old Norse is preserved in these place-names. For example … Rampside (Rammes-heved) correctly represents Hramns höfdi


"Saga Book Vol. III" at page 15

"Raven's-ton-dale is clearly the dale of the tún of Hrafn, and is parallel to Rampside in Furness, Hramns-sœtr or something of the sort …" 'Ruins at Ravenstonedale'


"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 37

dalr m. valley; hollow

Dalsfjǫrðr m. fjord in western Norway


[70] Fyling, Fylingdales

Transcript of the entry for the Post Office, Professions and Trades in "Bulmer's Directory" of 1890 (annotated with dates):

Fylingdales is called, in Domesday Book (1086), "Figeling". After the conquest (1066) a part of it came into the possession of Tancred the Fleming who had followed the fortunes of William the Conqueror, and he, after an ownership of about 30 years (1096), sold it to William de Percy, abbot of Whitby.


[71] Bekkr, 'beck' - see also [83] brunnr, 'burn, well-spring, font, spring, stream'; [101] lœkr, lækr 'brook, rivulet, stream'

"The Vikings in Lakeland: Their Place-Names, Remains, History" (1939) William Gershom Collingwood, Saga Book XXIII at page 351

Place Names

The Lakeland word for "brook" is always "beck", never "burn", as in Anglian districts; rarely "leck" for the "lœkr" of tenth century Icelandic place-names. This seems to show that our settlers belonged to an earlier generation than those who fixed the names of Iceland, for they used the old word bekkr, which dropped out of currency after the ninth century. In other words, they were men whose fathers had left Norway with Thorgisl and Olaf the White, not Norwegians of Hakon the Good's time or later, in touch with the general progress and development of the North.


Bekkr, 'a rivulet, brook'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

BEKKR, s, and jar, m. [Northern English beck; German bach; Danish bæk; Swedish bäck], a rivulet, brook. In Iceland the word is only poetical and very rare; the common word even in local names of the 10th century is lækr … in prose bekkr may occur as a Norse idiom … or in Norse laws … At present it is hardly understood in Iceland and looked upon as a Danism.


[72] Deep Dale etc

From Old Norse djup and dalr giving 'deep dale/valley'. Icelandic gives Djupa, Djupidalr - djúpr dalr


"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 38

djúpr adj. deep; á djúpum sæ on the open sea


[73] Heimr, 'home, -ham'

"The Vikings in Lakeland: Their Place-Names, Remains, History" (1939) William Gershom Collingwood, Saga Book XXIII at pages 348 & 349

Place Names

In drawing the ethnographical map, it has been usually assumed that names in ham are Saxon, in ton Anglian, and in by Danish. This is true when we find considerable groups, but it does not hold for isolated instances. There are many names ending with ham in Anglian districts; some in ancient Norway are practically parallel, for Thrándheimr, Unarheimr, Stafheimr, and Sœheimr would become Thrandham, etc., in English; and Medalheimr in Iceland, is simply Middleham. Consequently an occasional Dearham or Brigham, Spunham or Waitham, do not prove the presence of Saxons in Cumberland and the Lake districts.

Ton, again, though not common as a place-name ending in Scandinavia, is found in Tunsberg and Sig-túnir: and ton in old Norse means just what it means in Lake district names: not 'town', but the ground on which a group of farm buildings stands. Where we get i>-ington we may assume an Anglian family settlement; and where (as in Low Furness) there is a group of -tons near -ington or -ingham, we have the tokens of Anglian population. But a casual -ton in a Norse context - like Kettleton in Galloway, Colton and Ulverston in Furness, etc. - may be regarded as a Norse settlement.

By is also common enough in Norway and Iceland (in the form of bœr) to be no proof of exclusively Danish settlement. Where we find a distinct group of bys, there we may assume Danish origin, but an odd Sowerby or Kirkby does not imply a Danish colony.


"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 97 & 98

  • heim adv. home; in (to the dwelling), to the buildings; to the house; back i.e. to the shieling (i.e. to the camp)
  • koma heim get back home, visit, pay a call i.e. to Valhǫll or Hel, to death
  • heim á bœinn (at bœnum) up to the farm (i.e. to Gunnarr's farm), (i.e. to Njáll's farm)
  • sœkja heim attack (someone) in their home
  • heim see heimr
  • heima adv. at home; in the house, in his house; when at home; in the precinct
  • heimili n. home
  • heimkynni n. home, household
  • heimr m. world; pl. i.e. where someone dwells;
  • norðr í heima into northern lands
  • þessa heims ok annars in this world and the next

[74] By, 'bœr', 'bú', 'búa'

"The Vikings in Lakeland: Their Place-Names, Remains, History" (1939) William Gershom Collingwood, Saga Book XXIII at pages 348 & 349

Place Names

In drawing the ethnographical map, it has been usually assumed that names in ham are Saxon, in ton Anglian, and in by Danish. This is true when we find considerable groups, but it does not hold for isolated instances. There are many names ending with ham in Anglian districts; some in ancient Norway are practically parallel, for Thrándheimr, Unarheimr, Stafheimr, and Sœheimr would become Thrandham, etc., in English; and Medalheimr in Iceland, is simply Middleham. Consequently an occasional Dearham or Brigham, Spunham or Waitham, do not prove the presence of Saxons in Cumberland and the Lake districts.

Ton, again, though not common as a place-name ending in Scandinavia, is found in Tunsberg and Sig-túnir: and ton in old Norse means just what it means in Lake district names: not 'town', but the ground on which a group of farm buildings stands. Where we get i>-ington we may assume an Anglian family settlement; and where (as in Low Furness) there is a group of -tons near -ington or -ingham, we have the tokens of Anglian population. But a casual -ton in a Norse context - like Kettleton in Galloway, Colton and Ulverston in Furness, etc. - may be regarded as a Norse settlement.

By is also common enough in Norway and Iceland (in the form of bœr) to be no proof of exclusively Danish settlement. Where we find a distinct group of bys, there we may assume Danish origin, but an odd Sowerby or Kirkby does not imply a Danish colony.


"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 33, 34 & 35

n. farmstead, dwelling … establishment

búa (pres. býr, past bjó, past pl. bjoggu/bjuggu, pp. búinn, búit/bút) … live, dwell … er fyrir bjuggu who dwelt there already; inhabit, live in; live together, keep house; býr is included

  • búandi (pl. búendr) m. farmer, freeholder
  • bústaðr m. dwelling-place; a site for a home
  • bút, ; see búa

, 'a house'; búa, 'to live, abide, dwell'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

, n. [… the root of this word will be traced more closely under the radical form búa; here it is sufficient to remark that '' is an apocopate form (i.e. where a word's final sound is omitted) … the root remains unaltered in the branch to which Icelandic bygg, byggja, and other words belong] -a house; and (býr) are twins from the same root (bua); bær is the house, the household; … In the Northern countries '' implies the notion of living upon the produce of the earth; in Norway and especially in Iceland that of living on the 'milk' (málnyta) of kine, ewes, or she-goats … it is '' if a man has a milking stock … the old Hm. says, a '', however small it be, is better to have than not to have; and then explains, 'though thou hast but two she-goats and a cottage thatched with shingle, yet it is better than begging'; Icelandic saying, sveltr sauðlaust buacute;, i.e. a sheepless household starves: '' also means the stores and stock of a household; göra, setja, reisa bú, to set up in life, have one's own hearth … bregða búi, to give up farming or household, taka við búi, to take to a farm, eiga bú við, to share a household with one, fara búi, to remove one's household, flit … bú er landstólpi, the 'bóndi' is the stay of the '', the '' is the stay of the land; … 2. estates; konungs-bú, royal demesnes; fara milli búa sinna, to go from one estate to another; eiga bú, to own an estate … Compounds:

  • bús-afleifar, f. pl. remains of stores
  • bús-búhlutir, m. pl. implements of husbandry
  • bús-efni, n. pl. household goods
  • bús-far, n. = búfar
  • bús-forráð;, n. pl. management of household affairs
  • bús-gagn = búgagn
  • bús-hagr, m. the state, condition of a ''
  • bús-hlutir = búsbúhlutir
  • bús-hægindi, n. pl. comfortable income derived from a ''
  • bús-kerfi, n. movables of a household

BÚA; Búa … Scottish and Northern English to 'big', i.e. to build; Búa, as a root word, is one of the most interesting words in the Scandinavian tongues; , bær, bygg, bygð, byggja, etc., all belong to this family: it survives in the Northern English word to 'big', … and possibly in the auxiliary verb 'to be' … A. NEUTER, to live, abide, dwell …

  • of a temporary abode, hann bjó í tjöldum, he abode in tents
  • a nautical term; þeir bjuggu þar um nóttina, they stayed, cast anchor during the night
  • to live together as man and wife; henni hagar að búa við hann
  • búa saman, of wedded life
  • to have a household, cattle, sheep, and milk; hence búandi, bóndi, bær and bú; búa við málnytu (milk)
  • búa búi sínu, to 'big ane's ain biggin', have one's own homestead

[75] Brattr, 'brant'; brekka, 'breck'; bakki, 'bank'; bak, 'back'

"The Vikings in Lakeland: Their Place-Names, Remains, History" (1939) William Gershom Collingwood, Saga Book XXIII at page 351

Place Names

Our dialect, though not our place-names, gives also "brant" for brattr; on the other hand old place-mes have "breck" and "brick" for brekka (not "brink"), and "back" seems to stand for bakka, instead of "bank", e.g. Sunbrick and Backbarrow. Whether it is possible that Thorgisl's companions said brantr, or whether our word regained its n under English influence. which certainly modified the settlers' Norse into the Dalesmen's dialect - this must be left for the judgment of scholars.


"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 13, 19 and 29

árbakki m. bank of the river VII B:83 (with suffixed def. art.)

bak n. back … at baki with dat. behind someone; á bak on horseback; á bak þeim behind them; fell á bak aptr fell over backwards; af baki off one's horse; with suffixed def. art. á bakinu on its back

  • bakki m. bank …
  • Bakki m. farm in northern Iceland
  • brattr (f. brǫtt) adj. steep …

Bakki, 'a bank of a river'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

bakki, a, m. [English and German bank], a bank of a river, water, chasm, etc. árbakki 'a river bank', sjávarbakki 'a sea bank', marbakki 'a bank where the deep and shallow water meet', flæðarbakki 'a flood bank', síkisbakki 'a ditch, trench bank', gjárbakki 'a rift brink'; … Tempsar bakki, banks of the Thames … 2. an eminence, ridge, bank …


Bak, 'back'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

BAK, n. [Anglo Saxon bäc] Latin tergum, back … in metaphorical phrases - bera sök á baki, to be guilty, hafa mörg ár á baki, to 'carry a weight of years':

  • of horseback, léttr á baki
  • fara á bak, to mount
  • stíga af baki, to dismount
  • hurðar-baki, behind the door
  • at húsa-baki, at the back of the houses
  • að fjalla-baki, behind the mountains
  • handar-bak, the back of the hand

2. á bak or á baki used as a preposition or as an adverb;

  • á bak (acc.) if denoting motion
  • á baki (dative) if without motion

… locally behind, at the back of; á baki húsunum, at baki þeim, at their back … á bak aptr (= aptr á bak), backward …

  • brjóta á bak, prop. to break one's back
  • brjóta á bak Rómverja, to 'break the back' of the Romans, defeat them
  • temporal with dative past, after; á bak Jólum, after Yule
  • bak-byrðr, f. a burden to carry on the back
  • bak-ferð, f. mounting on horseback
  • bak-ferla, að, [ferill - a track, trace], prop. to step backwards;
  • bak-hlutr, m. the hind part
  • bak-hold, n. pl. the flesh on the back of cattle
  • bak-hverfask, ð, reflex, to turn one's back upon, abandon

Brattr, 'steep, of hills'; brekka, 'a slope'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

BRATTR, adj. [Anglo Saxon brant, bront; Northern English 'brant' and 'brent'], steep, of hills, etc.; brött brekka, a 'brent' hill; bárur, high waves; metaphorical, bera bratt halann, metaphor from cattle, to carry the tail high (in mod. usage vera brattr), opp. to lægja halann, to droop the tail …

Editor's note: Brent Hill is the site of an Iron Age hill fort situated close to South Brent in Devon, England. The fort occupies the top of Brent Hill at approx 311 metres above sea level.

bratt-steinn, m. a stone column

BREKKA, u, f. [Swedish and English 'brink'], a slope; brún, the edge of a slope; in local names in Iceland: as a law term, 'the hill where public meetings were held and laws promulgated', etc., hence the phrase, leiða í brekku, to proclaim a bondsman free. Compounds: brekku-brún, vide above. brekku-megin, n. strength to climb the crest of a hill.


[76] Dalby -Beck, -Forest, -Meadow, -Snout, -Warren, -Wood, High Dalby, Low Dalby

"The Vikings and their Victims: the Verdict of the Names" Gillian Fellows-Jensen (1994) at page 21

Changing of names in England would seem on the whole to have been a more gradual process. With the passage of time, the Danes began to detach specialised units from the old English estates and give them names in -bý whose specifics indicated their function or their topographical situation, for example … Dalby 'the settlement in the valley'.


[77] Biggin, byggja, 'dwelling, abode, settlement'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 35

byggð f. dwelling, abode; settlement XV:42; byggð hennar her staying, her to stay IV:68; sér til byggðar as its dwelling

byggva/byggja (past byggði, pp. byggðr) wv. settle (on or in); live in; live; pp. n. byggt settled, inhabited; -sk form byggjask be settled

byggvendr m. pl. inhabitants


[78] Bleikr, 'pale'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 27

bleikr adj. pale; grey (of a wolf); með bleikum with pale or grey patches (a word may be missing, or perhaps the word is here a noun, = bleikja f. white colouring)


[79] Búð, 'booth, shelter'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 34

búð f. booth, a shelter for use during the summer assembly; shelter, temporary dwelling (on an expedition)


Búð, 'a booth, shop'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

BÚÐ, f. I. [English 'booth'], a booth, shop; farmanna búðir, merchants' booths, specially used of the temporary abodes in the Icelandic parliament, where, as the meeting only lasted two weeks a year, the booths remained empty the rest of the year. But every goði (priest) and every family had their own 'booth', which also took their names from a single man or ruling family … As búð is opposed to , as a temporary abode to a permanent fixed one, so búðsetumaðr (búð-seta), a cottager, is opposed to búndi; fara búðum is to change one's abode … 'búð' is a different word, being simply formed from the verb búa, and of late formation, probably merely a rendering of Latin habitatio; whilst búð, a booth, is not related to búa … II. esp. in compounds, í-búð, living in; sam-búð, living together; vás-búð, a cold berth, i.e. wet and cold; hafa harða, kalda búð, to have a hard, cold abode. Compounds:

  • búðar-dvöl, f. dwelling in a booth
  • búðar-dyr, n. pl. door of a booth
  • búðar-gögn, n. pl. implements of a booth
  • búðar-hamarr, m. a pier or rock for embarking
  • búðar-ketill, m. a booth-kettle
  • búðar-kviðr, m. a law term, a sort of verdict given by the inmates of a booth at the parliament, a kind of búakviðr where it is laid down that the inmates of the booths of shopkeepers, jugglers, and beggars cannot be summoned to serve on a jury, nor the dwellers in a booth which has not at least five inmates (five being a minimum in a jury)
  • búðar-lið, n. the inmates of a booth
  • búðar-maðr, m. an inmate of a booth
  • búðar-nagli, a, m. a booth-peg
  • búðar-rúm, n. lodging in a booth
  • búðar-setumaðr, m. = búðsetumaðr
  • búðar-staðr, m. a booth-stand
  • búðar-sund, n. a passage, lane between two booths
  • búðar-tópt, f. the walls of a (deserted) booth, without thatch
  • búðar-veggr, m. the wall of a booth
  • búðar-virki, n. a fortification round a booth
  • Virkisbúð, búðar-vist, f. a lodging in a booth
  • búðar-vörðr or búðar-verðr, m. [verðr = cibus], the cooking and stewardship in a vessel, work which the crew was bound to do in turn day by day; cooking and dairy work was thought unworthy to be the sole business of a man, and therefore the sailors were obliged to take it turn about
  • búða, að, to pitch a booth
  • búð-fastr, adj. living in a booth
  • bú-drift, f. a drove of cattle
  • búð-seta, u, f. living in a cottage
  • búðsetu-maðr, m. a cottager, answering to 'husmand' in Norway, or búandi bóndi in Iceland

[80] Brim, 'surf'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 31

brim n. surf


[81] Brot, 'break'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 31 & 32

brjóta (pres. brýtr, past braut, past pl. brutu, pp. brotinn) sv. break (transitive); go against, force (stifle), crush; brýtr ðú should you wreck; pres. subj. ðótt ðú brjótir though you should wreck; past subj. bryti were to break, violate; impers. with acc. be wrecked (past subj.); skipit braut í spán the ship was broken to pieces er brotit hafði which she had broken; brjóta upp break into brotit see brjóta

brotna (past brotnaði, pp. brotnat) wv. intransitive break, be broken …


Brattr, 'steep, of hills'; brot, 'a broken piece, fragment'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

BRJÓTA, … to break; á bak, to break the back; á háls, the neck; í hjóli (hveli), to break on the wheel, of capital punishment; 2. denoting to destroy, demolish … skip, to shipwreck (skip-brot) … 3. adding prepositions; niðr, sundr, af, upp, to break down, asunder, off, or the like …

  • brjótr, m. one that breaks, a destroyer
  • bauga-brot, n. pl. cut off pieces of baugr, bad money
  • bálkar-brot, n. the breaking a fence
  • bein-brot, n. the fracture of bone
  • bréfa-brot, n. breach of ordinances

BROT, n. [brjóta], generally a broken piece, fragment: 1. … brota-silfr, old silver broken to be recast … in the compounds um-brot, fjör-brot, a hard struggle, convulsions, agony; land-brot, desolation of land by sea or rivers. … 2. metaphorically only in plural violation; lagabrot, breach of law; mis-brot, af-brot, transgression … fractions; tuga-brot, decimals, etc. 3. sing. breaking, bein-brotsigla til brots, to run ashore under full sail … a fragment; sögu-brot, the fragment of a tale, story; bókar-brot, the fragment of a MS. and the like … a shallow place in a river, a firth, where the stream breaks and widens …

  • broti, a, m. trees felled in a wood and left lying
  • brotna, , [brotinn], to be broken
  • brotning, f. breaking

[82] Brú, 'bridge'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 32

brú (pl. brýr) f. bridge …


Brú, 'a bridge'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

BRÚ, [Anglo Saxon brycg and bricg; Scottish brigg]: -a bridge. In early times bridges, as well as ferries, roads, and hospitals, were works of charity, erected for the soul's health; hence the names sælu-hús (hospital), sælu-brú (soul-bridge). In the Swedish-Runic stones such bridges are often mentioned, built by pious kinsmen for the souls of the dead … The Icelandic Libri Datici of the 12th century speak of sheltering the poor and the traveller, making roads, ferries, churches, and bridges, as a charge upon donations (sálu-gjafir) …

brúa, að, to bridge over


[83] Brunnr, 'burn, well-spring, font, spring, stream' - see also [71] bekkr, 'beck'; [101] lœkr, lækr, 'brook, rivulet, stream'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 213

skírnarbrunnr m. baptismal well, font


Brunnr, 'a spring, well'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

BRUNNR (old form bruðr), m. [Anglo Saxon bærne; Scottish and Northern English 'burn' … all of them weak forms, differing from the Scandinavian-Icelandic brunnr]: a spring, well; the well was common to all, high and low, hence the proverbs, (allir) eiga sama til brunns að bera, i.e. (all) have the same needs, wants, wishes, or the like; allt ber að sama brunni, all turn to the same well, all bear the same way; seint að byrgja brunninn er barnið er í dottið, it is too late to shut the well when the bairn has fallen in; cp. the English proverb 'It is useless to lock the stable door when the steed is stolen'. In mythology, the brunnr of Mímer is the well of wisdom, for a draught of which Odin pawned his eye; probably symbolical of the sun sinking into the sea; … the word may also be used of running water, though this is not usual in Icelandic, where distinction is made between brunnr and lækr, vide brunn-lækr. 2. metaphorically a spring, fountain …

  • brunn-lækr, m. a brooklet coming from a spring, = bæjarlækr
  • brunn-migi, a, m. 'mingens in puteum', a kind of hobgoblin who polluted the wells … name of the fox; cp. the proverb, skömm hundum, skitu refar í brunn karls, shame on the hounds, the foxes defiled the carl's burn
  • brunn-vaka, u, f. a third horn in the forehead of an ox with which he opened the ice during winter to get at the water
  • brunn-vatn, n. spring-water
  • brunn-vígsla, u, f. consecration of wells
  • biskups-brunnr, m. a well consecrated by bishop Gudmund, else called Gvendarbrunnar

vermsl, n. [vesl, Ivar Aasen], a spring that never freezes … kalda-vesla, qs. kalda-vermsl, 'cold-warm', of wells that do not freeze all the winter, although icy-cold.

vesla, u, f. a well that never freezes; see vermsl.


