Derivation of the Surname RAMSDALE

Part 4: Danish or Norwegian Origin

Old Norse Place-Name Evidence in and around Fylingdales Parish, North Yorkshire

Background



Fylingdales Parish

The area now being researched extends beyond Fylingdales Parish and is more accurately described as being coterminous with 'The Liberty of Whitby Strand' comprising, in 1831, the parishes of Whitby, Hackness, Sneaton and the Chapelry of Fylingdales as taken from A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 2, ed. William Page (London, 1923) at pages 502 to 505 (see map below) and which now includes the parishes of Aislaby (1865), Ruswarp (1870) and Hawsker (1878).

Most of the place-names included in the following table are taken from the Chapelry of Fylingdales and the parishes of Sneaton and Hackness as detailed research of the place-names in and around Whitby and Aislaby has yet to start.

England 878 AD The Liberty of Whitby Strand

Old Norse Origins: local place-name evidence

In (and around) the Chapelry of Fylingdales and the parishes of Sneaton and Hackness there are some 1,537 examples of local place-names containing one or more of 153 Old Norse original elements. Where a place-name has two or more Old Norse original elements it is included under both so the total number of examples includes some double and triple counting. Examples of such multiple element listings are:

In this regard see place-name element raw: hrar, bráð 'raw flesh' and rauðr 'red' with (seven) duplicate entries.

The published sources used for the table of local place-names can be found in Part 3 of "Derivation of the Surname RAMSDALE".

Old Norse test-words include (but are not limited to):