[84] Ey, 'island'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 53

ey f. island; acc. sg. with suffixed def. art. eyna; dat. sg. eyju; dat. sg. with suffixed def. art. eyjunni, eynni; pl. eyjar; dat. pl. with suffixed def. art. í eyjunum i.e. on Vestmannaeyjar


Ey, 'an island'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

EY, gen. eyjar; dat. eyju and ey, with the article eyinni and eyjunni; acc. ey; pl. eyjar, gen. eyja, dat. eyjum; in Norway spelt and proncd. öy; [… English 'eyot, leas-ow', Anglo Saxon êg-land, English 'is-land'; in English local names -ea or -ey, e. g. Chels-ea, Batters-ea, Cherts-ey, Thorn-ey, Osn-ey, Aldern-ey, Orkn-ey, etc.]: -an island eyjar nef, the 'neb' or projection of an island, in various compounds; varp-ey, an island where wild birds lay eggs; eyði-ey, a deserted island; heima-ey, a home island; bæjar-ey, an inhabited island; út-eyjar, islands far out at sea; land-eyjar, an island in an inlet, a small island close to a larger one is called a calf (eyjar-kálfr), the larger island being regarded as the cow, (so the southernmost part of the Isle of Man is called the Calf of Man): it is curious that 'islanders' are usually not called eyja-menn (islandmen), but eyjar-skeggjar, m. pl. 'island-beards'; this was doubtless originally meant as a nickname to denote the strange habits of islanders … also Götu-skeggjar, the men of Gata, a family, eyja-sund, n. a sound or narrow strait between two islands … in local names: from the shape, Lang-ey, Flat-ey, Há-ey, Drang-ey: from cattle, birds, beasts, Fær-eyjar, Lamb-ey, Sauð-ey, Hrút-ey, Yxn-ey, Hafr-ey, SvIacute;n-ey, Kið-ey, Fugl-ey, Arn-ey, &AELIG;ð-ey, Má-ey, Þern-ey, Úlf-ey, Bjarn-ey: from vegetation, Eng-ey, Akr-ey, Við-ey, Brok-ey, Mos-ey: from the quarters of heaven, Austr-ey, Norðr-ey, Vestr-ey, Suðr-ey (England Sudor): an island at ebb time connected with the main land is called Örfiris-ey, mod. Öffurs-ey (cp. Orfir in the Orkneys): from other things, Fagr-ey, Sand-ey, Straum-ey, Vé-ey (Temple Isle), Eyin Helga, the Holy Isle (compare Enhallow in the Orkneys). Eyjar is often used of the Western Isles, Orkneys, Shetland, and Sudor, hence Eyja-jarl, earl of the Isles (i.e. Orkneys), Orkney (frequently); in southern Iceland it is sometimes used of the Vestmanna eyjar … in old poets ey is a favourite word in circumlocutions of women … and in poetical diction ey is personified as a goddess, the sea being her girdle, the glaciers her head-gear; hence the Icelandic poetical compound ey-kona … in female proper names, Þór-ey, Bjarg-ey, but if prefixed - as in Eyj-úlfr, Ey-steinn, Ey-mundr, Ey-vindr, Ey-dís, Ey-fríðr, Ey-vör, Ey-þjófr, etc. -ey belongs to a different root. Compound; eyja-klasi, a, m. a cluster of islands. ey-, a prefix, ever-, vide ei-. ey-búi, a, m. an islander.


[85] Á, 'river, stream'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 6

á f. river, stream; yfir ár across the rivers; with suffixed def. art., við ána niðri down by the river, eptir ánni, með ánni along the river


Á, 'a river'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

Á, f. [Anglo Saxon ; English 'Ax-, Ex-', etc., in names of places; Swedish-Danish. å; the Scandinavians absorb the hu, so that only a single vowel or diphthong remains of the whole word]: -a river … proverbs, hér kemr á til sæfar, here the river runs into the sea … the common saying, oil vötn renna til sævar, 'all waters run into the sea'. Rivers with glacier water are in Icelandic called Hvítá, White river, or Jökulsá: Hitá, Hot river, from a hot spring, opposed to Kaldá … others take a name from the fish in them, as Laxá, Lax or Salmon river (frequent); Örriða á, etc.: a tributary river is þverá, etc.: … ii: á is also suffixed to the names of foreign rivers, Tempsá = Thames … vide Edda (Gl.) 116, 117, containing the names of over a hundred North-English and Scottish rivers. Compounds:

  • ár-áll, m. the bed of a river
  • ár-bakkí, a, m. the bank of a river
  • ár-brot, n. inundation of a river
  • ar-djúp, n. a pool in a river
  • ár-farvegr, m. a water-course
  • ár-fors, m. a waterfall or force
  • ár-gljúfr, n. a chasm of a river
  • ár-hlutr, m. one's portion of a river, as regards fishing rights
  • ár-megin and ár-megn, n. the main stream of a river
  • ár-minni, n. the mouth of a river
  • ár-mót and á-mót, n. a 'waters-meet'
  • ár-óss, m. the 'oyce' or mouth of a river, whence the corrupt local name of the Danish town Aarhuus
  • ár-reki, a, m. drift, the jetsam and flotsam (of fish, timber, etc.) in a river
  • ár-straumr, m. the current in a river
  • ár-strönd, f. the strand of a river
  • ár-vað, n. a ford of a river
  • ár-vegr = árfarvegr
  • ár-vöxtr, m. the swelling of a river
  • ár-, v. the compounds of á, a river
  • á-stemma, u, f. damming a river
  • á-veiðr, f. river fishery
  • brú á á, a bridge on a river

[86] Garðr, 'courtyard, farmyard, enclosure'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 76 & 224

garðr m. courtyard; with suffixed def. art.; in Iceland, farmyard or hayfield enclosure; pl. with suffixed def. art. buildings or enclosures; farmyard, farm enclosure, farmyard wall; hér at garði beside this enclosure; ór garði off the premises; (in Norway and other continental countries) premises, house (in a town); pl. courts, dwelling, abode; gen. of place miðra garða in the middle of the courts

stakkgarðr m. haystack enclosure


[87] Eik, 'oak'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 45

eik f. oak (with suffixed def. art.)


[88] Epli, apaldr, 'apple'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 50

epli n. apple


"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

apaldr, rs, m. plural rar … Danish abild; Swedish apel, doubtless a southern word, the inflective syllable dr being a mutilation of 'tré', arbor, a word now almost extinct in Germany, (for a homely, common word such as 'tré' could not have been corrupted in the native tongue); -apaldr thus, etymologically as well as properly, means an apple-tree; fruits and fruit-trees were doubtless imported into Scandinavia from abroad; the word appears only in the later heroic poems … epli á apaldri; tveir apaldar (with the radical r dropped); apaldrs flúr: as the etymological sense in the transmuted word soon got lost, a fresh pleonastic compound was made, viz. apaldrs-tré. Compounds: apaldrs-garðr, m. [Dan. abild-gaard], orchard of apple-trees, þiðr., D. N. apaldrs-klubba, u, f. club made of an a. apaldrs-tré, n. apple-tree, þiðr.


[89] Eyrr, 'sand or gravel bank'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 53

eyrr f. sand- or gravel-bank


[90] Ær, 'ewe'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 289

ær f. ewe; pl. ær (subject of sœki)


"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

á-bristir, f. pl. corrupt for ábistir … English 'beestings'; the á- is a gen. pl. from ær,, a ewe: the word therefore properly meant sheep's beestings, but came to be used as a general term

  • á-gildi, n. value of a ewe (ær)
  • á-gildr, adj. of a ewe's value
  • á-högg, f. slaughter of a ewe
  • á-nyt, f. ewe's milk, = ærnyt
  • á-sauðr, ar, m. a ewe
  • ær alls geldar, ewes quite barren
  • ali-sauðr, m. a pet sheep
  • slag-á, f. (slaga-sauð), a ewe or sheep to be slaughtered
  • fyrir hrút to prevent the ram from covering the ewes
  • þó mun eigi of skipat til ánna, there will not be too many rams for the ewes

[91] Berg, 'cliff'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 22

berg n. cliff

bergrisi m. mountain giant


Berg, 'a rock, elevated rocky ground'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

BERG, n. [Anglo Saxon biorh; German berg; Danish bjærg; Swedish berg; compare bjarg and borg, in Swedish and Danish berg means 'a mountain' = Icelandic fjall; in Icelandic berg is a special name 'a rock, elevated rocky ground', as in lögberg; vaðberg, a rock on the shore where the angler stands; móberg, a clay soil … þursaberg is a sort of whetstone and heinberg, hone-stone; silfrberg, silver-ore; á bergi, on a rock or rocky platform; a rock, boulder; … a precipice = björg

  • berg-búi, a, m. a berg-dweller, i.e. a giant
  • berg-danir, m. pl. the Danes, (inhabitants) of rocks, giants
  • berg-hamarr, m. a rocky projection
  • berg-hlíð, f. the side or slope of a berg = Icel. fjallshlíð
  • berg-högg, n. a quarry
  • berg-mál, n. an echo, also called dvergmál
  • berg-mála, , to echo
  • berg-rifa, u, f. a fissure in a rock
  • berg-risi, a, m. [berga-troll in the Norse tales], a hill-giant
  • berg-skor, f. pl. ar, [compare Scottish scaur], a chasm in a rocky hill
  • berg-snös, f. [from snös = a projection, not nös, nasus], a rocky projection
  • berg-tollr, m. a rock-toll, paid for catching fowl thereon
  • berg-vörðr, m. a watch, look-out for rocks and cliffs

[92] Býr, bœr;, 'town'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 35

býr (gen. býjar) m. = bœr; town


[93] Áróss, mynni, 'river-mouth'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 4 & 171

áróss m. river-mouth, mouth of a river

mynni n. mouth (of a river), estuary


[94] Myrkr, 'dark'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 171

myrkr adj. dark, obscure; acc. m. sg. myrkvan

  • as predicative adj. or adv. myrkt ('so as to be obscure'), dark
  • myrkt er it is dark
  • myrkr n. darkness
  • myrkviðr m. dark forest
  • Myrkr, 'mirk, murky, dark'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

MYRKR, adj., myrk, myrkt, or myrt, [Anglo Saxon myrc; Old English and Scottish 'mirk'; English 'murky']: -mirk, murky, dark … II. metaphorically dark, obscure, hard to read; myrkvar kenningarmyrk orð, dark sayings, riddles … III. local names, myrkr, n. [Scottish mirk], darkness:

  • inn myrkvan við, through the mirk-wood
  • myrkt er úti, 'tis dark outside
  • of the evening, allan dag til myrks
  • fram í myrkr, of fog
  • myrkra fullr, full of darkness
  • myrkra höfðingi, the prince of darkness
  • myrkra staðr, the place of darkness, i.e. hell
  • myrk-blár, adj. dark blue
  • myrk-fara, u, f., poetic, the 'mirk-farer', i.e. the night
  • myrk-fælinn, adj. afraid in the dark
  • myrk-fælni, f. the being afraid in the dark
  • myrk-heimr, m. the world of darkness
  • myrk-hræddr, adj. afraid in the dark
  • myrk-hræðinn, adj. = myrkfælinn
  • myrk-leikr, m. darkness
  • myrkna, að, to grow murky or dusk
  • myrk-nætti, n. [Old English mirke nich]
  • mirk-night, the dead of night
  • myrk-riða, u, f. the 'mirk-rider', an ogress, witch, for witches were supposed to ride on wolves by night
  • myrkva, ð, to grow mirk, darken
  • myrkva-stofa, u, f. a 'mirk-closet', dungeon
  • myrkvi, a, m., older form mjorkvi or mjörkvi - mirk, darkness, a dense, thick fog
  • Myrk-viðr, m. Mirk-wood, as a mythical local name of a forest
  • myrk-viðri, n. a dense fog = myrkvi

[95] Drengr, '(valiant) man'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 39

drengiliga adv. manfully

drengiligr adj. valiant

drengr/dreingr m. (valiant) man, manly man; (i.e. the poet, Bjǫrn); (i.e. Þorfinnr Þvarason); góðr drengr a fine fellow; þeir drengir … at such valiant men that; in pl. warriors, nom. pl. dre(i)ngir (subject of slitu), acc. pl. dre(i)ngi (acc. with hét á); gen. pl. drengja (gen. with vanr)

drengskapr m. nobility


[96] Austr, 'east' (see also [279] eystri)

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 18

austr n. the east; ór austri from the east; as adv. eastwards; i.e. to Norway; in the east (of Iceland), (of Greenland); i.e. in Norway

  • austan adv. from the east, westwards; i.e. to Iceland
  • fyr austan east of
  • Austfirðir m. pl. the Eastern Fjords (of Iceland)
  • Austmaðr m. easterner, Norwegian
  • Austrvegr m. 'the eastern route', the countries east of the Baltic
  • austrœnn adj. from the east, i.e. Norwegian

[97] Endi, 'end'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 18

Endi, m. end


Endi, 'the end, conclusion'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

ENDI, a, m., and endir, s, m. [Anglo Saxon ende; English 'end'] -the end, conclusion …

  • allt er gott ef endirinn er góðr, all's well that ends well
  • binda enda á, to fulfil, finish
  • göra enda á, to bring to an end
  • vera á enda, to be at an end
  • allt með endum, adv. from end to end
  • til enda, to the end of life
  • enda-dagr, m. (enda-dægr, n.), the last day, day of death
  • enda-fjöl, f. a gable end
  • enda-knútr, m. the 'end-knot', final issue
  • enda-lauss, adj. endless
  • enda-lok, n. pl. and enda-lykt, f. the end, conclusion
  • enda-mark, n. the end, limit
  • endi-land, n. borders, confines
  • endi-langr, adj. 'end-long', from one end to another
  • með endilöngum bekkjum, along the benches
  • endi-lauss, adj. endless
  • endi-leysa, u, f. nonsense, 'without end or aim'
  • endi-liga, adv. finally
  • endi-ligr, adj. final
  • endi-lok, n. pl. the end, conclusion
  • endi-mark, n. especially plural a boundary, confine
  • endi-merki, n. (and endi-mörk, f.) = endimark

[98] Land, 'land'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 141 & 142

land (pl. lǫnd) n. land; his land; estate; country; with suffixed def. art. the country, the land; coast; shore; á land ashore; upp á land in from the sea; á landi ashore, on dry land; er á var landinu which was in the country; á landi hér in this country (Iceland); þar … á landi in that country (Greenland); á landinu on the landward side?; af landi from off the land; af landi ofan from inland to the shore; af hvárutveggja landinu from the land on both sides; kominn frá landi put out from the shore; fyrir landi off the coast; fyrir land (fram) along the coast; í landi in the country (with allar fljóðár), i.e. from in the country; með landi along the coast; með endilǫngu landi along the whole length of the coast; millim landanna between the (two) countries; ór landi abroad, out of the country, so as to make him leave the country; til lands to the shore; til síns lands to their own country; higat til lands into this country; pl. lǫnd estates

  • landauðn f. depopulation
  • landaurar m. pl. 'land-ounces', land dues
  • landhallt adv. keeping close to the shore
  • landherðr f. 'land-shoulder', mountain; gen. with lýða
  • landi m. countryman
  • landnámamaðr/landnámsmaðr m. settler
  • landnorðr adv. north-east
  • landnorðr frá to the north-east of
  • landskostir m. pl. qualities of the land, resources
  • landskostir góðir good land
  • landsmenn m. pl. people (inhabitants) of the country (Iceland); the people of those countries (Norway and Denmark)
  • landsnytjar f. pl. produce of the land
  • landsréttr m. the law of the land
  • landsuðr n. south-east
  • ílandsuðr to the south-east
  • landtaka f. reaching land, making the shore

[99] Lamb, 'lamb'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 140

lamb n. lamb


[100] Hlið, 'side', hlíð 'slope'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 105

hlið f. side; with suffixed def. art. á hliðina onto his side; á hlið at his side

hlíð f. slope, hillside

Hlíðarendi m. 'end of the slope', Gunnarr's home in southern Iceland


[101] Lœkr, lækr, 'brook, rivulet, stream' - see also [71] bekkr, 'beck'; [83] brunnr, 'burn, well-spring, font, spring, stream'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 155

lœkr m. stream


[102] Viða, 'cut wood'; viðr 'tree or wood'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 264

viða (past viðaði) wv. cut wood (til for)

viðr m. tree; tree or wood; forest; timber; wood; piece of wood, rod; viðr hauðrmens 'timber of the sea' is a kenning for ship; dat. viði with trees; acc. pl. viðu trees


[103] Vestr, 'west'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 262

vestr n. the west; í vestr to the west; as adv. (in the) west; west(wards); in a westerly direction; to the west (of Europe; actually in an easterly direction); to the west (i.e. to Dalir, in the west of Iceland, where Þorsteinn Kuggason lived; actually north of Hítardalr); vestr frá to the west of; vestr fyrir west past; vestr fyrir land west along the coast; vestr til Saurbœjar to Saurbœr in the west; útan vestr þar í fjǫrðum abroad (to Norway) from those fjords in the west (i.e. from the Western Fjords); vestr um landit west round the country

  • Vestribyggð f. Western Settlement (the more northerly settlement on the western coast of Greenland)
  • vestrvíking f. raiding in the British Isles

[104] Vǫllr (völlr), 'field'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 257 & 270

velli see vǫllr

vǫllr (dat. velli, pl. vellir) m. field; ground; with suffixed def. art.; dat. sg. at velli to the ground; á víðum velli in the open; acc. pl. vǫllu space, battlefield ?


"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

vallar-, see völlr.

VÖLLR, m., gen. vallar, dat. velli; pl. vellir, gen. valla, acc. völlu, mod. velli; [Icel. völlr and German wald = wood seem to be the same word; the change in the sense from wood to field being much the same as in mörk] -a field … vallar-garðr, m. a paddock-fence …


[105] Veiðr, 'hunting'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 256

veiða (past veiddi, pp. veiddr) wv. hunt, catch (subj. that I may catch)

  • veiðifǫr f. hunting expedition
  • veiðimaðr m. huntsman, hunter
  • veiðr f. hunting; pl. fishing catches, hunting catches, game (with suffixed def. art.); nǫkkut af veiðum something to catch or hunt

[106] Vaða, 'wade'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 250

vaða (pres. veðr, past óð/vóð, past pl. óðu, pp. vaðinn) sv. wade, rush; pp. vaðinn at destitute of


"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

VAÐ, n., pl. vóð [Anglo Saxon wæd]: -a wading-place, ford, across a river or creek

VAÐA, pres. veð … [Anglo Saxon wadan; English 'wade'] -to wade, go through shallow water

  • vaðall, m. = vaðill, a wading; eptir vaðal í frosti, after wading in frost
  • vaði, a, m. a wader
  • vaðill and vöðull, … a shallow water, esp. places where fiords or straits can be passed on horseback …
  • vaðil-sund, n. a shallow sound

[107] Varpa, verpa, 'to throw, cast'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 262

verpa (past varp, past pl. urpu, pp. orpinn) sv. throw; cast up, raise (at for); verpa frá sér with dat. throw down; impers. pass. with dat. hǫndum þínum orpit your arms thrown


"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

varp, n. a casting, throwing

VARPA, að, [English warp; see verpa], to throw, cast

  • varpa, u, f. a cast, net
  • varpaðr, m. a thrower
  • -varpi, a, m. an edge, outskirt; in hlað-varpi
  • varp-net, n. a casting-net

[108] Veggr, 'wall'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 255

veggr m. wall

  • á vegginum (on the roof) above the top of the wall (of the house)
  • af vegginum from (the roof) above the top of the wall

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

veggjaðr, part. walled

VEGGR, m., gen. veggjar, pl. veggir, [… Anglo Saxon wæcg; English 'wedge'; Dan. væg]: -a wall;


[109] ǫsp, 'aspen (tree)'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 292

ǫsp f. aspen (tree)


[110] Kaupmaðr, 'merchant'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 129

kaup n. bargain, agreement; payment, reward (til for it); wages, salary (with suffixed def. art.); sér til kaups as his payment:

  • kaupa (past keypti, pp. keypt) wv. buy
  • keyptak, I bought
  • sem þú keyptir, as you bought it for
  • kaupa at, make a bargain with
  • kaupmaðr (pl. kaupmenn) m. merchant
  • kaupstefna f. market, trading

[111] Hringr, 'ring, circle'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 110

hringja (past hringði, pp. hringt) wv. (cause to) ring

  • hringja til tíða ring (a bell) for divine services
  • hringr m. ring, circle (i.e. iris ?)

[112] Konungr, 'king'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 135 & 136

kóngr m. = konungr

  • konungaævi n. pl. lives of kings
  • konungr m. king, the king (subject of vill bjóða); dat. sg. konungi to the king
  • konungsdóttir f. king's daughter, princess
  • konungsgarðr m. king’s premises, residence, palace
  • konungsmenn m. pl. the king's men

[113] Karl, 'churl'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 113 & 128

húskarl m. farmhand; servant, workman; in Norway, member of a king's or jarl's bodyguard or following

karl m. (old) fellow, churl; man, male

  • Karli m. slave
  • karlkona f. masculine woman
  • karlmaðr m. man; male
  • karlmannligr adj. manly; karlmannligt mark a sign of manliness
  • Karlsefni n. = Þorfinnr (m.) karlsefni Þórðarson; af Karlsefni of Karlsefni's troop. The name, originally a nickname, means 'the makings of a man', a promising lad
  • Karlshafuð n. (Eiríksson), one of Óláfr Tryggvason's followers

[114] Kálfr, 'calf' and kál, 'kale'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 127

  • kálfr m. calf; as nickname
  • Kálfr Brandsson m.
  • Kálfr illviti (the ill-willed) m. enemy of Bjǫrn Hítdœlakappi

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

KÁLFR, m. [Anglo Saxon cealf; English calf] - a calf … II. metaphorically, of a small island near a large one, Manar-kálfr, the Calf of Man, at its southern extremity; kálfa-kjöt, n. 'calf-flesh', veal; kálfs-belgr, m. a calf's skin … III. metaphorically a calf, i. e. a silly person, dunce; þú ert mesti kálfr!

  • kálf-bær, f. adj. a cow that will bear calves
  • kálf-full, adj. with calf, of a cow
  • kálf-skinn, n. a calf-skin

Alternatively, the first elements could be derived from ON kál, 'kale':

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

KÁL, n. [Anglo Saxon cawl; English cole; Scottish kale]: - a cabbage … græn kál, … compounds:

  • kál-fræ n. kale seed
  • kál-garðr, m. a kale garden
  • kál-meti, m. kale food
  • kál-súpa, u, f. kale broth

[115] Kaldr, 'cold'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 127

kaldr adj. cold;

  • f. kǫld;
  • n. kalt var it was cold
  • svá var honum kalt orðit he had become so cold

[116] Borg, 'fortress'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 28 & 29

borg f. fortification, fortress, castle

  • borgarveggr m. wall of fortification; city wall

Borg, 'a small dome-shaped hill, a town'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

BORG, ar, f., pl. ir, [Anglo Saxon burg, burh, byrig; English 'borough and burgh'] … the radical sense appears in byrgja, to enclose; compare also berg, a hill, and bjarga, to save, defend. Borg thus partly answers to town (properly an enclosure); and also includes the notion of a castle. Old towns were usually built around a hill, which was specially a burg; the name is very frequent in old Teutonic names of towns. I. a small dome-shaped hill, hence the Icelandic names of farms built near to such hills … Borgar-holt, -hraun, -dalr, -höfn, -fjörðr, -lækr, -sandr; Arnarbælis-borg, Eld-borg (above) in the west of Iceland. It may be questioned, whether those names are derived simply from the hill on which they stand (berg, bjarg), or whether such hills took their name from old fortifications built upon them: the latter is more likely, but no information is on record, and at present 'borg' only conveys the notion of a 'hill'; … II. a wall, fortification, castle; … III. a city, especially a great one, as London, York, Dublin, Constantinople … This sense of the word, however, is borrowed from the South-Teutonic or English. In Scandinavian unfortified towns have - or -by as a suffix; and the termination -by marks towns founded by the Danes in Northern England. Compounds:

  • borgar-armr, m. the arm, wing of a fort
  • borgar-greifi, a, m. a borough-reeve, bur-grave (English)
  • borgar-görð, f. the building of a fort
  • borgar-hlið, n. the gate of a fort
  • borgar-hreysi, n. the ruins of a fort
  • borgar-klettr, m. a rock on which a fort is built
  • borgar-kona, u, f. a townswoman
  • borgar-lið, n. a garrison
  • borgar-lím, n. lime for building a fort
  • borgar-lýðr, m. townsfolk
  • borgar-maðr, m. a townsman, citizen
  • borgar-múgr, m. the mob of a city
  • borgar-múrr, m. a city-wall
  • borgar-siðr, m. city-manners, urbanity
  • borgar-smíð, f. the building of a town (fort)
  • borgar-staðr, m. the site of a town
  • borgar-veggr, m. the wall of a fort (town)
  • Borgar-þing, n. the fourth political subdivision (þing) of Norway, founded by St. Olave
  • borga-skipan, f. a (geographical) list of cities
  • borgari, a, m. a citizen
  • borgara-réttr, m. civic rights
  • borg-firzkr, adj. one from the district Borgarfjörðr
  • borg-hlið, f. = borgarhlið
  • borgin-móði, a, m., poetical name of the raven, bold of mood

[117] Bryggja, 'quay, jetty'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 33

bryggja f. quay, jetty


[118] Breiðr, 'broad'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 30

breiðr (n. breitt) adj. broad (see also breiða); with gen. of the amount of breadth; wide; comp. breiðara broader; comp. n. as adv. breiðara with larger bites


Breiðr, 'broad'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

BREIÐR, adj. neut. breitt, [Anglo Saxon brâd; English 'broad'] broad … á breiðan, adv. in breadth … neut. as adverb, standa breitt, to spread over a wide space …

  • breidd, f. breadth
  • breið-dælskr, adj. from Broaddale in Iceland
  • Breið-firðingr, m. a man from Broadfirth in Iceland
  • breið-firzkr, adj. belonging to, a native of Broadfirth
  • breiðka, að, to grow broad
  • breið-leiki (-leikr), a, m. breadth
  • breið-leitr, adj. broad of face
  • breið-vaxinn, part. broad-framed, stout
  • breið-öx, f. [Anglo Saxon brâd æx], a broad axe

[119] Botn, 'head, upper end'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 29

botn m. head, upper end (of a fjord)


[120] Bein, 'leg, bone'; beinn, 'straight'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 21

bein n. 1. leg. 2. bone


"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

BEINN, adj., … opposed to 'wry or curved', in a straight line; beinn rás, 'a straight course' … used as adverb 'straight' …


[121] Hús, 'house'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 112 & 113

hús n. building; house, home, farmstead

  • húsbak n. back of the building
  • húsfreyja f. mistress of the house, housekeeper
  • húsganga f. (people going on a) visit
  • húskarl m. farmhand; servant, workman; in Norway, member of a king's or jarl's bodyguard or following

[122] Hóll, 'hill'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 107 & 108

hóll m. hill

  • Hóll m. farm in Saurbœr, western Iceland
  • Hólsmenn m. pl. the people of Hóll

[123] Hóll, 'hill'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 107

holr adj. hollow, cupped


[124] Hólmr, 'islet'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 107

hólmi m. islet, small island

hólmr m. = hólmi; acc. sg. with suffixed def. art. hólmenn

Hólmr m. Bjǫrn Hítdœlakappi's farm in Hítardalr, western Iceland


[125] Hagi, 'pasture'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 91

hagi m. pasture


[126] Hof, 'temple'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 107

hof n. (heathen) temple


[127] Hǫfði, 'headland'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 118

hǫfði m. headland

  • hǫfðaskip n. ship with figurehead(s) at prow and/or stern; dragonship

[128] Hestr, 'horse'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 101

hestr m. horse

  • af hesti, from horseback

[129] Hǫfuð, 'head'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 91 & 118

hafuð see hǫfuð

hǫfði see hǫfuð

hǫfðu see hafa; hǫfðum see hǫfuð

  • hǫfðingi (acc. sg., gen. sg., acc. pl., gen. pl. hǫfðingja) m. chief, leader (fyrir over); ruler, prince
  • hǫfðingjar rulers, leaders, chieftains, leading men; þeir hǫfðingjarnir the chieftains
  • hǫfuð (dat. sg. hǫfði) n. head (henni poss. dat.), haufuð his (Jǫrmunrekkr's) head
  • acc. pl. hǫfuð, hafuð figureheads
  • á hǫfði on his head
  • á hǫfuð/hǫfði sér on his/her head
  • at hǫfði Helga on (round/over) Helgi's head
  • í hǫfuð in my head
  • í hǫfuð honum at his head
  • í hǫfuð hundinum on/into the dog's head
  • um hǫfuð sér round their heads
  • yfir hafuð sér above his head
  • yfir hǫfuð þeim over their heads
  • til hǫfuðs þér to kill you
  • dat. pl. hǫfðum figureheads, with suffixed def. art. hǫfðunum with their heads (i.e. they were lying head to head)
  • hǫfuðdúkr m. head-cloth (-scarf) or hood
  • hǫfuðsmátt f. opening for the head, neck (of a garment)

[130] Háls, 'neck, ridge'; Eið 'isthmus'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 43 & 93

háls m. 1. neck; á hálsinn Helga on Helgi's neck; ok hendr um háls and (laid) his arms round her neck. 2. ridge

Eið n. isthmus, neck of land in Vestmannaeyjar


[131] Hǫfn, 'harbour'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 118

hǫfn f. 1. harbour. 2. grazing, feed


[132] Hamarr, 'hammer, crag, precipice'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 93

hamarr m. hammer; dat. sg. hamri , instrumental; crag: gen. pl. hamra; hammer? back of an axe? crag, precipice?

  • hamarsgnípa f. peak of a crag

[133] Hár, 'high'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 90 & 94

see hár

hár (f. , n. hátt, pl. hávir) adj. high (with viðr); tall; long; acc. sg. f. háva ; n. as adv. hátt high, high up, loud(ly) noisily, in a loud voice; hátt upp out loud


[134] Grjót, 'rock, stones'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 14 & 86

grjót n. rock, stones (collective)

armgrjót n. 'arm-rock', stones of the arm, gold rings or jewels, wealth (gen. with ógrœir)


[135] Grund, 'ground'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 86

grund f. ground


[136] Grœnn, 'green'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 86

grœnn/grænn adj. green

  • Grœnland n. Greenland
  • Grœnlenzkr adj. Greenlandic, of Greenland; Grœnlenzkir menn Greenlanders, people of Greenland
  • Grœnlendingar m. pl. Greenlanders, Norse settlers in Greenland

[137] Grár, 'grey'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 85

grár adj. grey


Grár, 'grey'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

GRÁR, adj., [Anglo Saxon græg; English 'gray or grey']: -grey;

  • grár fyrir hærum, grey, hoary
  • grár fyrir járnum, mailed in grey steel, of armour
  • grá þoka, grey fog
  • of silver, grátt silfr, grey, false silver, opposed to skírt (true) silver, whence the phrase, elda grátt silfr, to play bad tricks
  • grá-dýri, of the wolf
  • grátt, basely
  • grá-peningr, m. a 'grey penny', a false coin
  • grá-rendr, grey-striped
  • grá-silfr, n. grey (bad) silver, brass; bera af sem gull af grásilfri - the modern phrase, sem gull af eiri - the old language has no special word for brass, eir being derived from Latin
  • grá-síeth;a, u, f, name of a spear, grey steel
  • grá-skinn, n. grey fur
  • grá-skinnaðr, lined with grey fur
  • grá-skýjaðr, covered with grey clouds
  • grá-slappi or gró-slappi, u, f. a female stone grig
  • grá-steinn, m. grey-stone

[138] Grein, 'branch'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 85

grein f. branch; type; með ǫllum greinum in every way; disagreement


[139] Geil, 'lane, sunken path between fields'; gjá 'ravine'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 77, 81 & 133

geil f. lane, sunken path between fields or enclosures

  • gjá f. ravine
  • Kolsgjá f. 'Kol's Rift', a ravine or small gorge, possibly at Þingvǫllr (see Björn Þorsteinsson, Thingvellir. Iceland's National Shrine, tr. Peter Foote (1987)

Geil, 'a narrow glen'; gil, 'a deep narrow glen with a stream at bottom', gjá, 'a chasm, rift, in fells or crags'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

GEIL, f. [cp. gil, a chasm]: -a narrow glen … II. any narrow passage, e. g. a shaft through a hay-rick or the narrow lane between hay-ricks or houses. Compounds:

  • geila-garðr, m. a 'glen-formed' fence, a walk
  • geilagarðs-hlið, n. a gate in a fence
  • göra geilar, a law phrase, to let (a thief) run the gauntlet
  • hafs-geil, the sea-lane, through which the host of Pharaoh passed

GIL, n., gen. pl. gilja, dat. giljum, [Ghyll or Gill in Northern England and Scot., local names]: -a deep narrow glen with a stream at bottom … brooks and tributary streams flowing through clefts in the fell side to the main river at the bottom of a vale are in Iceland called gil; very frequent in local names, Ísfirðinga-gil, Branda-gil, Hauka-gil, Hrafna-gil, Hellra-gil, Gilj-á, þver-gil … a chasm without water or with stagnant water is not gil, but gjá; also gljúfr, a deep chasm forming the bed of a river … Compounds:

  • Gils-bakki, a, m., prop. Gill-bank, a local name whence Gils-bekkingar, m. pl. the name of a family
  • gils-botn, m. a gill bottom
  • gils-gjá, f. a chasm with a gill (rare)
  • gils-þröm, f. the edge of a gill

GJÁ, f., gen. gjár, acc. and dat. gjá; pl. gjár, gen. gjá, dat. gjám, mod. gjáar; [a Scandinavian word, akin to gína; found in the north of Scotland in the form geo, geow]: -a chasm, rift, in fells or crags; … frequent in local names, Ahnanna-gjá, the famous rift in Thingvalla, Hrafna-gjá, Brímils-gjá, Kötlu-gjá; it often denotes a rift with a tarn or pool at bottom, whereas gil is a rift with running water. Compounds:

  • gjár-bakki, a, m. a rift brink (that of the Almanna-gjá)
  • gjár-barmr, m. the edge of a geow
  • gjár-munni, a, m. the mouth of a geow
  • gjár-skúti, a, m. a geow-nook

[141] Gata, 'path'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 76 & 280

gata (pl. gǫtur f. path; acc. þá

  • gǫtu along that path
  • þjóðgata f. high road

Gata, 'a way, path, road'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

GATA, u, f. [Old English and Scottish 'gate' = way] - properly a thoroughfare but generally a way, path, road …

  • á götu, in one's way
  • as adverb 'algates', always
  • götur Guðs, the ways of God
  • ryðja götu fyrir, to clear the road for one
  • Færoes; Götu-skeggjar, m. pl. the name of a family in the Færoes
  • reið-gata, a riding road
  • skeið-gata, a race-course
  • hlemmi-gata, a broad open road
  • fjár-götur, a sheep path
  • snið-gata, a zigzag path
  • kross-götur, four cross roads
  • gatna-mót, n. pl. junction of roads
  • götu-breidd, f. the breadth of a road
  • götu-garðr, m. a road fence
  • götu-skarð, n. a slip in a road
  • götu-stigr, m. a foot-path
  • götu-þjófr, m. a law term, a thief who has to run the gauntlet through a defile

[142] Bóndi, 'farmer'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 28 & 36

bóandaherr m. peasant army

bóandi = bóndi; gen. pl. with suffixed def. art.

bóndalið n. band of peasants, farmers (with suffixed def. art.)

bóndi (nom. pl. bœndr) m. farmer, peasant; as title, in address

bœndr see bóndi


Bóndi, 'a husbandman'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

BÓNDI, a, m.: … Anglo Saxon buan originally a tiller of the ground, husbandman, but it always involved the sense of ownership, and included all owners of land (or ) from the petty freeholder to the franklin, and especially the class represented by the yeoman of England generally or the statesman of Westmoreland and Cumberland: hence it came to mean the master of the house, Anglo Saxon bond and hûsbond, English 'husband'. 1. a husbandman. The law distinguishes between a grið-maðr a labourer, búðsetu-maðr a cottager, and a búandi or bóndi a man who has land and stock. … The Norse law … distinguishes between hersir or lendir menn (barons) and búandi … the Norse hauldr- or óðals-bóndi nearly answers to the English 'yeoman'. In the more despotic Norway and Denmark, as in continental Europe, 'bóndi' became a word of contempt, denoting the common, low people, opp. to the king and his 'men' (hirð), the royal officers, etc.; just as the English boor degenerated from Anglo Saxon gebur, German bauer, Dutch boer; and in modern Danish bönder means plebs, a boor; such is the use of bóndi … 2. a husband, Anglo Saxon hûsbond; … Compounds - (in modern use always bænda- if plural, bónda- if singular):

  • bónda-bani, a, m. a slayer of a bóndi
  • bónda-ból, n. (bónda-bær, m.), a farm
  • bónda-dóttir, f. a bóndi's daughter
  • bónda-eiðr, m. a bundi's oath
  • bónda-far, n. a bóndi's ferry-boat
  • bónda-fé, n. a provincial fund
  • bónda-fólk, n. a class of bændr
  • bónda-fylking (búanda-), f. a host of bændr
  • bónda-herr, m. an army of bændr
  • bónda-hlutr, m. = bóndatíund
  • bónda-hus, n. a bóndi's house
  • bónda-hvíla, u, f. a bóndi's bed
  • bónda-kirkja (búanda-), u, f. the church belonging to the bóndi in Thingvalla, where the parliament was held; and búanda-kirkjugarðr, m. the churchyard to that church. This church was erected about the middle of the 11th century
  • bónda-kona, u, f. a good wife of a bóndi
  • bónda-laus, adj. husband-less, widowed
  • bónda-lega, u, f. the burial place of bændr
  • bónda-lið, n. = bóndaherr
  • bónda-ligr, adj. farmer-like
  • bónda-múgr, m. a crowd, host of bændr
  • bónda-nafn, n. the name, title of bóndi
  • bónda-réttr (búanda-), m. the right of a bóndi
  • bónda-safnaðr (-samnaðr) = bóndamúgr
  • bónda-skapr, m. the state of the bændr
  • bónda-son, m. the son of a bóndi
  • bónda-tala, u, f., vera í b., to be told or counted among bændr
  • bónda-tíund, f. tithe to be paid by bændr
  • bónda-ungi, a, m. a young bóndi
  • bónda-val, n. the elite of bændr
  • bónda-ætt, f. a bóndi's extraction

[143] Bogi, 'bow'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 28

bogastrengr m. bowstring

bogi m. bow; with suffixed def. art. his/my bow


Bogi, 'a bow'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

BOGI, a, m. [Anglo Saxon boga; English 'bow'] a bow; 2. metaphorically, an arch, vault, rainbow … 3. a spurt as from a fountain or a vein; þá stóð bogi úr kaleikinum … compounds:

  • bog-fimi, f. archery
  • bera mál ór boga, to disentangle a case
  • himin-bogi, the sky
  • blóð-bogi, a gush of blood
  • regn-bogi, a rainbow
  • öln-bogi, an elbow
  • boga-dreginn, adj. bow-shaped, curved
  • boga-háls, m. the tip of a bow, where the string is fastened
  • boga-list, f. archery, now used metaphorically
  • boga-mynd, f. the form of a bow
  • boga-skot, n. bow-shot, shooting with a bow
  • boga-strengr, m. a bow-string
  • boga-vápn, n. a bow
  • boginn, adj. bent, bowed, curved
  • bog-maðr, m. a bowman, archer
  • bogmanns-merki, n. the zodiacal sign, Arcitenens
  • bog-mannliga, adv. bowmanlike
  • bogna, að, to become curved, bent
  • bog-nauð, n. the 'bow-need', i.e. the hand
  • bogra, að, to creep along bowed or stooping
  • þá boru bograr, creeps
  • bogra fyrir, to bow before one
  • bog-sterkr, -styrkr, adj. stark or strong at the bow
  • bog-sveigir, m. 'bow-swayer', a nickname

[144] Blár, 'blue-black'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 26

blár adj. dark, blue-black; acc. m. sg. blán


Blár, 'dark blue, livid'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

BLÁR, adj., fem. blá, neut. blátt, [Scottish bla, which has the Icelandic sense of dark blue, livid: cp. Anglo Saxon bleov; English 'blue' also Anglo Saxon bleo = colour], properly Latin lividus; of the colour of lead … blár sem Hel, cp. English 'black as death' … of the livid colour caused by a blow, in the alliterative phrase, blár ok blóðugrblár is the colour of mourning, tjalda blám reflum

  • falda blá, to wrap the head in black
  • blár logi, a pale 'lowe', of a witch's flame
  • blá-rendr, adj. [rönd], blue-striped

[145] Bústaðr, 'dwelling-place'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 34

bústaðr m. dwelling-place; a site for a home


[146] Vágr, 'small bay'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 251

vágr m. (small)