  1. barn, laithe, leath (hlaða) 'barn'
  2. beck (bekkr) 'brook, stream'
  3. breck (brekka) 'hill, slope
  4. booth (búð) 'shelter'
  5. by (býr) 'farmstead, homestead, village'
  6. cliff (kleif) 'cliff, rock'
  7. ergh (erg) 'shieling, hill or summer pasture'
  8. fell (fjell) 'rough hill, mountain, fell'
  9. force (foss) 'waterfall'
  10. gais, goose (gás) 'goose'
  11. garth (garðr) 'enclosure'
  12. gill (gil) 'ravine, cleft, deep narrow gully (with a stream)'
  13. holm (holmr) 'higher dry ground amidst marshes'
  14. howe (haugr) 'barrow, sepulchral mound, cairn, tumulus'
  15. knip (gnúpr) 'hill, peak'
  16. Ra (rauðr) 'red'
  17. Rea (refr) 'fox'
  18. ross (hross) 'horse'
  19. scale, scole (skáli) 'temporary hut, shieling'
  20. satt(er), seat, sett, side, -ster (sætr) 'shieling'
  21. slack (slakki) 'shallow valley, hollow in the ground'
  22. stoupe (staup) 'a steep declivity or slope, a pitch, precipice'
  23. swart (svartr) 'black, dark'
  24. tarn (tarn) 'enclosed body of water'
  25. thwaite (þveit, þvait,) 'a clearing in woodland, used as meadowland'
  26. war, ward, wart (varða) 'beacon'
Element Old Norse Original Element Other Original Element Meaning Local Examples No
a, ay, sey, sea, ea ey OE eg, ieg island, land in the midst of marshes
  1. Brock Hall Farm [NZ 93072 02454]
  2. Brocka Beck [NZ 85886 00951]
  3. Brocka Beck Bridge [NZ 86026 00969]
  4. Broxa (Brochesei 1160) [1], [4] [SE 94685 91345]
  5. Broxa Banks [SE 94377 91212]
  6. Broxa Farm [SE 94746 91588]
  7. Broxa Forest [SE 95615 93790]
  8. Broxa Hill [SE 94467 91143]
  9. Broxa Lane [SE 95811 90261]
  10. Broxa Rigg [SE 95301 90859]
  11. Broxa Spring [SE 94280 91300]
  12. East Ayton [SE 99675 85175]
  13. Hilla Green Farm [SE 94911 90266]
  14. Hilla Green Bridge [SE 94792 90046]
  15. Hilda Wood [SE 97137 90971]
  16. Little Hilla Green [SE 94630 89973]
  17. Thirlsey [SE 97721 91440]
  18. Thirlsey Bottoms [SE 97763 90719]
  19. Thirlsey Plantation [SE 97650 92495]
  20. Thirlsey Wood [SE 97896 91095]
20
a á OE ea, eu river
  1. Hilda Spring [9] [SE 97151 90743]
1
acre, er akr OE æcer field, plot of arable land, the area a yoke of oxen could plough in a day
  1. Acres [SE 88150 93350]
  2. Stainsacre [20] [NZ 91574 08327]
  3. Stainsacre Bridge [NZ 91556 08076]
  4. Stainsacre Dale [NZ 91381 08155]
  5. Stainsacre Lane [NZ 91607 06655]
5
aik, aig, eyk, aysc, ack, oak, ake eik (eiki) OE ac (acen) oak (oakwood)
  1. Oak Wood [NZ 92939 03562]
1
ain, an einn OE an(a) one, alone    
apple apaldr OE æppel (apulder) apple (tree)    
ask(e) askr OE æsc ash tree    
ayre eyrr   sandbank
  1. Nelly Ayre Foss (Force) [SE 81339 99657]
1
baa boði   hidden submerged rock, breaker, reef    
back, bakka, bank bak, bakki OE bæc bank of a river, earthen incline, slope
  1. Back Lane [NZ 91622 06650]
  2. Backleys [SE 92380 90335]
  3. Backleys Farm [SE 92755 90435]
  4. Back Wood [NZ 85113 07398]
  5. Moor Ings Bank [SE 52121 87560]
  6. Murton Bank [SE 54128 88746]
6
bank banke, banki OE banke raised shelf or ridge of ground, the slope of a hill
  1. Battle Banks [NZ 87687 07615]
  2. Blue Bank Bottom Farm [NZ 86686 06694]
  3. Blue Bank Farm [NZ 86644 06347]
  4. Broxa Banks [SE 94377 91212]
  5. Carlin Bank Wood [NZ 94244 03894]
  6. Cess Banks [SE 89519 93511]
  7. Cote Bank Farm [NZ 82613 06884]
  8. Cote Bank Woods [NZ 82748 06719]
  9. Daisy Bank [NZ 87648 04751]
  10. Dorsley Bank [NZ 84014 06578]
  11. Dorsley Bank Wood [NZ 83837 06456]
  12. Jenney Bank Wood [NZ 81291 02602]
  13. Mill Bank [NZ 95350 03950]
  14. Oxbank Wood [NZ 94103 01915]
  15. Pricky Bank Wood [8] [NZ 95188 04104]
  16. Ruswarp Bank [NZ 88767 09337]
  17. Sneck Yate Bank [28] [SE 50550 87350]
  18. Stoupe Brow Bank [NZ 95750 03450]
  19. Stoupe Bank Farm [NZ 95747 03362]
19
bar brunnr OE burna (also spring, spryng) spring    
barn, lat, lay, laithe, leath hlaða OE bern barn
  1. Barnby [NZ 82266 13757]
  2. Barnby Howe and Barnby Howes [NZ 83139 13682]
  3. Barnby Tofts Farm [NZ 82142 13937]
  4. Barns Cliff [SE 93740 93326]
  5. Barns Cliff End [SE 94015 94605]
  6. Low Laithes Farm [NZ 92051 09491]
  7. Whitby Laithes [NZ 92370 09489]
  8. Whitby Laithes Farm [NZ 92542 09496]
8
-ber(gh), -barrow, -be(a)r(e), -borough berg OE bearu, beorg
OD berg, bjerg
hill, mound, tumulus
  1. Barugh Hill [NZ 93527 05384]
1
beck bekkr OE bæc, bece brook, stream
  1. Beck Hole [50] [NZ 82284 02138]
  2. Beck Hole Road [50] [NZ 82152 02251]
  3. Beck Hole Scar [50] [NZ 82314 02273]
  4. Beckside Farm [NZ 90746 06274]
  5. Beck Slack [SE 83940 99161]
  6. Black Beck [SE 92180 92505]
  7. Black Rigg Beck [SE 79188 96884]
  8. Blawath Beck [SE 82104 96402]
  9. Blea Hill Beck [NZ 89776 01825]
  10. Bloody Beck [SE 98497 99830]
  11. Bloody Beck Hill [SE 98211 99855]
  12. Blue Beck [NZ 80776 04790]