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

VÁGR a creek, bay

Vágr, Vágar, a fishing-place in northern Norway, whence Vága-floti … compounds: vágs-botn, m. the bottom or bight of a bay … Vágs-brú, f. Bay-bridge, a local name


[147] Vatn, 'water'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 254 & 255

vatn n. water; lake (with suffixed def. art., i.e. Hítárvatn)

  • vatnfátt n. (cf. fár adj.) shortage of water
  • fá vatnfátt get short of water
  • vatnsstrǫnd f. lake-shore
  • vátr adj. wet, moist

[148] Þing, 'assembly' - see also [7]

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 11 & 279

  • Alþingi n. general assembly (legislative and judicative assembly for the whole of Iceland held annually in late summer at þingvǫllr); á Aþlingi hér here at the Alþingi
  • þing n. meeting; darra þing is a kenning for battle; assembly, conference; with suffixed def. art. i.e. the Alþingi, í þingi of the assembly; local assembly in Iceland
  • þingboð n. summons to an assembly
  • þingfararkaup n. assembly attendance tax or dues
  • þinglausnir f. pl. the close of the assembly
  • þingskǫp n. pl. assembly procedure
  • þingvǫllr m. assembly-field, the site of the assembly, Alþingi (south-western Iceland)

Þing, 'an assembly, public meeting'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

ÞING, n. [no Goth. þigg is recorded; Anglo Saxon and Hel. þing; English 'thing'; O. H. G., German, and Dutch ding; Danish-Swedish ting.] … B. As a law phrase [see þingvöllr]: I. an assembly, meeting, a general term for any public meeting, especially for purposes of legislation, a parliament, including courts of law; in this sense þing is a standard word throughout all Scandinavian countries (compare the Tyn-wald, or meeting-place of the Manx parliament) …


[149] Þræll, 'slave'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 285

  • þræll m. slave; liegeman, vassal

[150] svartr, 'black'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 11, 233 & 234

  • alsvartr adj. completely black, pure black
  • svartr (f. sg. and n. pl. svǫrt) adj. dark, swarthy; black; black-haired; wk. form as nickname
  • svǫrt, svǫrtum see svartr

[151] Stígr, 'path'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 148, 226, 254 & 266

  • leynistígr m. secret path
  • stígr m. path; way (of life)
  • vástígr m. path of or to woe or disaster
  • villustígr m. false path

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

STIGR (also sounded stígr, stíg and víg make rhyme in old poems), m., gen. stigs, dat. stig; n. pl. stigar, stiga, which forms seem older and better than stigir, stigu, which also occur: [Anglo Saxon stíg; Early English stie; English stair; Danish sti; German steg; cp. North. E. stye or stie, a steep ascent or pass, as in stye-head Pass]: a path, footway …


[152] Straumr, 'stream'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 227

  • straumr m. current; torrent
  • Straumsey f. 'torrent island'

[153] Strǫnd, 'strand, shore'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 227 & 228

  • strandar, strandir see strǫnd
  • strandhǫgg n. a raid on the shore (for supplies)
  • strǫnd (pl. strendr/strandir) f. coast, shore; beach; dat. pl. with suffixed def. art. strǫndunum; in kenning for heart or mind or breast hyggju strendr

[154] Vara, 'warn, caution'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 253

vara (past varaði, pp. varat) wv. warn, caution

  • vara flik take care, beware, be on your guard
  • -sk form (refl.) varask/varaz beware (of), be one's guard (that), be careful (that)

[155] Stórr, 'big, large'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 10, 112, 210 & 227

stórr adj. big, large; n. stórt (understand were); great

  • allstórr adj. very large
  • hugumstórr adj. great of heart, courageous
  • skapstórr adj. proud-minded
  • menn eru skapstórir there are proud-minded people
  • stórauðigr adj. very wealthy, of great wealth
  • stórbrǫgðóttr adj. as subst. very wily person, one who undertakes great deeds
  • stórhátíð f. major festival
  • stórmannligr adj. munificent, grand
  • stórmerki n. pl. great wonders, miracles
  • þau skip en stóru those great ships; n. as adv. severely, harshly
  • stórtákn n. great miracle
  • stórviðir m. pl. big beams, main timbers; with suffixed def. art. stórviðinir

[156] Stafr, 'staff'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 126 & 224

stafr m. staff

  • járnstafr m. iron pole, iron staff

[157] Stǫng, 'pole'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 126 & 224

stǫng (pl. stangir) f. pole


[158] Staðr, 'place'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 223 & 224

staðr m. place; establishment, ecclesiastical foundation

  • þegar í stað on the spot
  • í sinn stað into their respective position(s), to their station(s)
  • í marga staði in many instances, in many respects (?) in many cases (?)
  • adv. acc. (or dat.?) þriðja stað in a third position, station
  • koma í stað come instead (of him), take his place
  • with suffixed def. art. í staðenn in their place, to replace them
  • í staðenn þess liðs to replace those men
  • annars staðar elsewhere
  • nema stað/staðar stop

[159] Spánn, 'wood-shaving'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 153 & 222

spánn (pl. spænir) m. bit, chip (left by an auger)

  • with suffixed def. art.; í spán to pieces
  • lokarspánn m. wood-shaving (from a plane); acc. pl. -spánu

[160] Suðr, sunnr, 'south'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 229

  • suðr, sunnr adv. south(wards); i.e. on pilgrimage to Rome; in the south (actually south-west), in the south, to the south (i.e. in the more southerly Álptafjǫrðr); suðr hér here in the south; sunnr fyrir in the south off; suðr fyrir land southwards along the coast, south past
  • suðrátt f. southerly direction; í suðrátt southwards
  • suðrdyrr n. pl. southern doorway; gen. pl. suðrdura; acc. as adv. (acc. of route) by the southern doorway Suðreyjar f. pl. the Hebrides
  • suðreyskr adj. Hebridean, from the Hebrides
  • suðrganga f. pilgrimage to Rome
  • Suðrríki n. 'the southern realm', southern Europe (the Roman Empire)
  • suðrœnn adj. southern, from the south

[161] Trog, 'a trough'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

TROG, n. [Anglo Saxon trog; English 'trough and tray': Danish trug], a trough …

  • rjóma-trog or mjolkr-trog, a milk-trough in which the milk is kept for cream
  • renna úr trogunum, to pour out the milk so that the cream remains
  • slátr-trog, a meat-trough.

[162] sléttr, 'smooth'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 218

  • slétta (past slétti, pp. sléttr) wv. slap (á on it)
  • sléttr adj. flat; smooth?

[163] Sker, 'skerry'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 211

sker n. skerry, rock covered at high tide


"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

SKER, n., gen. pl. skerja, dat. skerjum; [English 'skerry'] -a skerry, an isolated rock in the sea; … as also in local names, Skerja-fjörðr: … eyði-sker, a desert skerry; blind-sker, a sunken skerry: also in the phrase, að flaska á því skerinu, to split on that rock. skerja-blesi, a nickname …


[164] Rjóðr, 'red'

"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 193 & 194

rjóða (pres. rýðr, past rauð, past pl. ruðu, pp. roðinn) sv. redden (with blood; to redden the sword or spear or shield is to fight valiantly); pp. roðinn reddened (with blood, in valiant fight) (with sárlauk)

rjóðandi m. (pres. part.) reddener; with randa bliks forms a kenning for warrior, who reddens swords with blood in battle

rjóðr adj. red, ruddy

roðna (past roðnaði, pp. roðnat) wv. redden, go red


[165] Hrís, 'shrubs, brushwood'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

HRÍS, n. [Anglo Saxon hrîs; Old English ris or rys (Chaucer)] -a collective noun, shrubs, brushwood … Compounds:

hrís-bítr, m. 'twig-biter', a nickname

hrís-brot, n. breaking wood for faggots

hrís-byrðr, f. a load of faggots

hrís-fleki, a, m. a hurdle of brush-wood

hrís-högg, n. = hrísbrot

hrís-kjörr, n. pl. brushwood

hrís-magi, a, m. a nickname

hrís-runnr, m. 'a bush'


"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at pages 193 & 110

hrís n. brushwood


[166] Högg, höggva, 'hewing down of trees'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

HÖGG, n., old dat. höggvi; gen. pl. höggva; [Shetl. huggie; Scot. hag; Danish hug; Swedish hugg; cp. the verb höggva: -a stroke, blow, especially a stroke with an edged weapon, but also with a blunt one … 3. a hewing down of trees; skógar-högg;  … fjal-högg, a chopping-block.

högg-eyx, f. a hewing axe, hatchet

högg-járn, n. a 'hewing iron', chopper, a chisel

högg-sax, n. a kind of hatchet

högg-skógr, m. [Danish skovhugst], felled trees; þat er h. er menn höggva upp

högg-sledda, u, f. = höggsax

högg-stokkr, m. a chopping-block; a block for execution

HÖGGVA, also spelt heyggva, Sæm. (Kb.); … Anglo Saxon heawan; English hew, hack; … höggva denotes to strike with an edged tool, slá and drepa with a blunt one: … 3. to fell trees; höggva skög

höggvandi, a, m., part. a hewer, as a nickname: a headsman


[167] Hafr, 'oats, haver'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

Hafr, m., only in pl. hafrar, [German haber; Northern English 'haver'], oats; it seems not to occur in old writers.


[168] Hóp, 'haven, small landlocked bay'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

HÓP, n. [Anglo Saxon hop; Scot. hope = haven; perhaps connected with Anglo Saxon hôp, English hoop, with reference to a curved or circular form]: - a small landlocked bay or inlet, connected with the sea so as to be salt at flood tide and fresh at ebb, þorf. Karl. 420, freq. in mod. usage. II. a local name, Hóp, Hóps-ós, Vestr-hóp: in English local names as Stanhope, Easthope, Kemble's Dipl.; Elleshoop in Holstein (Grein); Kirkhope, St. Margaret's hope, etc., in Orkney.


[169] Íkorni, 'squirrel'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

ÍKORNI, a, m. a squirrel


[170] Kirkja, 'church'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

KIRKJA, u, f., gen. pl. kirkna; [Scottish kirk; Danish kirke; German kirche; but English 'church'] -a kirk, church; timbr-kirkja, a timber church; stein-kirkja, a stone church; the earliest Scandininavian churches were all built of timber, the doors and pillars being ornamented with fine carved work, see Worsaae, Nos. 505-508; in the 12th and following centuries the old timber churches were one by one replaced by stone buildings. In Denmark the last timber church was demolished at the beginning of the 17th century, but in Norway some old churches (called stav-kyrkior) have remained up to the present time …


[171] Nagga, 'rub, maunder'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

nagga, , [akin to gnúa], to rub - to maunder

gnúa, mod. núa, pres. gný; pret. gneri, gnöri, or neri; part. gnúit; [cp. Danish gnide] -to rub


[172] Knappr, 'knob'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

knapp-höfði, a, m. a knob-head, ball-head

KNAPPR, m., mod. hnappr, [Anglo Saxon cnæp; English 'knop' (Chaucer), later knob; German knopf; Dutch knop] - a knob …

KOPPR, m. [English 'cup'; Danish kop; cp. also West English 'cop' = a round hill, and German kopf = head, which prop. mean a cup, analogous to Iceland kolla and kollr, q. v.] -a cup, small vessel, esp. in dairy-work … II. = knappr, the bell-shaped crown of a helmet …


[173] Gnúpr, gnípa 'peak'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

GNÚPR, m. a peak (= gnípa) … frequent in local names, Lóma-gnúpr, Rita-gnúpr; Gnúpar, pl., and Gnúpr, names of farms


[174] Knútr, 'knot'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

knútóttr, adj. knotted

KNÚTR, m. [English 'knot'; Danish knud; Swedish knut], a knot; leysa knút; ríða knút, to tie a knot; knýta knút, to knit a knot … III. a proper name, Knútr, m. Cnut, Canute: mar-knútr

The ON phonetic pronunciation of ríða knút, 'to tie a knot', suggests that it may be the derivation of 'reef knot', a quick release knot which a Viking raiding party could use to secure their longship when hauled up on a beach. At sea it is always employed in reefing and furling sails but its usefulness to the Norsemen would lie in its tendency to capsize (spill) when one of the free ends is pulled outward so that it could be undone swiftly to allow a quick getaway. It can be undone as follows:

Untying - Step 1: Pull either end straight upwards until its curves have been pulled into a straight line. In this example, the right (yellow) end has been pulled straight. The left (blue) end is still wrapped around the right (yellow) end with a double-loop.
Untying - Step 2: Simply slide the left (blue) double-loop up and outwards along the straight (yellow) lace until it falls off the end.

[175] Akr, 'acre'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

AKR, rs, plural akrar … Anglo Saxon œcer; English 'acre' … arable land, ground for tillage: opposed to engi, a meadow; … opposed to tún, the 'town' or enclosed homefield …

akra-gerði, n. a 'field-garth', enclosure of arable land

akra-karl, m. cognom. 'Acre-carle'

akra-spillir, m. cognomen destroyer of fields

akr-deili, n. a plot of arable land

akr-gerði, n. enclosure of arable land

akr-görð, f. agriculture

akrgörðar-maðr, m. ploughmen

akr-hæna, u, f. a 'field-hen', quail, opposed to heiðarhæna or lynghæns

akr-karl, m. a 'field-carle', ploughman or reaper

akr-kál, n. 'field-kale', potherbs

akr-land, n. land for tillage

akrlands-deild, f. division of a field

akr-lengd, f. a field's length

akr-maðr, m. ploughman, tiller of ground

akr-neyttr, part. used as arable land, tilled

akr-plógsmaðr, m. ploughman

akr-rein, f. a strip of arable land

akr-skipti, n. a division of afield

akr-skurðr, ar, m. reaping

akrskurðar-maðr, m. a reaper, (young men)

akr-súra, u, f. field-sorrel, Hom

akr-tíund, f. tithe paid on arable land (Norse)

akr-verk, n. field-work, harvest-work

akrverks-maðr, m. ploughman, tiller of the ground


[176] Einn, 'one'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

EINN, adj., plural einir, acc. sing. einn, but also einan, especially in the sense al-einan etc. … Anglo Saxon 'ân', English 'one', in East England pronounced like 'stone, bone' …


[177] Bálkr, 'wall'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

bálki, a, m., v. the following word.

BÁLKR, (or better balkr, bölkr) … [Anglo Saxon bälc], a balk, partition [compare naval bulk-heads]; b. um þveran hellinn, of a cross wall … sá studdi hóndunum á bálkinn, of a balk of wood across the door; a low wall in a stall or house, …


[178] Hlaða, 'barn'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

hlaða, u, f. [Old English 'lathe' in Chaucer, still used in Northern English; Danish lade] -a store-house, barn (also, hey-hlaða, bygg-hlaða, korn-hlaða) …

  • Hlað-búð, n., see búð
  • hlað-garðr, m. a wall surrounding the hlað

[179] Bygg, 'barley'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

BYGG, n. [Scot. and Northern English bigg; Swedish bjugg; Danish byg; Ivar Aasen bygg; derived from byggja] -barley, a common word over all Scandinavia …

  • bygg-brauð, n. barley-bread
  • bygg-hjálmr, m. a barley-rick
  • bygg-hlaða, u, f. a barley-barn
  • bygg-hleifr, m. a barley-loaf
  • bygg-hús, n. a barley-barn
  • bygg-mjöl, n. barley-meal
  • bygg-sáð, n. barley-seed

[180] Byggja, 'habitation, building'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

BYGÐ, f. [búa, byggja]. I. generally habitation: 1. a settling one's abode, colonisation; Íslands b., colonisation of Iceland … 2. residence, abode; var þeirra bygð ekki vinsæl; the phrase, fara bygð, or bygðum, to remove one's house and home, change one's abode … II. inhabited land, opposed to úbygðir, deserts; but also opposed to mountains, wild woods, and the like, where there are no human dwellings: bygð thus denotes the dwellings and the whole cultivated neighbourhood … In Norway distinction is made between bygðir and sætr … Compounds: bygðar-fleygr, adj. rumoured through the bygð. bygðar-fólk, n. the people of a neighbourhood. bygðar-lag, n. a district, neighbourhood, county. bygðarlags-maðr, m. a neighbour. bygðar-land, n. and in possession or to be taken into possession. bygðar-leyfi, n. leave to settle … bygðar-lýðr … people of a land. bygðar-mennbygðar-rómr, m. a rumour going about in the neighbourhood … bygðar-stefna, u, f. a meeting of the neighbourhood.

  • byggi or byggvi, m. an inhabitant, obsolete, but in compounds as Eyr-byggjar, stafn-byggjar, fram-byggjar, aptr-byggjar, etc.
  • byggi-ligr, adj. habitable
  • bygging, f. habitation, colonisation. 2. tenancy, letting out land for rent: in compounds, byggingarbréf, b. skilmáli, an agreement between tenant and landlord … buildings or houses; scarcely occurs in old writers in this sense; cp. Danish 'bygning', Scottish and Northern English 'biggin', = building.
  • BYGGJA, older form byggva, [for the etymology vide búa], generally to inhabit, settle, people, always in a transitive sense - not neuter as búa - but often used absolutely or elliptically, land being understood … 2. to build a house, ship, or the like … 3. reflexive to be inhabited … [Anglo Saxon bycgean; English 'buy'] - to let out, especially land or cottage … 2. more properly, to lend money at interest … put all the money out at interest …

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" (1912) Harald Lindkvist at page XLVII (Chapter IV)

Chapter IV

Passing on to Durham and Northumberland we find a place-nomenclature that exhibits comparatively few traces of the Scandinavians. Here the Scandinavian names do not occur in patches, as was often the case south of the Tees, but are scattered all over the two counties, and are, generally speaking, of little interest. As was to be expected they are most frequent in the southern half of Durham, near the Yorkshire border. Conspicuous are the many instances of the M.E. name Newebiggyng (N.E. Newbigging), from O.W.Scand bygging 'building', which name is certainly found in most northern English counties but nowhere so frequently as here. Judging by the place-names, the Scandinavian settlement in the two counties seems to have been only sporadic in character. Much of it was probably swept away through the incessant ravages of the Scots that these parts had to endure in early M.E. times.


"English Place-Names" (1977) Kenneth Cameron at page 86

Chapter Six

Scandinavian Place-Names

Finally, a group of names which belong to the period after the Norman Conquest contain Middle English bigging "building, house", a word derived from the verb big, itself from Old Norse byggja "build". This element is common in the East Midlands, but has been noted as far south as Surrey. It frequently survives as Biggin, and in the self-explanatory compound Newbegin (NRY) and the common Newbiggin. Indeed, many of the names which survive today in the simplex form are first recorded as Newbigging.


"The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" (1979) A. H. Smith, Volume V at page 104

III. PICKERING LYTHE WAPENTAKE

NEWBIGGIN

  • Niwebigginge 1187, 1190 Pipe Rolls etc.

'New building' vide niwe, bigging.


[181] Bugða, bugr, 'bow, bight or bend of a river'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

bugða, u, f. a bow or bent, of a serpent's coil.

  • buga, að, to bow; in fishing for trout with nets people in Iceland say, buga fyrir, to draw the net round; but mostly used metaphorically and in compdounds, vfir-buga, to bow down, subdue; 3rd pers. pret. reflex. bugusk, from an obsolete strong verb bjúga, baug, occurs in Eyvind, bugusk álmar, bows were bent.
  • BUGR, m. pl. ir, a bowing, winding; so Icel. call the bight or bend of a river, brook, creek, or the like; renna í bugum, to flow in bights, hence ár-bugr, lækjar-bugr: the bight (inside) of a ring, finger, bow-string, etc. … to grip the bight of the bow-string … the concave side of the sails …
  • bug-stafr, m. a crooked staff
  • bugt, n. bowing, servile homage: bugta, , to make many bows …

[182] Vrá, 'a cabin, nook'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

, f. = vrá, a cabin, nook

… 3. in still fewer instances the r has fallen out, the w or v remaining; these words are veita (to trench), veiting (a trench, drainage), for vreita, vreiting (akin to wríta); veina (II) = vreina; and lastly, for vrá (a cabin).


[183] , 'a mansion, sanctuary, temple'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

… a mansion, house, Latin aedes, this is the original sense, then a sanctuary, temple, compare hof;

  • til vés heilags, to the holy mansion
  • alda vé, the home of men, i.e. the earth
  • Út-vé, Üt-garðr, the outer-mansion, of the outskirt of the earth, where the giants live
  • ginnunga vé, the mansion of the gods, the heavens
  • byggja vé goða, to dwell in the homes of the gods
  • hapta vé, the places of gods = holy places, Vellekla
  • vé mána, the moon's mansion, i.e. the heavens
  • valda véum, to rule house, dwell, reside

[184] Vík, 'a small creek, inlet, bay'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

VÍK, f., gen. víkr, pl. víkr, [from víkja; Danish vig], prop. a small creek, inlet, bay; … The form -wick or -wich in British local names is partly of Norse, partly of Latin origin (vicus); all inland places of course belong to the latter class. Compounds: víkr-barmr, m. a little bay; … víkr-hvarf, n. a creek, Grett; spelt víkhvarf. Vík-marr, m. the bay at Bergen.

  • víking, f. a freebooting voyage, piracy; see víkingr. In heathen days it was usual for young men of distinction, before settling down, to make a warlike expedition to foreign parts, this voyage was called 'víking', and was part of a man's education like the grand tour in modern times; hence the saying in the old Saga - 'when I was young and on my voyage (víking), but now I am old and decrepit'; so a son begs his father to give him a 'langskip', that he may set out on a 'víking' …
  • víkingligr, adj. like a viking, martial …
  • víkingr, m. a freebooter, rover, pirate, but in the Icelandic Sagas used specially of the bands of Scandinavian warriors, who during the 9th and 10th centuries harried the British Isles and Normandy: the word is peculiarly Norse, for although it occurs in Anglo Saxon in the poem Byrnoth (six or seven times), it is there evidently to be regarded as a Norse word; … The word 'víkingr' is thought to be derived from vík (a bay), from their haunting the bays, creeks, and fjords; -or it means 'the men from the fjords' …
  • víkingskapr, m. piracy …
  • vestr-víking, f. a freebooting expedition to the West, i. e. to the British Isles (Normandy, etc.) … see víking

[185] Hvítr, 'white'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

HVÍTR, adj. … Anglo Saxon hwít; English 'white' -white

  • hvít skinn, white fur
  • hvítt bló, white blossom
  • hvítt hold, white flesh (skin)
  • hvít hönd, a white band
  • hvítr á har, white-haired
  • hvít mörk, white money, of pure silver, opp. to grátt (grey) silver
  • hvítr matr, white meat, i.e. milk, curds, and the like, opp. to flesh
  • hvíta-björn, m. the white bear
  • hvíta-gnípa, u, f. white peaks, the foaming waves
  • hvíta-logn, n. a white calm, of the sea
  • hvíta-valr, m. a white falcon
  • hvít-armr, adj. white-armed
  • hvít-bránn, adj. white-browed
  • hvít-brúnn, adj. white-browed
  • hvít-dreki, a, m. a white dragon
  • hvít-faldaðr, part. white-hooded, of the waves
  • hvít-fjaðraðr, part. white-feathered, of a swan
  • hvít-flekkóttr, adj. white-decked, white-spotted
  • hvít-fyrsa, t, to be white with foam, of a current
  • hvít-fyssi, n. a white foaming stream
  • hvít-haddaðr, part. white-haired
  • hvít-hárr and lavít-hærðr, adj. white-haired
  • hvít-jarpr, adj. white-brown, blond, of a woman
  • hvít-klæddr, part. clad in white
  • hvít-röndóttr, adj. white-striped
  • hvít-skeggjaðr, part. white-bearded
  • hvít-skinn, n. white fur
  • hvíta, u, f. the white in an egg
  • hvíti, f. whiteness, fair hue
  • hvít-leiki, a, m. whiteness
  • hvít-mata, þaað hvítmatar í augun á honum, of milky white eyes
  • hvítna, , to become white

[186] Hvein, 'whine, gorse, furze'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

HVÍNA, pret. hvein, hvinu, hvinit, [Anglo Saxon hwînan; English 'whine'; Danish hvine; Swedish hvina] - to give a whizzing sound, as the pinions of a bird, an arrow, shaft, gust of wind, or the like; hein hvein í hjarna maeni, the bone whizzed into his skull …


[187] Vanga, 'field'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

VANGR … [Anglo Saxon wang] - a garden, green home-field …

  • II. in prose this word is obsolete except in compounds, in which (as in vegr) the v is often dropped (-angr); ái-vangr, vet-vangr, kaup-angr, qq. v.: in a great number of local names, Þrúð-vangr, Aur-vangr, Ævangr: in names of fiords in Norway, Staf-angr, Harð-angr, Kaup-angr. In several modern Scandinavian local names 'vangr' remains in the inflexion -ing, -inge; it is often impossible to say whether the termination is from engi or vangr. In poetic compounds, himin-vangr, sól-vangr, hlæ-vangr, the heaven: the sea is called svan-vangr, 'the swan-field'; ál-vangr, fley-vangr, 'the ship-field', etc. = the sea; all-vangr, the 'all-men's field', a place of assembly (= almanna-vangr) … geð-vangr, 'mind's-field', the mind's abode, i.e. the breast; baug-vangr, fólk-vangr, hjör-vangr, geir-vangr, the shield-field, sword-field, i.e. the shield; orm-vangr, 'snake-field', i.e. gold, Lex. Poetical; þrúð-vangr, the abode of Thor.
  • vang-roð, n. a reddening of the field, a bloody fray, Kormak.
  • vengi, n. = vangr, [like Danish vænge and vang], the ground; ok vatt (á) vengi, and threw it on the ground, the sea; vengis blakkr, hjörtr, the steed, the hart of the sea = a ship. Lex. Poetical.

[188] Upp-gangr, 'a pass or stile'; Upp-ganga, 'ascent'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

upp-gangr, m. = uppganga, a pass or stile

  • upp-ganga, u, f. a going up, ascending, ascent
  • upp-ganga sólar, sunrise

[189] Þveit, 'a cut-off piece'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

ÞVEIT, f., or þveiti, n. [the root is found in Anglo Saxon þwîtan, pret. þwât = to chop; Northern England 'thwaite'; Chaucer to thwite; cp. also Dutch duit, whence English 'doit', German deut, Danish döit = a bit] -prop. a 'cut-off piece', but occurs only in special usages: 1. a piece of land, paddock, parcel of land, it seems originally to have been used of an outlying cottage with its paddock; ær jarðir allar, bú ok þveiti, all the estates, manor and 'thwaite', where and þveiti are opp. to one another … öng-þveiti, a narrow lane, strait. 2. frequently in local names in Norway and Denmark, tvæt, Danish tvæde (whence Danish Tvæde as a proper name); and in Northern English Orma-thwaite, Braith-thwaite, Lang-thwaite, and so on, names implying Danish colonisation: þveit, þveitar, f., þveitin, n., þveitini (qs. þveit-vin), þveitar-ruð, n., þveitar-garðr, m., þveitar-fjall, n., D. N. passim; in Iceland local names it never occurs, and is there quite an obsolete word. II. a unit of weight; þveiti mjöls, Boldt; þveitis-leiga, a rent amounting to a þveit; þveitis-ból, a farm of the value or the rent of a þveit; tveggja þveitna (thus a gen. pl. as if from þveita) toll, þveitis toll; hálf þveit smœrs


[190] Tyrfi, tyri, 'a resinous fir-tree used for making a fire'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

tyrfi and tyri, n. a resinous fir-tree used for making a fire

  • torf-viðr, m. = tyri-viðr, [Anglo Saxon tyrwe], a tarred tree
  • Tyrfingr, m. the name of the enchanted sword, Hervar S.; prop. from its flaming like resinous-wood (tyrfi): a proper name
  • tyrfinn, adj. resinous; tyrfit tré = tyrvi-tré

[191] Barr, 'the needles of the fir or pine'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

BARR, n. [Norse and Swedish barr means the needles of the fir or pine, opp. to 'lauf' or leaves of the ash, eon; cp. barlind, taxus baccaia, and barskógr, 'needle-wood', i.e. fir-wood, Ivar Aasen]. I. the needles or spines of a fir-tree; the word is wrongly applied by Snorri, Edda II, who speaks of the 'barr' of an ash; - Icelandic has no trees. In Hm. 50 (Norse poem ?) it is correctly used of a pine. II. = barley, [Scottish and Northern English bear, Anglo Saxon bere, is four-rowed barley, a coarse kind; bigg in Northern English and Scot. is six-rowed barley, also a coarse kind: cp. 'the Bigg-market', a street in Newcastle-upon-Tyne: barlog, sweet wort, made of barley, Ivar Aasen]; bygg heitir með mönnum, en barr með goðum, men call it 'bygg', but gods 'bear', which shews that barr sounded foreign, and that bygg was the common word …

  • barr-haddaðr, adj. barley-haired
  • barri, a, m. a grove
  • bar-skógr, m. needle-wood

[192] Barð, 'beard'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

BARÐ:, n. [identical in etymology but not in sense to Latin barba, English 'beard', German bart; the Scandinavian dialects all call the beard skegg … in the sense of barba is quite alien from the Scandinavian idioms … the verge, edge of a hill (holtbarð, túnbarð, brekkubarð, hólbarð, etc.), frequently in local names of farms in Iceland …

  • barða, u, f. a kind of axe (barbata)

[193] Birki, björk, 'a birch'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

BIRKI, n. collect. = björk, birch, in Compounds: birki-raptr, m. a rafter of birch-wood … birki-viðr, m. birch-wood …

  • birkinn, adj. [Ivar Aasen birkjen], dry like bark; brenna sem birkinn við
  • birkja, t, to bark, strip; b. viðbirkinn viðr (= birki viðr?) … hest, to flay a horse
  • birkja, u, f. [Ivar Aasen byrkja], the sap of a young birch, sap, got by boring a hole in the bark and sucking
  • BJÖRK, f., gen. bjarkar, [Anglo Saxon beorc; English 'birch'; Latin betula; v. birki], a birch. In compounds bjarkar-.

[194] Brá, 'brow'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

BRÁ, f. [Anglo Saxon bræv; English 'brow'; German brau], an eye-lid; brár (gen. sing.), Edda 15; brár (nom. pl.), 6; brám (dat. pl.); brá (gen. pl.) … in poetry the eyes are called brú-tungl, -máni, -sól, -geisli, moon-, sun-beam of the brow; tears are brá-regn, - drift, rain of the brow; the head brá-völlr, field of the brow, etc. …


[195] Nýr, 'new'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

NÝR, adj., [Anglo Saxon niwe; English 'new'] -new; … nýtt tungl, a new moon, but in old usage, as it seems, the waxing, or even the full moon; … II. temp, new, fresh, recent; ný tíðendi, fresh news … IV. in local names, as, Nýja-land, Newland (in America), Ann. 1290. Compounds:

  • nýja-brum, n.new-fangledness
  • nýja-leik, anew, again
  • Nýj-ár, n. New Year; Nýjárs-dagr, m. New Year's Day
  • nýjung, f. newness, novelty, news, innovation, mostly in a bad sense
  • nýliga, adv. newly, recently
  • nýligr, adj. new, recent
  • ný-lunda, u, f. a novelty, a new, strange thing
  • ný-lýsi, n. 'new light', light of the new moon ()
  • ný-mjólk, f. new milk
  • ný-mæli, n. news, a novelty; … nýmæla-bré; f, n. a new ordinance, letter
  • ný-næmi, n. [nema], a novelty
  • ný-næmligr, adj. new, startling

-, denoting newly, recently, may be prefixed to almost every participle passive as also to adjectives with a participle passive sense; thus:

  • ný-borinn, new-born
  • ný-gotinn, newly dropped
  • ný-gipt, ný-kvángaðr, newly married
  • ný-skírðr, newly christened
  • ný-grafinn, -jarðaðr, newly buried
  • ný-vígðr, newly ordained or consecrated
  • ný-smíði, n. 'new smith's work', the work of a beginner
  • ný-snævi, n. fresh snow
  • ný-stárligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), new, unusual

[196] Nabbi, 'knob'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

NABBI, a, m. [English 'knob'; Northern English and Scottish nab], a small protuberance on the skin or on greensward; nabba-þýfi

  • þýfi, n. [þúfa], a field covered with mounds or hillocks, uneven ground; … þýfi-teigr, m. a rough paddock …
  • knauss, m. a knoll, crag
  • knjúkr, m. a crag, knoll

[197] Nes, 'a ness'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

NES, n., gen. pl. nesja, dat. nesjum, [Anglo Saxon næs; English 'ness'] -a ness projecting into the sea or a lake … in Scotland, Kata-nes, and Nes, = Caithness, Orkney passim; austr á Nesjum … of the coast of Scotland as seen from the Isle of Man; as also in many English and Scottish local names. Compounds:

  • Nes-menn, m. pl. the men from NesNes-þjóðir, f. pl. the people of Caithness
  • nes-höfði, a, m. a headland
  • nes-konungr, m. a 'ness-king', a nickname of the old sea kings, who had no lands, but their ships, for a kingdom
  • Nes-konungr, a proper name
  • nes-nám, n.; nema nesnám, to make a 'ness-raid', a term used by the old Vikings when they landed on narrow headlands and took cattle and provisions by force
  • nes-oddi or nes-tangi, a, m. a point of a ness

[198] Hnúka, 'hook, bend, angle'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

  • hnokki, a, m. the small metal hooks holding the thread in a distaff
  • hnokkinn, part. [hnúka], bowed, curved
  • hneiging, f. a bowing, bending
  • HORN, n. a corner, nook, angle; lands-horn, the outskirts of a county; fara lands-horna á milli, to run from one corner of the land to the other: -a nook in a house or building: … math. an angle … rétt horn, a right angle …
  • HNEIGJA, [Anglo Saxon hnægan]: -causal from hníga, to bow, bow down, bend, incline …
  • hneigjanlegr, adj. declinable
  • hnigna, [hníga], to begin to sink, decline
  • hnignan, f. a declining, decline
  • HNÍGA, pres. hníg; pret. hné, hnétt, hné, pl. hnigu; sing. hneig is very rare in old vellum … [Anglo Saxon hnîgan] -to bow down, sink, fall gently; of a stream, the sun, a felled tree, a dying man, etc. …

[199] Norðr, 'north'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

NORÐR, n., gen. norðrs, [Anglo Saxon norð English 'north']: -the north; í norðr, northwards

  • norðar-liga, adv. northerly
  • norðarr, comparative more northerly … superlative norðast, northernmost
  • norð-hvalr, m. a kind of whale
  • Norð-lendingar, m. pl. the Northmen, especially of Iceland
  • Norð-lenzkr, adj. from Norðrland
  • Norð-maðr, m., pl. Norðmenn, a Northman, Norwegian
  • Norð-manndi, n. = Normandy (= Northmannia) … Norð-manndingr, m. a man from Normandy
  • Norðr-á, f. 'North-water', the name of a river … whence Norðrár-dalr
  • Norðr-átt or -ætt, f. the Northern region
  • norðr-dyrr, n. pl. the northern doors
  • Norðr-dælir, m. pl. the men from Norðraacute;rdalr
  • norðr-ferð or -för, f. a northern journey … norðrfara-maðr, m. a northfaring man
  • Norðr-haf, n. the Northern Ocean
  • norðr-hallt, n. adj. in a northerly direction
  • Norðr-hálfa (pronounced -álfa), u, f. the Northern region
  • Norðri, a, m. the Northern, one of the dwarfs who support the heaven … (Austri, Vestri, Norðri, Suðri)
  • Norðr-land, n. North-land … (a county in Norway)
  • norðr-ljós, n. the northern lights, polar light, aurora borealis
  • norðr-lopt, n. the 'north-lift', north, polar heavens
  • Norðr-seta, u, f., or Norð-setr, n. the Northern Seat, name of a fishing-place in the north of Greenland
  • Norðr-sjór, m. the Northern arm of the sea … the North Sea
  • norðr-skagi, a, m. the north headland
  • norðr-stuacute;ka, u, f. the north transept in a church
  • norðr-sveitir, f. pl. the northern counties
  • norðr-vegar, m. pl. the northern ways
  • Norð-ymbrar, m. pl. Northumbrians, Hallfred. Norðymbra-land, n. Northumberland

norðan, adv. from the north … Compounds:

  • norðan-fjalls, adv. north of the fell
  • norðan-fjarðar, adv. north of the firth
  • norðan-gola, u, f. a breeze from the north
  • norðan-hret, n. a gale from the north
  • norðan-lands, adv. in the north
  • norðan-maðr, m. a man from the north
  • norðan-sjór, m. a sea, current from the north
  • norðan-stormr, m. a storm from the north
  • norðan-strykr, m. a gale from the north
  • norðan-veðr, n. = northerly winds
  • norðan-verðr, adj. 'northwards', northern
  • norðan-vindr, m. a north wind

Noregr, m., gen. Noregs; a later Noregis also occurs in Laur. S.; 'Nurviag' on the Jellinge stone; [mod. Norse Norge, sounded Norre] -Norway …


[200] Oddr, 'a triangle, a point or tongue of land'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

ODDR, m. [Anglo Saxon ord; German ort = 'point' of land, spot, place … a point of a weapon …

  • oddi, a, m. a triangle, a point or tongue of land … metaphorically from the triangle, an odd number, opposed to even … Compounds: odda-maðr, m. … the third man, who gives the casting vote, the odd man (third, fifth …)
  • odd-viti, a, m. a leader, chief, who marches ahead

[201] Yfir, 'over'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

YFIR, prep. with dat. and acc., also ellipt. or even as adv. - over.


[202] Öx, 'axe'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

ÖX, i.e. øx, f., gen. öxar, dat. and acc. öxi, pl. öxar, preserving the ö throughout; declined like heiðr, öx standing for öx-r; also spelt eyx and ex: - an axe. …

  • öxar-skapt, n. the edge, haft of an axe
  • öxar-hamarr, m. the back of an axe
  • öhamars-högg, n. a blow with the back of an axe
  • öxar-hyrna, u, f. the hooked beak of an axe, such as a bill, halberd, or Lochaber-axe
  • öxar-stafr, m. a nickname … The axe, rather than the sword, was the favourite national weapon of the old Norsemen and Danes … Hel was the axe of king Magnus
  • öxa to cut, carve with an axe, of wood; öxa við

[203] papi, 'priest, cleric'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

papi, a, m. a pope, priest …


[204] Pík, 'peak'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

pík, m. a nickname … English 'peak'.


[205] Prettr, 'a trick'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

prettr, m., pl. prettar … [Anglo Saxon Dictionaries give a word præt, pl. prattas; but the age and the etymology of this word are uncertain]: - a trick

  • pretta, to cheat, deceive
  • prettóttr, adj. deceitful, tricky
  • prettugr, adj. = prettóttr
  • prett-vísi, f. craftiness
  • prett-víss, adj. tricky, wily

[206] Pund, 'a pound'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

pund, n. [English 'pound'] - a pound, of a pound = 24 marks or 12 lbs …


[207] Kví, 'a fold, pen'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

KVÍ, f., pl. kvíar, a fold, pen, especially where sheep are milked

  • kvía gimbill, a young sheep
  • kvía-ból, n. a milking-place
  • kvía-garðr, kvía-veggr, m. a pen-wall

[207] , 'a corner, nook, roe deer'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

, f. … originally vrá, … a corner, nook;

, f. a roe …


[208] Hreysi, 'a heap of stones'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

HREYSI, n. and hreysar, a heap of stones (= Icelandic urð), where wild beasts abide … Compounds:

  • hreysi-köttr, m. a wild cat
  • hreysi-vísla, u, f. a weasel

[209] Hrífa, 'a rake'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

hrífa, u, f. a rake

  • hrífu-tindr, m. the teeth of a rake
  • hrifu-skapt, -höfuð, n. a rake-handle, head of a rake

[210] Hrafn, 'a raven'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

HRAFN, often spelt hramn, m. [Anglo Saxon hræfn; English 'raven' …]: -a raven … in the sayings, sjaldsénir hvítir hrafnar, 'white ravens are not seen every day', of a strange appearance; þá er hart þegar einn hrafninn kroppar augun úr öðrum, 'it is too bad when one raven picks another's eyes out'; Guð borgar fyrir hrafninn, 'God pays for the raven', perhaps referring to 1 Kings xvii. and Job xxxviii … The raven was a favourite with the Scandinavians, as a bird of augury and of sagacity, víða flýgr hrafn yfir grund, 'the raven is a far traveller'; cp. the wise ravens Huginn and Muninn, the messengers of Odin, Gm., Edda; whence Odin is called hrafn-blætr, m. 'raven worshipper' (Hallfred), and hrafn-áss, m. (Haustl.); hrafna-dróttinn or hrafna-goð, hrafn-stýrandi, a, m. 'lord or god of ravens'; hrafn-freistaðr, m. 'raven friend' … A raven was the traditional war standard of the Danish and Norse vikings and chiefs … also the Anglo Saxon Chroniclers, e. g. the Saxon Chronicle, Asser, A. D. 878, etc. … The croaking of ravens was an omen … when heard in front of a house it betokens death … the ravens are said to hold a parliament, hrafna-þing; and metaph. a disorderly assembly was called by that name … A black horse is called Hrafn, Edda. In popular lore the raven is called krummi, q. v. Botan., hrafna-blaka and hrafna-klukka, u, f. cardamine pratensis, the ladies' smock or cuckoo-flower, Hjalt. Proper names of men, Hrafn, Hrafn-kell; of women, Hrefna, Hrafn-hildr: local names, Hrafna-björg, Hrafna-gjá, Hrafna-gil (whence Hrafn-gilingr, a man from H.), Hrafn-hólar, Hrafn-ista (whence Hrafnistu-menn, an old family), etc., Landn.: in poetry a warrior is styled hrafn-fæðir, -gæðir, -gælir, -greddir, -þarfr, = feeder of ravens, etc.: the blood is hrafn-vín, Lex. Poët.: a coward is hrafna-sveltir, m. 'raven-starver' …

  • hrafn-blár, adj. raven-black
  • hrafn-hauss, m. raven-skull, a nickname
  • hrafn-hvalr, m. [Anglo Saxon hran or hren = a whale], a kind of whale
  • hrafn-ligr, adj. raven-like
  • hrafn-reyðr, f. a kind of whale; also called hrefna, balaena
  • hrafn-svartr, adj. raven-black
  • hrafn-tinna, u, f. 'raven-flint', a kind of obsidian or agate
  • hrafn-önd, f. a kind of duck

[211] Brád, 'meat, raw meat'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

BRÁD, f. [Anglo Saxon brad; German brat], meat, raw flesh, esp. venison; blóðug bráð (a law term), raw meat, Grágbrytja í bráð, 'to chop into steaks' … 'prey of beasts', varmar bráðirvilli-bráð, venison; val-bráð, 'black spots on the face' … sól-bráð, 'sun-burning'.