  13. Blue Beck Cottage [NZ 80664 04702]
  14. Broadlands Beck [SE 96342 96457]
  15. Brocka Beck [NZ 85890 00953]
  16. Brown Beck [SE 98693 94848]
  17. Brown Rigg Beck [NZ 91931 00745]
  18. Burniston Beck [TA 01241 93297]
  19. Buskey Beck [NZ 89047 07162]
  20. Butter Beck [NZ 78098 02459]
  21. Caley Beck [NZ 85923 06842]
  22. Caley Becks Farm [NZ 85734 06603]
  23. Caley Beck Wood [NZ 85837 06946]
  24. Castle Beck [SE 95165 98059]
  25. Castlebeck Farm [SE 95265 97505]
  26. Castlebeck Wood [SE 94784 97160]
  27. Cat Scar Beck [NZ 82215 05981]
  28. Church Beck [TA 00842 90735]
  29. Cloughton Beck [TA 00721 94022]
  30. Cock Mill Beck [NZ 89728 09114]
  31. Cop Keld Beck [SE 98165 92902]
  32. Crook Beck [SE 74892 97762]
  33. Crook Beck Rigg [SE 74766 98147]
  34. Crook Beck Slack [SE 74899 98127]
  35. Crossdales Beck [SE 97443 90622]
  36. Dalby Beck [SE 85611 87099]
  37. Dunsley Beck [NZ 86638 11513]
  38. East Close Beck [NZ 93529 07170]
  39. Eller Beck [SE 86924 98156]
  40. Eller Beck Bridge [SE 85802 98257]
  41. Eller Beck Head [SE 87123 96542]
  42. Glaisdale Beck [NZ 76280 04020]
  43. Grain Beck [SE 88890 90535]
  44. Gurtof Beck [SE 49102 86110]
  45. Hamer Beck [SE 74516 97430]
  46. Hartoft Beck [SE 75757 94736]
  47. Harwood Dale Beck [SE 94440 95133]
  48. Hayburn Beck [SE 98984 97849]
  49. Hayburn Beck Farm [SE 99730 97222]
  50. Healwath Beck [SE 95547 99567]
  51. Helwath Beck [SE 95020 99089]
  52. Highdales Beck [SE 95050 92427]
  53. Hipperley Beck [SE9 2300 94434]
  54. Howdale Beck [NZ 95041 02032]
  55. Jugger Howe Beck [SE 94825 98045]
  56. Keasbeck [SE 96450 95850]
  57. Keas Beck [SE 95947 95329]
  58. Keasbeck Farm [SE 96371 95999]
  59. Keasbeck Hill [SE 96603 95726]
  60. Keasbeck Hill Farm [SE 96764 95832]
  61. King's Beck [NZ 94897 05056]
  62. Kirk Beck [SE 96932 90541]
  63. Kirk Moor Beck [NZ 91981 03027]
  64. Lindhead Beck [TA 00205 93776]
  65. Lingers Beck [NZ 94484 05339]
  66. Littlebeck [NZ 88083 04825]
  67. Little Beck Bank [NZ 88067 05214]
  68. Little Beck Lane [NZ 87783 05054]
  69. Little Beck Wood [NZ 88055 04715]
  70. Little Eller Beck [SE 87595 98647]
  71. Little Lingers Beck [NZ 94741 05495]
  72. Loftus Beck [NZ 73244 18154]
  73. Long Rigg Beck [NZ 91387 05840]
  74. Lownorth Beck [SE 95189 95529]
  75. Lunshaw Beck [SE 50158 87160]
  76. Lythe Beck [NZ 83531 04404]
  77. Lythe Beck Plantation [NZ 83698 04639]
  78. Marnar Dale Beck [NZ 95152 04814]
  79. May Beck [NZ 88776 01188]
  80. Maybecks New Plantation [NZ 89588 03071]
  81. Mill Beck Farm [NZ 95268 03883]
  82. Mitten Hill Beck [NZ 91958 06879]
  83. Murk Beck Slack [NZ 82816 06859]
  84. Newholm Beck [NZ 86572 11206]
  85. New May Beck [NZ 89928 03311]
  86. Oakham Beck [NZ 94088 08214]
  87. Old May Beck [NZ 89003 02697]
  88. Old May Beck Farm [NZ 89650 03268]
  89. Parsley Beck [NZ 87286 02963]
  90. Parsley Beck Rigg [NZ 86288 03270]
  91. Prickybeck Island [TA 01371 93189]
  92. Quarry Beck [TA 00604 93685]
  93. Raisbeck Farm [NZ 92122 07187]
  94. Ramsdale Beck [10] [NZ 93326 03552]
  95. Raw (Row) Beck [NZ 93890 05293]
  96. Raw Pasture Beck [NZ 93794 07220]
  97. Rigg Mill Beck [NZ 90865 07620]
  98. Scalby Beck [8] [TA 02224 90483]
  99. Shawn Riggs Beck [NZ 89650 08851]
  100. Smallwood Beck [SE 89521 93048]
  101. Sneaton Thorpe Beck [NZ 90277 05635]
  102. Sow Beck [SE 94547 89828]
  103. Spital Beck [NZ 90482 10247]
  104. Staindale Beck [SE 86794 89999]
  105. Stainsacre Beck [NZ 91259 08143]
  106. Stockland Beck [SE 91596 93693]
  107. Stoupe Beck [NZ 95307 03200]
  108. Stoupe Beck Sands [NZ 96032 03414]
  109. Stoupe Beck Wood [NZ 95579 03301]
  110. Swanbeck Farm [11] [SE 99350 90050]
  111. Tan Beck [NZ 97427 02223]
  112. Thirley Beck [SE 98322 95206]
  113. Thirley Beck Cottage [SE 98419 95428]
  114. Thorney Beck [SE 98857 97771]
  115. Thorpe Beck [NZ 93910 05081]
  116. Waingate Beck [NZ 85138 09771]
  117. Warn Beck [NZ 86041 10118]
  118. Wash Beck [NZ 87560 04663]
  119. Washy Cote Beck [TA 00624 91981]
  120. Waytail Beck [NZ 71673 17556]
  121. West Beck [SE 81327 99667]
  122. Whisperdales Beck [SE 96124 93281]
  123. White Beck [SE 92125 90760]
  124. White Cliff (Whitecliff) Beck [NZ 71422 18310]
  125. Yarna Beck [SE 90488 93045]
125
bie, bield bœr, býr   farm
  1. Collinson Bield [SE 83983 99654]
  2. Mussy Bield [SE 83206 99807]
  3. Old Kit Bield [NZ 82208 00080]
  4. Round Bield [NZ 83873 02143]
  5. Sheep Bield (numerous) [SE 92242 96921]
  6. Sheep Beeld [SE 92220 96961]
6
biggin bigging building
  1. Low Newbiggin [NZ 85291 06872]
  2. Low Newbiggin North (Farm) [NZ 85309 07059]
  3. Low Newbiggin South [NZ 85021 06762]
  4. Newbiggin Hall (Farm) [NZ 83991 06830]
4
birk birki OE bierce (biercen) birch
(overgrown with birch-trees, a birch copse)
   