HRÁR, hrá, hrátt, adj. [Anglo Saxon hreow = crudus, whence English 'rough' and 'raw'; German rauh; Danish raa]: - raw, only of meat or food; eta hrátt; hrán fisk, fresh, sappy …


[212] Refr, 'a fox'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

REFR, m., pl. refar … a fox, … II. Refr, a proper name … also as a nickname, ref-skeggr; Refs-staðir, a local name; refa-urð, f. 'a fox's den', … ref-skinn, n. 'a fox's skin'


[213] Rönd, 'a rim, border'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

RÖND, f., dat. röndn, pl. randir and rendr … a rim, border …


[214] Hryggr, 'a ridge, rigg'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

HRYGGR, m., gen. hryggjar, pl. hryggir, [Anglo Saxon hrycg; English 'rigg, ridge' … the back, spine, vertebrae dorsi, in men and beasts, the spine of a fish being called dálkr … II. metaph. a ridge … fjall-hryggr, 'a mountain ridge' …


[215] Rudda, 'a coarse kind of club'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

rudda, u, f. a coarse kind of club (of an unbarked tree?) …


[216] Hraun, 'a rough place, a wilderness'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

HRAUN, n. akin to hruni, hrjóna, and hrynja … a rough place, a wilderness, and is used so especially by Norse writers and in the oldest poems: in Norse local names, Raunen, bare rocks in the sea, as opposed to hólmr, a grassy islet …


[217] Hross, 'a horse'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

HROSS, m., spelt hors, Stj. 178: [Anglo Saxon hors; English 'horse']: - a horse … 2. spec. a mare, opp. to hestr, a stallion; … Compounds:

  • stóð-hross, a stud-horse, steed
  • mer-hross, a mare
  • hrossa-bein, n. horse bone, horse flesh
  • hrossa-beit, f. bite or grazing for horses
  • hrossa-fellir, m. loss of horses, from hunger or disease
  • hrossa-fúlga, u, f. fodder or pay given to keep a horse
  • hrossa-fætr, m. pl. horses' hoofs
  • hrossa-hús, n. a stable
  • hrossa-höfn, f. horse-keep, horse pasture
  • hrossa-kjöt, n. horse flesh, horse meat
  • hrossa-kyn, n. horse flesh
  • hrossa-letr, n. 'horse-letters', a large coarse hand-writing
  • hrossa-maðr, m. a groom
  • hrossa-reið, f. a horse-race, horse-riding
  • hrossa-slátr, n. horse meat
  • hrossa-stuldr, m. horse stealing
  • hrossa-vöndr, m. a horse-whip
  • hrossa-þjófr, m. a horse-stealer
  • hross-bak, n. horse-back
  • hross-fóðr, m. horse-fodder
  • hross-gjö;f, f. the gift of a horse
  • hross-hali, a, m. a horse's tail
  • hross-hauss, m. a horse's head
  • hross-hár, n. horse-hair
  • Hrosshárs-grani, a, m. one of the names of Odin, probably from wearing a frock or hekla of horse-hair
  • hross-hófr, m. a horse's hoof
  • hross-reið, f. horse-riding, a horse-race
  • hross-rófa, u, f. a horse's tail
  • hross-verð, n. the worth of a horse
  • hross-þjófr, m. a horse-stealer: name of a giant
  • hross-æta, u, f. an eater of horse flesh, which by the old eccl. law might not be eaten

[218] Rúm, 'a room'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

hús-rúm, n. house-room, lodging, shelter

RÚM, n. … room, space; … the saying, ekki fyllir annars rúm, i. e. everything has its own place … a room, seat, place … 4. nautical; the ships of the ancients were divided into 'rooms', one for each pair of oars; each room consisted of two 'half-rooms' (hálf-rými), viz. one for each oar, thus a ship of thirty 'rooms' had sixty oars … only a few of the oar-rooms are known by special names, e. g. stafn-rúm, the two fyrir-rúm, the two austr-rúm (one fore and one aft, or even four … the klofa-rúm, krappa-rúmbetra er autt rúm en ílla skipað, better an empty seat than an ill-filled one … Compounds: rúm-fastr, adj. bed-ridden; … rúm-föt, n. pl. bed-clothes; … göra e-m rúmrusk, to shake a lazy fellow out of bed; … rúm-stæði, n. a bedstead.

  • rúm-fár, adj. narrow
  • rúm-góðr, adj. large, wide
  • rúm-lendi, m. the wide land, open land
  • rúm-lendr, adj. roomy, wide, extensive
  • rúm-liga, adv. roomily, largely
  • rúm-ligr, adj. roomy, ample, wide
  • rúmr, adj., … roomy, ample, spacious
  • rúm-snara, u, f. a slip-knot
  • rúm-sæi, n. (mod. rúm-sjór, m.), the open sea

[219] (1) Ruð, (2) Rjóðr, (1) 'a clearing in a wood', (2) 'a clearing, open space in a forest'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

RUÐ, n. a clearing in a wood; … frequently in Norse and Danish local names, -röd and -rud, Villinge-rud, Linde-rud, in Norway; Orme-rod, in North England; these names, however, were in olden times not so frequent as at present …

RJÓÐR, n. [ryðja; ried, Schmeller], a 'clearing', open space in a forest … rjóðr-höggvinn, part. cut, cleared …


[220] Salt, 'salt'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

salser, n. a salt-cellar …

SALT, n. … - salt … salt ok brauð … distinction is made between hvíta-salt, white salt … and svarta-salt, black salt, from sea-water … - of salt used for cattle … vega salt, to balance against one another. In Norway and Iceland salt was chiefly procured by burning seaweed … also from the sea … Such salt works are often mentioned, see the compounds below. For salt used in baptism, see geifla. II. in local names, Salt-eyrr (Salt-eyrar-óss) of the sea, Eystra-salt, the 'East-sea', i. e. the Baltic … B. Compounds:

  • salt-belgr, m. a salt-bag
  • salt-brenna, u, f. a salt-burning
  • salt-búð, f. a salt-booth, salt-shed
  • salt-fjara, u, f. a 'salt-beach', where salt is burned, recorded as belonging to a church; kirkja á saltfjöru í Gautavík
  • salt-görð, f. salt-making, salt-works
  • salt-hola, a salt-pit
  • salt-hólmr, m. a 'salt-holm'
  • salt-karl, m. a salt-carle, one who burns salt, as the humblest and poorest occupation
  • salt-ketill, m. a salt-kettle
  • saltketils sát or setr, salt-works
  • salt-kross, m. a cross-shaped salt-cellar, used in church at baptisms
  • salt-maðr, m. = saltkarl
  • salt-sáð, n. a nickname
  • salt-steinn, m. salt-stone
  • salt-sviða, u, f. = saltbrenna
  • salta, u, f. salt-water, pickle
  • salta, to salt, pickle
  • saltan, f. a salting, pickling
  • saltr, adj., sölt, salt: -salt, … brim-saltr, adj. salt as brine; ú-saltr

[221] Sandr, 'sand'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

SANDR, m. … sand; … the sea-shore … fjöru-sandr, beach sand; … also of the sand from volcanoes … 2. in plur. sand-banks, sandy ground; … freq. in local names, Sandr and Sandar, Sand-á, Sand-fell, Sand-nes, Sand-brekka, Sand-dalr, Sand-eyrr, Sand-gil, Sand-hólar, Sand-lækr, Sand-vík; whence Sand-fellingar, -víkingar, m. pl. the men from S. … B. Compounds:

  • sand-bakki, a, m. a sand bank, -hill
  • sand-bára, u, f. a sand-wave
  • sand-brekka, u, f. a sand-ridge, sharp-edged sand-hill
  • sand-fall, -fok, n. a fall of sand from a volcano
  • sand-fönn, f. a sand-drift
  • sand-haf, n. a 'sand-ocean' desert
  • sand-hafri, a, m. 'sand-oats' = melr, q. v.: as a nickname
  • sand-hóll, m. a sand-hill
  • sand-hverfa, u, f. a sand-flounder, a fish
  • sand-klyptir, f. pl. 'sand-clefts', a local name
  • sand-korn, n. a grain of sand
  • sand-kváma, u, f. = sandfall
  • Sand-leið, f. a way through the desert Sand in Iceland
  • sand-ló, f. a bird, the sanderling
  • sand-lægja, u, f. a kind of whale
  • sand-melr, m. a sand-hillock
  • sand-migr, m. a kind of shell
  • sand-möl, f. gravel
  • sand-síli, n. a kind of herring
  • sand-stör, f., botanical, bent grass, Carex arenaria
  • sand-sumar, -vetr, m. a sand-summer, -winter, so called from volcanic eruptions
  • sand-torfa, u, f. a sandy sod
  • sand-víðir, m., botanical, 'sand-withy' Salix arenaria
  • sand-þúfa, u, f. a sand-mound
  • sand-yrja, u, f. a quicksand

[222] Þröstr, 'throstle, thrush'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

ÞRÖSTR, m., þrastar, þresti, plur. þrestir, þröstu; [Anglo Saxon and English 'thrush, throstle'; Danish trost; German drossel; Lat. turdus]: - a thrush (the bird): skógar-þröstr. II. as a proper name …


[223] Þorp, 'thorp'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

ÞORP, n. [Anglo Saxon and Hel. þorp; Old English 'thorp' … this word, we think, was originally applied to the cottages of the poorer peasantry crowded together in a hamlet, instead of each house standing in its own enclosure, like the 'tún' or 'bær' or 'garðr' of the 'búandi', hence þorpari = a churl (see below); the etymological sense being a crowd, throng, as seen in þyrpast, þyrping (qq. v.), as also in Lat. turba]: I. a hamlet, village, rarely of an isolated farm; … 2. when used of foreign countries it means a thorp or village; borgir, kastalar, þorp; þorp ok tún

þorpari. a, m. a cottier, peasant, boor, churl, clown, of the lower peasantry; búandkarl eða

þorp-karl, m. = þorpari, a churl, … þorpkarl-ligr, adj. churlish …


[224] Tjörn, 'tarn, small lake'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

TJÖRN, f. [Northern English and Scot. 'tarn'], gen. tjarnar, pl. tjarnir, a tarn, small lake; very frequent 2. a pool; hann kenndi at t. var á gólfinu, a pool of water; II. also in local names, Tjörn, Sef-tjörn.


[225] Tangi, 'cape, tongue of land'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

TANGI, a, m. [Anglo Saxon 'tange'; Northern English 'tang'], a spit of land, a point projecting into the sea or river (but tunga when two rivers meet) …


[226] Svelgr, 'a swirl, whirlpool, current, stream'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

sveljga … [Anglo Saxon swelgan; English swallow] - to swallow

svelgr, m. [Shetland swelchie], a swirl, whirlpool, current, stream … 2. especially as a local name of the race in the Pentland Firth … II. metaphorically a swallower, spendthrift; … vín-svelgr, a wine-swiller, drunkard: hræ-svelgr, carrion-devourer …


[227] Svín, 'a swine'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

SVÍN, n. [a common Teut. word], a swine … svíns-lifr, swine's liver, as a charm used to still enmities or in truce-making … II. in local names, Svína-fell (whence Svín-fellingar), Svína-vatn, Svína-dalr, Svína-nes, Svín-ey, Svín-hagi, etc. … Compounds:

  • svína-bæli, n. a hog-sty
  • svína-geymsla, -gæzla, u, f. swine-tending
  • svína-hirðir, m. a swine-herd
  • svína-hús, n. a swine-house, pig-sty
  • svín-beygja, to make one stoop like a swine, a word of contempt (cp. make one pass the Caudine forks)
  • svín-drukkinn, part. drunk as a swine
  • svín-eygr, adj. swine-eyed
  • svín-fylking, f. a 'swine-array' the wedge-shaped phalanx of the Scandinavians, from its being shaped like a swine's snout
  • svín-fylkja, to draw up in a svínfylking
  • svín-fætr, m. pl. a term of abuse
  • svín-galinn, part. mad (drunk) like a swine
  • svín-hvalr, m. a kind of whale
  • svín-höfði, a, m. a nickname
  • svínka, [German schwanken], to stagger
  • svínkaðr, the worse for drink
  • svín-skinn, n. pig-skin
  • svín-stí, f. a swine-sty

[228] Storð, 'a young wood, plantation'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

STORÐ, f. a young wood, plantation … storðar lykkja, 'wood-loop', i. e. a serpent … 2. the earth (grown with brush-wood) … hauk-storð, 'hawk-land', i. e. the wrist …


[229] Stofn, 'a tree stem'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

STOFN, m., or stomn … [Anglo Saxon stofn; English 'stem'] -a stem of a tree …


[230] Stigi, 'a step, ladder, steep ascent'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

stigi, a, m., stegi, [stigr]: -a step, ladder, steep ascent; … passim in old and modern usage: of a scaling ladder in war … Stiga-gnúpr, a local name … stiga-hapt, n. a step in a ladder.


[231] Saurr, 'mud'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

SAURR, m., dat. sauri and saur; mud … hlaupa í saur, to dabble in mud …

  • saur-fullr, adj. filthy
  • saurga, to defile, pollute
  • saurgan, n. pollution, defilement
  • saurganar-maðr, a defiler
  • saurindi, n. pl. dirt, uncleanness
  • saur-kvísl, f. n dung-fork
  • saur-lifnaðr, m. a filthy life, lechery
  • saur-ligr, adj. unclean
  • saur-lífi, n. (opp. to hreinlífi), an unclean life, fornication
  • saurlífis-kona, u, f. a harlot
  • saurlífis-maðr, m. a fornicator
  • saurlífis-synd, f. the sin of fornication
  • saur-lífr, adj. lewd
  • saur-ljótr, adj. shewing dirt, of cloth
  • saur-mæli, n. filthy, foul language
  • saur-pyttr, m. a cesspit, cesspool
  • saur-reiðir, m. a dung-carrier
  • sauru-liga, adv. in a foul manner
  • sauru-ligr, adj. foul, unchaste
  • saur-yrði, n. pl. foul language

[232] Skagi, 'a low cape or ness'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

skagi, a, m. … a low cape or ness (höfði is a high headland); … freq. in local names, Vendil-skagi or Jótlands-skagi, the Skagerack; the Skagi, the ness between the Skagafjord and Húnaflói …


[233] Síld, 'sild, herring'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

SÍLD, f., pl. síldr, … herring (i. e. in shoals of herrings, but síli of a single herring), Clupea harengussílda-kaup, n. a purchase of síldsíld-ver, n. a place for herring-fishing …


[234] Sík, 'a ditch, trench'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

SÍK, mod. síki, n. a ditch, trench …


[235] Selja, 'a sallow, willow'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

selja, u, f. [Anglo Saxon seal; English 'sallow'] - a sallow, a willow, Salix capraeaselju-tré


[236] Sef, 'a sedge'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

SEF, n. [English 'sedge'], sedge … Compounds: … sef-dæla, u, f. a sedgy hollow, Sef-grisnir, m. a 'sedge-boar' … a wolf … sef-rein, f. a sedge-bank … sef-tjörn, f. sedge-tarn, a local name …


[237] Setr, 'mountain pastures'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

setr, B. Mountain pastures, dairy lands … better spelt sætr (mod. Norse sæter); Compounds: sætra-ferð, f. removal into a shed, … sætr-búð, f. a dairy-shed sætr-gata, u, f. a road to huts


[238] Skógr, 'a small wood'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

SKÓGR … a shaw, wood, mörk being a forest … Compounds:

  • skógar-björn, m. a wood-bear
  • skógar-braut, f. a road broken through a wood, wood-path
  • skógar-brenna, u, f. a wood-fire
  • skógar-búð, f. a wood-booth, but in a wood
  • skógar-búi, a, m. a 'wood-neighbour', dweller near a wood
  • skógar-dýr, n. a wood-deer
  • skógar-fullr, adj. woody
  • skógar-gata, u, f. a wood-path
  • skógar-geit, f. a wood-goat
  • skógs-hagi, a, m. a wood-hedge, hawthorn
  • skógar-háls, m. a forest-hill
  • skógar-hjörtr, m. a hart of the forest
  • skógar-holt, n. a 'wood-holt', ridge, hill
  • skógar-hryggr, m. a wood-ridge
  • skógar-hunang, n. wild honey
  • skógar-hús, n. a hut in a wood
  • skógar-högg, n. tree-felling
  • skógar-kaup, n. the purchase of a wood
  • skógar-kjörr, n. pl. brush-wood, a holt
  • skógar-klettr, m. a wood-rock
  • skógar-leiga, u, f. the rent of a wood
  • skógar-maðr, m. a 'wood-man', an outlaw
  • skógar-mark, n. a wood-mark, land-mark of a wood
  • skógar-nef, n. a 'wood-neb', jutting outskirt of a wood
  • skógar-partr, m. a share in a wood
  • skógar-runnr, m. a division of a wood
  • skógar-skipti, n. a division of a wood
  • skógar-spell, n. damage done to a wood
  • skógar-spottr, m. a spot, piece of a wood
  • skógar-staða, u, f. the place on which a wood stood
  • skógar-strönd, f. a woodland-coast
  • skógar-súra, u, f. wood-sorrel
  • skógar-teigr, m. a strip of wood
  • skógar-tré, n. a tree in a wood
  • skógar-þröstr, m. the throstle or thrush
  • skógar-öx, f. a wood-axe

[239] Skarð, 'a notch, chink in the edge of a thing'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

skörðóttr, adj. [skarð], notched

SKARÐ, n. [Anglo Saxon sceard; English 'shard'] -a notch, chink in the edge of a thing …

skarði, a, m. a nickname, hare-lip; Þorgils skarði, a frequent Danish proper name on the Runic stones. Skarða-borg, Scarborough


[240] Hildr, 'battle' - see also Hilda Wood, Hilda Spring and Hilda's Howe

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

HILDR, f., dat. and acc. hildi, [Anglo Saxon hild] -battle, only in poetry;

  • vekja hildi, to wage war
  • hefja hildi, to begin a battle
  • er hildr þróask, when war waxes
  • hörð hildi, a hard fight
  • bjóða hildi, to offer battle
  • ganga í hildi, to go into battle
  • semja, fremja hildi, to wage war

In poetry a shield is called hildar-ský, hildar-vé, hildar-veggr.

2. name of one of the Valkyrias (see Valkyrja), who were regarded as the handmaids of Odin; Hildr is also represented as a daughter of the mythical king Högni and the bride of Héðin, whose life is recorded in the tale of Hjaðninga-víg, Edda 89, 90: hence war is called Hildar-leikr, m. the game of Hildar. II. in proper names; it is rare as a prefix in northern names, but frequent in old German: of men, Hildir, Hildi-björn, Hildi-brandr, Hildi-grímr, Hild-ólfr; of women, Hildr, Hildi-gunnr, Hildi-ríðr: again, it often forms the latter part in female names, and often spelt or sounded without the aspirate, Ás-hildr, Bryn-hildr, Böðv-ildr, Dóm-hildr, Ey-ildr, Geir-hildr, Grím-hildr, Gunn-hildr, Hrafn-hildr, Matt-ildr (for.), Orm-hildr, Ragn-hildr, Svan-hildr, Úlf-hildr, Yngv-ildr, Þor-hildr, Landn. III. in plural hildir, the caul or membrane covering animals, calves, lambs when cast, kálfs-hildir, kýr-hildir, frequent in modern usage.

hildi-leikr, m. [Anglo Saxon hilde-gelâc], the game of war, a fight, Fm. 31. hildi-meiðr, m., poët. a warrior, pillar of war, Fm. 36. hildi-svín, n. = hildigöltr, Edda 82, Hdl. 7. hildi-tannr, m., gen. hilditanns, Edda i. 464; dat. hilditanni, Fms. ix. 455 (an evidence that tönn, a tooth, was originally masc.); later, Hildi-tönn, f. nickname of the old Danish king, see Skjöld. S., quasi a war-tooth, tusk; compare Anglo Saxon hilde-tux, Beowulf 1511.


[241] Hilla - Hilla Green Farm, Hilla Green Bridge, Little Hilla Green

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

HILLA, u, f. a shelf, frequent in modern usage; búr-hilla, a pantry shelf.

hilla, t, upheaved or lifted in the air, e. g. of an object (a person, tree) seen on the edge of a hill against the sky, e. g. það hillir undir hann á brúninni.

Hillar, f. pl. a Norse local name, akin to hilla and hjalli.

hillingar, f. pl. upheaving, especially of a mirage, when rocks and islands look as if lifted above the level of the sea.


[242] Kjarr, 'copsewood, brushwood'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

KJARR, n., pl. kjörr; copsewood, brushwood; kjörr ok skóga

  • kjarr, m. a kind of bird, a curlew
  • kjarr-mýrr, f. a marsh grown with brushwood
  • kjarr-skógr, m. copsewood

[243] Klif, kleif, klettr, 'cliff'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

KLEIF, f., plur. kleifar, [from klífa, to climb], a ridge of cliffs or shelves in a mountain side …

KLETTR, m. a rock, cliff … Compounds: kletta-belti, n. a belt of crags … botan. the saxifrage. kletta-skora, u, f. a scaur. kletta-snös, f. a jutting crag, freq. in mod. usage.

KLIF, n. [Anglo Saxon clif; English 'cliff'], a cliff; klif and kleif are used indiscriminately in Eyrbyggja Saga and Egils SagaKlifs-lönd, Cliffland or Cleveland, in England


[244] Kokkr, 'a cock'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

kokkr, m. a cock


[245] Kyta, 'a hovel'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

kyta or kytra, u, f. [kot], a cottage, hovel, Eg. (in a verse); hús-kyta

KOT, n. [Anglo Saxon cote; English 'cot'], a cottage, hut, small farm

  • kumbaldi, a, m. a small cairn, hovel
  • kota or kotra, ; kotra sér niðr, to seek out a hole
  • kot-bóndi, a, m. a cottier
  • kot-bær, m. = kot
  • kot-karl, m. a cottier, cottager, a boor
  • kotkarla-ætt, f. poor folk; kotkarls-barn and kotkarls-son, m. a churl's bairn, churl's son
  • kot-lífi, n. humble life
  • kot-mannliga, adv. meanly, in a beggarly way
  • kot-mannligr, adj. beggarly

[246] Kaup, 'a bargain'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

KAUP, n. a bargain; íllt kaup, a bad bargain … gott or góð kaup, a good bargain; … kaupa-land, n. = kaupajörð.


[247] Krákr, 'a crow'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

krákr, m. a kind of crow or raven; ber þú sjálfr krák þinn, carry thou thy crow thyself!; líka-krákr, a kind of pole for digging graves.


[248] Kot, 'a cottage, hut, small farm'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

KOT, n. [Anglo Saxon cote; Engl. 'cot'] -a cottage, hut, small farm …

KRÓ, f., pl. krær, a small pen or fence

KORN, n. [Anglo Saxon and English 'corn'] corn, grain … korn-jörð, f. corn-soil, arable land


[249] krókr, 'a hook, anything crooked'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

KRÓKR, m., krákr [English 'crook'] a hook, anything crooked …

  • krók-boginn, part. bent as a hook
  • krók-faldr, m. a crooked hood
  • krók-fjöðr, f. a barbed head of a spear or arrow
  • krók-loppinn, adj. with hands crooked and numbed from cold
  • krók-lykill, m. a hook-shaped key
  • krók-nefr, m. crook-nose
  • krókóttr, adj. crooked, winding
  • krókótt á, a winding river
  • krók-pallr, m. a crooked seat, corner seat
  • krók-raptr, n. crook-rafters in a house
  • krók-spjót, n. a barbed spear
  • krók-stafr, m. a crooked stick
  • krók-stika, u, f. a kind of candlestick
  • krók-stjaki, a, m. a boat-hook
  • krók-sviða, u, f. a kind of hatcbet with a hook
  • krók-ör, f. a barbed arrow
  • krók þrí-angaðr, a three-pronged hook, a trident

[250] kross, 'a cross'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

KROSS, m.; [like Anglo Saxon and English 'cross' …] a cross … Compounds:

  • krossa-lauss, adj. 'cross-less', not making the sign of the cross
  • kross-hús, n. a cross-house, house with a holy rood
  • kross-maðr, m. a cross-man, warrior of the cross
  • kross-maðra, u, f. a kind of madder, bed-straw, galium
  • kross-mark, n. the sign of the cross
  • kross-skjöldr, m. a shield with a cross on it
  • kross-tákn, n. the token, sign of the cross
  • kross-tré, n. the tree of the cross
  • kross-varða, u, f. a cross-beacon, wayside cross

[251] Dalr, 'a dale'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

DALR, s, m., old pl. dalar, acc. dala … [Anglo Saxon dæl; English 'dale' …]: a dale; allit. phrase, djúpir dalir, deep dales … the word is much used in local names, Fagri-dalr, Fair-dale; Breið-dalr, Broad-dale; Djúpi-dalr, Deep-dale; Þver-dalr, Cross-dale; Langi-dalr, Lang-dale; Jökul-dalr, Glacier-dale, (cp. Langdale, Borrodale. Wensleydale, etc. in Northern English); 'Dale' is a frequent name of dale counties, Breiðatjarðar-dalir, or Dalir simply, Landn.: Icel. speak of Dala-menn, 'Dales-men' (as in Engl. lake district); dala-fífl, a dale-fool, one brought up in a mean or despised dale … the parts of a dale are distinguished, dals-botn, the bottom of a dale … dals-öxl, the shoulder of a dale; dals-brún, the brow, edge of a dale; dals-hlíðar, the sides, slopes of a dale; dala-drög, the head of a dale; dals-mynni, the mouth of a dale; dals-barmr, the 'dale-rim', = dals-brún; dals-eyrar, the gravel beds spread by a stream over a dale, etc.: -in poetry, snakes are called dale-fishes, dal-reyðr, dal-fiskr, dal-ginna, etc. … [It is interesting to notice that patronymic words derived from 'dale' are not formed with an e (vowel change of a), but an œ, æ (vowel change of ó), Lax-dœlir, Vatns-dœlir, Hauk-dœlir, Hit-dœlir, Sýr-dœll, Svarf-dœlir … the men from Lax(ár)dalr, Vatnsdal, Haukadal, Hitardal, etc.; cp. the mod. Norse Dölen = man from a dale; this points to an obsolete root word analogous to ala, ól, bati, bót; vide the glossaries of names to the Sagas, esp. that to the Landn.


[252] Deild, 'a deal, dole, share'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

deild (deilþ, deilð), f. a deal, dole, share … fara at deildum, to be parcelled out


[253] Dík, díki, 'a dike, ditch'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

DÍKI and dík, n. a dike, ditch, … díkis-bokki, a, m. an eel


[254] Drag, 'a watercourse'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

drag, n. [draga], in compounds as ör-drag, a bow-shot, of distance: specifically a soft slope or valley … in pl. drög, the watercourse down a valley


[255] Skjól, 'a shelter, cover'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

SKJÓL, n. a shelter, cover; in Iceland also used of any cover or hollow under a fence, a stone, or the like, where sheep seek shelter against storm and cold … skjóta skjóli yfir, to give shelter … skjóls-maðr, m. a shelterer, protector


[256] Askr, 'an ash, anything made of ash'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

ASKR, s, m. Anglo Saxon äsc, whence many English local names; an ash, fraxinus … 2. anything made of ash: a spear, prop. ashen spear shaft … a small ship, a bark (built of ash); … it appears only two or three times in Icelandic prose writers; hence may be explained the name of ascmanni, viking, pirate [Anglo Saxon äscmen], cp. askmaðr … a small vessel of wood (frequently in Icelandic, and used instead of deep plates, often with a cover (asklok) in carved work) … Compounds:

  • ask-limar, f. pl. branches of an ash
  • ask-maðr, m. Anglo Saxon äscmen, a viking, pirate, a cognomen
  • aska-smiðr, m. ship-wright
  • aska-spillir, m. a ship-spoiler, i. e. a pirate, a cognomen
  • ask-viðr, ar, m. ash-tree

[257] Jöfurr, 'a wild boar'; hlið, 'a side'; hlið, 'a gate, gateway'; hlíð, 'a slope, mountain side'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

JÖFURR, m., dat. jöfri, pl. jöfrar: [Anglo Saxon eofor]: a wild boar; but it occurs in this sense only twice or thrice in poetry … metaph. a king, warrior, probably from the custom of wearing a boar's head as a helmet … Anglo Saxon eofor-cumbol and Hildigöltr; jöfurr in this sense is not used in prose, but is frequent in old poetry … jór-bjúga, n. [from jöfur, a boar, and bjúga, q. v. a kind of sausage] …


HLIÐ, 'a side'

HLIÐ, f., pl. hliðar (hliðu dat. obsolete, a side; standa á hlið, to stand beside one … á hlið hvára, on each side …

  • á aðra hlið, at one's other side
  • á báðar hliðar, á tvær hliðar, on both sides
  • á vinstri hlið, on the left hand
  • snúask á hlið, to turn oneself (in sleep)
  • á allar hliðar, on all sides
  • á ymsar hliðar, to toss to and fro
  • fyrir hlið, to lay beside

HLIÐ, 'a gate, gateway'

HLIÐ, n. [Anglo Saxon hlið] a gate, gateway; … 2. a wide gap … in law a gap in a fence not above sixty feet long was hlið, if more it was a breach (bálka-brot) … metaphorically a space, interval (= bil) …

  • hliða, að, to give way, go aside, recede … II. reflex, to become open
  • hlið-lauss, adj. 'gateless', without a gate
  • hlið-mæltr, part. a kind of metre
  • hliðr, m., poetical an ox
  • hlið-rúm, n. open space, free passage
  • hlið-sjón, f. a side glance
  • hafa hlið af, to take a look at
  • Hlið-skjálf, f., old dat. hliðskjálfu, Gm. (prose): probably rather to be derived from hlið, gate, than hlið, side; the initial h is borne out by alliteration: a shelf, bench, a name for the seat of Odin, whence he looked out over all the worlds
  • hlið-skjár, m. a side window, originally a window or opening from which to keep a look out
  • hlið-veggr, m. a side wall
  • hlið-vörðr, m. a porter

HLÍÐ, 'a slope, mountain side'

HLÍÐ, f., in mod. usage pl. hlíðar, but hlíðir in old writers … a slope, mountain side …

  • fjalls-hlið, a fell-side
  • hlíðar-brún, f. the edge of a hlíð
  • hlíðar-fótr, m. the foot of a hlíð
  • hlíðar-garðr, m. a fence on a fell-side dividing the pastures of two farms
  • Hlíðar-sól, f. sun of the Hlíð, nickname of a fair lady
  • Hlíðar-menn or Hlíð-menn, m. pl. the men from Hlíð

[258] Fár, fær, 'a sheep'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

FÁR, f. a sheep, vide fær

FÆR, f. a sheep; in Swedish-Danish faar and fär are the usual words for sheep; but in Icelandic it is almost unknown; it occurs in Skálda; also now and then in the compound fær-sauðr, m., spelt fjar-sauðr (properly a 'sheep-sheep', sauðr being the common Icelandic word for sheep) from fær is also derived the name Fær-eyjar, f. pl. the Faroe Islands (Sheep-islands); Fær-eyskr, adj., and Fær-eyingar, m. pl. the Faroe Islanders … fær is a South-Scandinavian word, and seems to be formed from the gen. of (fjár).

  • færa fé á vetr, to bring sheep to winter, i. e. keep them in fold
  • færi-kvíar, f. pl. movable pens (of sheep)
  • fara at fé, to watch sheep
  • færa sauðfé, fewer sheep
  • gæta fjár, to mind sheep

, n., [Anglo Saxon feoh; English 'fee'] cattle, in Iceland chiefly sheep … gæta fjár, to mind sheep … kvik-fé, live-stock, q. v.: ganganda fé, id., opposed to dautt fé, dead property … Compounds:

  • fjár-beit, f. pasture for sheep
  • fjár-borg, f. a 'burrow' or shieling in which sheep are kept in the east of Iceland
  • fjár-breiða, u, f. a flock of white sheep
  • fjár-dauði, a, m. cattle-plague
  • fjár-fellir, m. falling of cattle, from plague or starvation
  • fjár-fóðr, n. fodder
  • fjár-fæði, n. = fjárfóðr
  • fjár-fæling, f. [fóli], stealing cattle
  • fjár-ganga, u, f. and fjár-gangr, m. a sheep-walk
  • fjár-geymsla, u, f. keeping sheep and cattle
  • fjár-hagi, a, m. pasture-land
  • fjár-heimtur, f. pl. sheep returning from the mountain pastures
  • fjár-hirðir, m. a shepherd
  • fjár-knappr and fjár-hópr, m. a flock
  • fjár-hundr, m. a shepherd's dog
  • fjár-hús, n. a shed or shieling for sheep
  • fjár-kaup, n. pl. purchase of sheep
  • fjár-kláði, a, m. the scab on sheep
  • fjár-nyt, f. sheeps' milk
  • fjár-pest, f. the cattle-plague
  • fjár-rekstr, m. a drove of sheep
  • fjár-réttr, m. the driving of sheep from the mountain pastures in the autumn, grazing
  • fjár-sauðr, m. = færsauðr, sheep

[259] Fjall, 'a fell, mountain'; fell, 'a fell, wild hill'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

FELL, n. a fell, wild hill, … frequently in local names; Helga-fell, Mos-fell, Mið-fell, Meðal-fell, Þórólfs-fell, and Fell alone. In Iceland fell is a single hill, and in pl. a range of hills; fjall (= Lat. mons) is a general name.

FJALL, n., pl. fjöll, [a Scandinavian word, Swedish fjäll, Danish fjæld, but wanting in the German and Saxon, not even used in the Ormulum, but frequent in Northern English and Scot., where it is of Danish origin]: -a fell, mountain … the plural fjöll is used of a mountain with many peaks … of a single mountain: the plural is also used of a chain of mountains thus, Alpa-fjöll, the Alps; Pyrenea-fjöll, the Pyrenees; but Dofra-fjall, the Dofra range in Norway … Compounds:

  • fjalla-bak, n. the back of a fell
  • the sun sinks að fjalla baki, behind the fells
  • fjalla-dalr, m. a valley
  • fjalla-fé, n. sheep on the fells or hill-pastures
  • fjalla-gol, n. a light breeze from the fells … opp. to haf-gola, a breeze off the sea
  • fjalla-grö's, n. pl., botan. lichen Islandicus
  • fjalla-klofi, a, m. a cleft or pass between fells
  • fjalla-læða, u, f. 'fell-sneaker', a mist leaving the fells clear, but covering the low land
  • fjalla-sýn, f. mountain-view
  • fjalls-brún, f. the brow, edge of a fell
  • fjalls-hlíð, f. a fell-side
  • fjalls-hyrna or fjalls-gnípa, u, f. the horn of a fell, a sharp peak
  • fjalls-hæðir, f. pl. summits
  • fjalls-múli, a, m. a 'mull' or crag projecting between two valleys
  • fjalls-rætr, f. pl. the roots of a f., i. e. the foot of a mountain
  • fjalls-öxl, f. the shoulder of a fell
  • fjall, n. a fell, skin, Lat. pellis, vide berfjall, (rare.)
  • fjalla, , to clothe with a fell, cover with fur
  • fjalla-fæla, u, f. a bird, 'mount-shunner', the sand-piper
  • fjall-berg, n. a crag, precipice
  • fjall-borg, f. a hill-fort
  • fjall-bygð, f. a county among fells
  • fjall-dalr, m. a dale in the fells
  • fjall-dýr, n. a beast of the fells, wild beast (of a fox)
  • fjall-ferð, f. a 'fell-trip', mountain excursion
  • fjall-ganga, u, f. going into the fell-pastures to gather sheep
  • fjallgöngu-maðr, m. men searching the fells for sheep
  • fjall-garðr, m. a wall of fells, range of hills
  • fjall-gola, u, f. a breeze from the fells
  • fjall-hagi, a, m. a fell-pasture
  • fjall-hola, u, f. a 'fell-hole', cavern
  • fjalligr, adj. hilly, mountainous
  • fjall-kona, u, f. 'fell-queen', a giantess
  • fjall-maðr, m. = fjallgöngumaðr
  • fjall-nár, m. a law term, a man put to death by being exposed on a fell, opp. to gálg-nár hanged, sæ-nár drowned
  • fjall-rapi, mod. fjall-drapi, a, m. a kind of dwarf birch
  • fjall-rota, u, f. [Norse rutte], a kind of wild partridge
  • fjall-rænn, adj. blowing from the fells
  • fjall-skarð, n. a gap in the fell, mountain-pass
  • fjall-skerða, ð, a pun = gilja, to beguile
  • fjall-skora, u, f. a 'fell-scaur'
  • fjall-skógr, m. a mountain forest
  • fjall-slétta, u, f. a mountain plain, table land
  • fjall-stöng, f. a fellsman's staff
  • fjall-tindr, m. a mountain peak, = fjalla-tindr
  • fjall-vegr, m. a mountain road
  • fjall-viðr, m. timber from the fells
  • fjall-vindr, m. a land wind, opp. to hafvindr
  • fjall-þoka, u, f. fog from the fells

[260] Ferja, 'a ferry, to carry by sea'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

ferja, u, f. a ferry … Compounds:

  • ferju-ár, f. a ferryman's oar
  • ferju-búi, one who lives near a ferry
  • ferju-hald, n. charge of a ferry
  • ferju-karl, n. a ferry carle, ferryman
  • ferju-land, n. land belonging to a ferry
  • ferju-maðr, m. a ferryman, the inmate of a ferry-house
  • ferju-máldagi, a, m. a ferry contract
  • ferju-skattr, m. a ferry-toll
  • ferju-skip, n. a ferry-boat
  • ferju-smíði, n. building a ferry
  • ferju-staðr, m. a ferry place
  • ferju-stútr, m. the post to which a ferry-boat is fastened
  • ferju-tollr, m. a ferry-toll

ferja, old form farði … [English 'ferry']: - to transport, carry by sea, and especially to ferry over a river or strait; ferja af landi, to carry one abroad … ferja aptr, to carry one back …


[261] Fjörðr, 'a fjord'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

FJÖRÐR, m., gen. fjarðar; dat. firði; pl. firðir, gen. fjarða: acc. fjörðu, mod. firði: [Swedish-Danish fjord; Northern English and Scot. firth, frith; English 'ford' is a kindred word, but not identical]: -a firth, bay, a Scandinavian word; but a small crescent-formed inlet or creek is called vík, and is less than fjörðr, hence the saying, fjörðr milli frænda, en vík milli vina, let there be a firth between kinsmen, but a creek between friends, denoting that kinship is not always so trustworthy as friendship: … local names combined with some other word expressing the shape, etc.:

  • Breiði-fjörðr, 'broad fjord'
  • Mjófi-fjörðr, 'narrow fjord'
  • Djúpi-fjörðr, 'deep fjord'
  • Grunni-fjörðr, 'shallow fjord'
  • Eyja-fjörðr, 'island fjord'
  • Lima-fjörðr, 'branched fjord'
  • Eylíma-fjörðr, 'unbranched fjord'
  • Arnar-fjörðr, 'Eagle fjord'
  • Alpta-fjörðr, 'Swan fjord'
  • Vatns-fjörðr, 'Fresh water fjord'

In Iceland and old Scandinavian countries the shore districts are frequently divided into counties, bearing the name of the firth, just as the inland is divided into dales; thus Eyja-fjörðr and Skaga-fjörðr denote both the firth and the county bordering on the firth. The western and eastern parts of Iceland are called Vest-firðir and Aust-firðir; in Norway a county is called Firðir … over a hundred names of Icelandic fjords are recorded and the Sagas.

  • fjarða-gol, n. a breeze blowing off a fjord
  • fjarðar-botn, m. the bottom or head of a fjord
  • fjarðar-horn, n. the creek at the head of a fjord
  • fjarðar-íss, m. fjord-ice
  • fjarðar-kjöptr or fjarðar-minni, n. the mouth (opening) of a fjord
  • fjarðar-menn, m. pl. the inhabitants of a fjord county
  • fjall eðr fjörðr, fells or firths
  • fjarðar-, vide fjörðr, a firth

[262] Fiskr, 'a fish'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

FISKR, m. [Anglo Saxon fisc; English 'fish' a fish, of both sea and fresh-water fish, especially cod, trout, salmon are often called 'fish' … different kind of fish, heilagr fiskr (mod. heilag-fiski), halibut

  • hval-fisk, a 'whale fish'
  • beit-fisk, bait fish
  • ill-fiskar, ill or evil fishes, sharks
  • skel-fisk, shell fish
  • blautr fisk, fresh fish
  • skarpr fisk, dried fish
  • hvítr á fiskinn, having white flesh
  • fjör-fiskr, live fish, a phrase for spasms of the muscles, the 'growing pains' common in children - the fjör-fiskr is said to bound or leap (sprikla), which is regarded as a sign of good health and growth
  • fiska-á, f. = fiski´
  • fiska-ferð, f. = fiskigangr
  • fiska-kaup, n. the purchase of (dried) fish
  • fiska-kyn, n. a kind of fish
  • fiska-merki, n. the zodiac
  • fiska-pollr, m. a fish-pool
  • fiska-skip, n. a fishing-vessel
  • fiska-stöð, f. = fiskistöð
  • fiska-stöng, f. = fiskistöng
  • fiska-tíund, f. fish-tithe
  • fisk-æti, n. fish-meat
  • fisk-laust, n. adj. 'fish-less' and fisk-leysi, n. bad fishing
  • fisk-lýsi, n. fish-oil
  • fisk-reki, a, m. 'fish-driver', a kind of whale
  • fisk-virði, n. the value of a fish, about two-pence English

[263] Fit, 'meadow land on the banks of a firth, lake, or river'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

FIT, f., … II. metaph. meadow land on the banks of a firth, lake, or river


[264] Flatr, 'flat, level, of land'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

FLATR, adj., fem. flöt, neut. flatt; [English 'flat'] - flat, level, of land …

  • flattr fiskr, a flat fish
  • draga flatan, to drag one flat on the ground
  • kasfa sér flötum niðr, to throw oneself down flat
  • stýra á flatt, to steer on the flank (side) of another ship
  • bregða flötu sverði, to deal a blow with the flat of a blade
  • öxin snerisk flöt, the axe turned so as to strike flat
  • flata-fold, f. a flat-field
  • flat-bytna, u, f. a flat-bottomed boat, a barge
  • flat-ligr, adj. flat
  • flat-liga, adv. flatly
  • flat-maga, að, to bask in the sun, lie as a dog
  • flat-nefr, adj. flat-nebbed
  • flatneskja, u, f. a plain cp. Engl. flats, as in the Essex flats
  • flatningr, m. a flat fish
  • flat-sigling, f. sailing with a side wind
  • flat-smíði, n. things wrought flat with a plane or hammer
  • flat-streymi, n. an eddy coming on the side of a ship
  • flat-sæng, f. a bed made on the floor
  • flat-særi (pronounced flassæri), n. a flat wound, as from a blister
  • flat-vegr, m. the flat, broad side opp. to an edge
  • flat-viðr, m. flat timber, planks, boards

[265] Fors, foss, 'a 'force', waterfall'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

FORS, mod. foss, m., [Swedish-Danish foss, Northern English force; a test word of Scandinavian language and origin … a 'force', waterfall … in many local names, Skóga-fors … 2. a brook, stream …


[266] Fugl, fogl, 'a fowl, bird'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

FUGL, m., an older form fogl is usual in early MSS.: fugls, both forms foglar and fuglar but in old poets fogl is required by the rhyme [Anglo Saxon fugol; English 'fowl'] - a fowl, bird … a nautical term hafa fugl af landi, to 'have fowl off land' to stand in within range of water-fowl, i.e. be from fifty to seventy miles off land …

  • geir-fugl, the awk, Alca impennis
  • æðar-fugl, the eider-duck
  • hræ-fugl, a bird of prey
  • smá-fuglar, small fowl, little birds
  • söng-fugl, singing birds
  • snæ-fugl, snow-fowl
  • bjarg-fugl, cliff-fowl, sea gulls, etc.
  • fugla-dráp, n. bird-catching
  • fugla-kippa, u, f. a bundle of fowls
  • fugla-net, n. a fowling net
  • fugla-söngr, m. the song (screeching) of birds
  • fugla-tekja, u, f. bird-taking
  • fugla-veiðr, f. bird-catching
  • fugls-rödd, f., mod. fugla-mál, n. a bird's voice, in tales
  • karl-fuglinn, poor churl!
  • fuglari, a, m. a fowler
  • fugl-berg, n. a fowling cliff
  • fugl-stapi, a, m. = fuglberg
  • fugl-veiðr, f. fowling
  • fugl-ver, n. a place for fowling
  • fugl-verð, n. the price of fowl
  • fugl-þúfa, u, f. a 'fowl-bank', bank on which birds sit
  • fulki, a, m. a bird, fulica, = English 'coot'

[267] Fúll, 'foul, stinking'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

FÚLL, adj. [Anglo Saxon ful; English 'foul'] - foul, stinking; and-fúll, of foul breath. II. metaph. foul, mean, - as a law term in an ordeal, foul …

  • fúl-leitr, adj. of foul appearance
  • fúl-lifnaðr, m. and fúl-lífi, n. lewdness, lechery
  • fúl-liga, adv. meanly
  • fúl-mannligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), mean, paltry
  • fúl-már, m. the 'foul-mew' or fulmar, a sea-bird
  • fúl-mennska, u, f. paltriness, baseness
  • fúlna, , to become stinking
  • fúls-liga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), basely
  • fúl-yrði, n. foul language

[268] Geiri, 'triangular piece of land in corner of a field'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

GEIRI, a, m. [English 'goar' or 'gore'], a goar or triangular strip

  • land-geiri, a goar of land
  • gras-geirar, grass strips among rocks
  • set-geiri, a goar let into breeches

[269] Gás, 'a goose'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

GÁS, f., gen. [Anglo Saxon gôs, English 'goose', pl. geese] - a goose … heim-gás, a tame goose; grá-gás, a 'grey goose', wild goose; gása-fiðri, n. a goose feather, gæsa-fjaðrir, gás-veiðr, f. goose catching

gæslingr, m. [gás], a gosling

GAGL, n. [Ivar Aasen gagl = wild goose, cp. the Scot. a gale of geese = a flock of geese]: - a wild goose … gagl-hati, a, m. goose-destroyer.


[270] Skrapa, 'to scrape, clatter'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

skrapa, , [English 'scrape'], to scrape, clatter; … 2. to scratch …


[271] Skriða, 'a land-slip, on a hill-side'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

SKRIÐA, u, f., gen. pl. skriðna -a land-slip, on a hill-side … of an avalanche also used of the black streaks on a mountain-side from old slips … skriðu-fall, n. an avalanche; skriðu-hjalli, a, m. a shelf


[272] Skeið

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

SKEIÐ, n. a race … II. a course, of space; 2. of a space of time; þat var eitt skeið, it was one space of time that, Njáll þagnaði nokkut skeið, a while, um skeið, for a while:

  • ríða ó skeið, to ride at full speed
  • hlaupa ó skeið, to take a run
  • skeiða,, [skeiðir], to gallop
  • skeið-brímir, m. the name of a mythical steed
  • skeið-gata, u, f. a broad causeway
  • skeið-hestr, m. a race-horse, also of a horse that ambles
  • skeið-kollr, m. a nickname
  • skeið-reitt, n. part. a broad way for riding
  • skeifa, u, f. [skeifr], a horse-shoe
  • hólf-skeið, a broken horse-shoe

[273] Skíra, 'to cleanse, purify'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

SKÍRA to cleanse, purify … skíra sik, to cleanse oneself … 2. of an oath or ordeal, to clear, purge [Anglo Saxon fullian = to cleanse], to baptize, christen; skíra barn … 2. reflex. skírask, to be baptized:

  • skír-borinn, part. 'pure-born', born in wedlock
  • Skír-dagr, m. Maundy-Thursday
  • Skíri-Jón, John the Baptist
  • skír-dræpr, adj. dazzling
  • skír-getinn, part. born in wedlock
  • Skíri-dagr, m. = Skírdagr
  • skíri-faðir, m. a 'baptism-father', one who has baptized one
  • skíri-nafni, a, m. a namesake, Sighvat
  • skíring, f. a clearing
  • skíringar-vitni, a compurgatory witness
  • a christening = skírn
  • Skíri-þórsdagr, m. = Skírdagr
  • skír-leikr, m. (-leiki, a, m.), purity;
  • skír-leitr, adj. pure of countenance
  • skír-liga, Adv. purely
  • skír-ligr, adj. = skírleitr
  • skýrligr, less correct)
  • skír-lífi, n. a pure life, chastity
  • skír-lífr, adj. pure-lived, chaste

[274] Slakki, 'a hollow of sinking in the ground'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

slakki, a, m. [Northern English 'slack, a hollow of sinking in the ground']: - a slope on a mountain edge


[275] Sleipr, 'slippery'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

sleipr, adj. [Northern English 'slape'], slippery


[276] Smár, 'small, little'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

SMÁR, [English 'small', etc.; Scottish and Northern English 'sma'.] … A. Small, little, of size, stature … B. In compounds smá- is often used simply as a diminutive, as there is no dimin. inflexion in the language; it is rarely prefixed to any but plural or collective nouns:

  • smá-atvik, n. pl. details
  • smá-bátar, m. pl. little boats
  • smá-bein, n. pl. small bones
  • smá-bjöllur, f. pl. little bells
  • smá-borinn, part. of low birth
  • smá-búsgögn, n. small house-implements
  • smá-byrðingar, m. pl. little ships of burden
  • smá-bækr, f. pl. little books
  • smá-bændr, m. pl. small farmers
  • smá-börn, n. pl. little bairns
  • smá-djöflar, m. pl. petty devils
  • smá-dúkar, m. pl. little kerchiefs
  • smá-dýr, n. pl. 'small deer', small animals
  • smá-eyjar, f. pl. little islands
  • smá-fénaðr, m. small cattle
  • smá-ferjur, f. pl. small ferries
  • smá-fiskar, m. pl. small fishes
  • smá-fuglar, m. pl. small birds
  • smá-geislar, m. pl. faint beams
  • smá-gjafar, f. pl. small gifts
  • smá-greinir, f. pl. small matters
  • smá-grjót, n. pebbles
  • smá-hlutir, m. pl. trifles
  • smá-hringar, m. pl. small circles, rings
  • smá-hrís, n. a shrubbery
  • smá-hundar, m. pl. small dogs
  • smá-hús, n. pl. small houses
  • smá-hvalir, m. pl. little whales
  • smá-kertistikur, f. pl. small candlesticks
  • smá-kirkjur, f. pl. small churches
  • smá-kjörr, n. pl. scrub, brushwood
  • smá-klukkur, f. pl. small bells
  • smá-kofar, m. pl. small huts
  • smá-konungar, m. pl. kinglets
  • smá-koppar, m. pl. small cups, hollows
  • smá-kornóttr, adj. small-grained
  • smá-kvistir, m. pl. small twigs
  • smá-kvæmr, adj. of low descent
  • smá-leikar, adj. smallness
  • smá-leitr, adj. small-featured
  • smá-lérept, n. fine linen
  • smá-ligr, adj. trifling
  • smá-líkneski, n. pl. small images
  • smá-lyginn, adj. petty lying
  • smá-lærisveinar, m. pl. little disciples
  • smá-læti, n. stinginess (opp. to stórlæti)
  • smá-lönd, n. pl. small lands (islands)
  • sma-mannligr, adj. mannikin-like
  • smá-menn, m. pl. = smaámenni
  • smá-menni, n. small people
  • smá-meyjar, f. pl. little girls
  • smámeyja-land, n. the land of the dwarf maidens, mythical
  • smá-munir, n. pl. trifles
  • sma-mæli, n. pl. small cases
  • smá-mæltr, part. 'small-spoken', lisping
  • smá-neyti, n. 'small neats', calves, and the like
  • smá-piltar, m. pl. small boys
  • smá-rakkar, m. pl. small dogs
  • smá-ráðr, adj. aiming at small things
  • smá-regn, n. small rain, drizzle
  • smá-rekar, m. pl. small jetsums or waifs
  • smá-ríki, n. pl. petty kingdoms
  • smá-róar, m. pl. small relief
  • smá-sakar, f. pl. petty suits
  • smá-sandar, m. pl. fine sand, plains of fine sand
  • smá-sauðr, m. (sing.), a little sheep
  • smá-skip, n. pl. small ships
  • smá-skitligr, adj. tiny
  • smá-skógar, m. pl. copsewood
  • smá-skútur, f. pl. small craft
  • smá-smíði, n. hardware
  • smá-smugall, -smogall, adj. penetrating through every pore
  • sma-smugliga, adv. subtlely, minutely
  • sma-smugligr, adj. minute
  • smá-smygli, f. minuteness
  • smá-straumr, m. and smaá-streymt, n. adj. a neap-tide
  • smá-sveinar, m. pl. small boys
  • smá-sveinligr, adj. boyish
  • smá-svik, n. pl. petty tricks
  • smá-syndir, f. pl. petty sins
  • smá-tennr, f. pl. small tusks (of a walrus)
  • smá-tíundir, f. pl. small tithes
  • smá-tölur, f. pl. (smaá-talna), small numbers
  • smá-varningr, m. small wares (sing.)
  • smá-váfur, f. pl. tiny ghosts
  • smá-vegis, adv. trifling
  • smá-vendir, m. pl. small wands
  • smá-verplar, m. pl. small casks
  • smá-viði, n. a shrubbery
  • smá-þing, n. a small object
  • smá-öxar, f. pl. small axes

[277] Sníð, sneitt, sneið, 'to slice, lop, cut, to prune trees'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

SNÍÐA, sníð, pret. sneitt, sneið, pl. sniðu; … [Anglo Saxon sníðan]: - to slice, lop, cut, prop. to prune trees … skeið sneið, she cut the waves


[278] Sauðr, 'sheep'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

SAUÐR, m., a sheep … Compounds:

  • sauða-beit, f. 'sheep-bite', sheep-pasture
  • sauða-dunr, m. a flock of sleep
  • sauða-ferð, f. a searching for sheep
  • sauða-flokkr, m. a flock of sheep
  • sauða-gangr, m. a sheep-walk
  • sauðar-gæra, u, f. a sheep's fleece
  • sauða-hirðir, m. a shepherd
  • sauða-hús, n. a sheep-pen, a sheep-fold
  • sauðahús-tún, n. = mod. fjárhústún, the field round a sheep-fold
  • sauða-hvarf, -hverfa, u, f. a going astray, of sheep
  • sauðar-höfuð, n.a sheep's head
  • sauðar-jarmr, m. a sheep's bleating
  • sauða-kjöt, f. mutton
  • sauða-klippari, a, m. a sheep-shearer
  • sauða-kví, f. a sheep-fold
  • sauða-kvöð, f. a tax paid in sheep
  • sauða-leit, f. sheep-feeding
  • sauða-maðr, m. a shepherd
  • sauða-mjólk and sauða-nyt, f. sheep's milk
  • sauða-rekstr, m. the driving sheep
  • sauða-rétt, f. a sheep-fold
  • sauðar-reyfi, n. a sheep's fleece
  • sauða-slitr, n. pl. 'slithers', shreds of a sheep torn by a beast of prey
  • sauða-sveinn, m. a shepherd boy
  • sauða-tað, n. sheep's dung
  • sauða-taka, u, f. sheep-stealing
  • auðar-ull, f. sheep's wool
  • sauða-þjófnaðr, m. sheep-stealing
  • sauða-þjófr, m. a sheep-stealer
  • sauð-bani, a, m., botan. sheep's-bane, monkshood, Aconitum cæruleum
  • sauð-bítr, m. a sheep-worrier, of a dog
  • sauð-fé, n. a sheep
  • sauðfjár-hagi, a, m. a sheep-walk
  • sauð-fellir, m. the death of sheep from cold
  • sauð-fénaðr, m. = sauðfé
  • sauð-gróði, a, m. a crop for sheep
  • sauð-hús, n. pl. sheep-pens
  • sauð-höfn, f. sheep-keeping
  • sauð-kind, f. a sheep
  • sauð-kvistr, m., botan. a kind of willow, Salix repens
  • sauð-laukr, m. 'sheep-leek'
  • sauð-lauss, adj. sheepless
  • sauð-reki, -rekr, m. a sheep-driver
  • sauð-svartr, adj. 'sheep-black' i. e. not dyed, of cloth
  • sauð-vant, n. adj. lost on the mountains, of sheep

[279] Eystri, 'the more eastern' (see also [96] austr)

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

eystri, [from austr, east], comparative the more eastern; austastr, superlative the most eastern, Eystra-salt, n. the Baltic


[280] Ragi (see also [40] Wragby)

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

Ragi, a, m. a proper name, Landnáma Raga-bróðir, m. a nickname, id.

Editor's note: Landnámabók, "Book of Settlements", often shortened to Landnáma, is a medieval Icelandic written work which describes in considerable detail the settlement (landnám) of Iceland by the Norse in the 9th and 10th centuries.


Wragby, according to Harald Lindkvist in "Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" (1912) at page 208 is perhaps from the Old West Scandinavian man's name Ragi (< Wragi), Old Danish Wraghi, which is found in the Lincolnshire place-name Wragheby … or Wrag- might possibly be an orthographical error for Wrang-, in which case it is to be explained as in Wrangeflat


"A New Introduction to Old Norse, Part III: Glossary and Index of Names" (2007) compiled by Anthony Faulkes and Michael Barnes at page 190

Ragabróðir m. brother of Ragi, son of Óleifr hjalti, 10th century Icelander


[281] Klofi, 'a cleft or rift in a hill'

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

KLOFI, a, m. a cleft or rift in a hill closed at the upper end; … Compounds: klofa-kerling, f. and klofa-stafr, m. a cleft stick or staff; see klafi. klofa-rúm, n. a ship's cabin near the mast; klofa-sigling, f. sailing with a forked mast. klofa-stef, n. a metric. term, a 'cleft-burden', a kind of refrain, consisting of several lines inserted separately in different lines of a stanza


[282] Partridge Hill

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

The first element possibly from parta, að, to part, divide while the second element is possibly from hryggr, [Anglo Saxon hrycg; English 'rigg, ridge' …] the back, spine … metaphorically a ridge … with the third element taken from one of the following:

  • HILLA, u, f. a shelf
  • hilla, t, in the phrase, a hillir undir e-ð, to be (as it were) upheaved or lifted in the air, e. g. of an object (a person, tree) seen on the edge of a hill against the sky, e. g. það hillir undir hann á brúninni.
  • Hillar, f. pl. a Norse local name, akin to hilla and hjalli.
  • hillingar, f. pl. upheaving, especially of a mirage, when rocks and islands look as if lifted above the level of the sea.
  • HJALLI, a, m. [akin to hilla, English 'shelf'; cp. also English 'hill'] - a shelf or ledge in a mountain's side … II. a local name.
  • hjallr, m. [akin to hjalli], a scaffold, a frame of timber, the scaffold on which witches sat. 2. a shed, especially for drying clothes, fish.

but most likely the third element is from hóll, 'hill', together giving 'divided ridge hill'.


[283] Porrits

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

porri, a, m. a one-eyed person.


[284] Susanna Hill

Susanna Hill slopes east-northeast at 425-575 feet (130-175m) above sea level some 2,000 feet (600m) from the sea at Billet Scar and it is possible that the "roar of the surf" can be heard from this location and, if its name derives from ON sources, then its first element could be attributable to one or more of the following:

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

  • sús, n. [cp. Danish suse; German sausen], the roar of the surf; at 'súsi', to the roaring sea
  • sús-breki, a roaring breaker (?), surf, a dubious word
  • sunnarr, more southerly
  • suðr-hallr, south-slanting, of the sun
  • suðr-ænn, southern, of the wind
  • suðræn veðr, southern weather

The third element derives from ON hóll, 'hill'.


[285] Suggitt Plantation

"An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (1874 & 1957) Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

SEGJA, to say, tell, declare, proclaim

  • indicative 2nd-person plural segið
  • subjunctive 2nd-person plural segið
  • imperative 2nd-person plural segið

[286] Normanby Stye Batts

"The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" (1979) A. H. Smith, Volume V at pages 56, 117 and Introduction xxvi.

Comprising four ON elements, the first and second of which combine to form 'Village of the Norwegians' from Norþman (genitive plural Norþmanna) and by. The third and fourth ON elements are 'stye' from stígr 'a steep ascent or pass, narrow footpath' and 'batts' from bátr 'a boat' either a small open fishing vessel or a ship-boat (see footnote [56]).

Copyright © David Ramsdale 1997 - 2017
All rights reserved
Top