big bygg OE bere barley
  1. Biggersdale Hole [NZ 84050 11150]
1
bister bólstaðr   dwelling place, house    
blake, bleik, blai bleikr OE blac pale, livid
  1. Blakey Moor [SE 87150 94150]
  2. Blakey Topping [SE 87259 93909]
2
blue, blea, blo blár   dark, blue, livid
  1. Bleach Garth [NZ 87295 04591]
  2. Blea Hill [NZ 90278 00509]
  3. Blea Hill Beck [NZ 89776 01825]
  4. Blea Hill Howe [NZ 89865 00246]
  5. Blea Hill Rigg [NZ 90339 00761]
  6. Blea Wyke [NZ 98796 01590]
  7. Blea Wyke Lodge [NZ 98938 00920]
  8. Blea Wyke Point [NZ 99258 01340]
  9. Blea Wyke Steel [NZ 99128 01535]
  10. Blue Bank Bottom Farm [NZ 86686 06694]
  11. Blue Bank Farm [NZ 86644 06347]
11
boggle bogi OE byht a bow, an arch, an arched bridge, curved or bent (river bend or valley) (ybogi, 'yew-bow')
  1. Boggle Hole [NZ 95572 04070] LIDAR [NZ 95417 04024]
  2. Boggle House [NZ 82962 04021]
2
bom, bon bóndi OE ceorl common people    
bon, bus(k) buskr OE bysc bush
  1. Buskey Beck [NZ 89047 07162]
  2. Buskey House Farm [NZ 88370 07901]
2
booth búð -bo, -bœ (OD bõþ) temporary shelter
(OD land, property)
   
bottom botn OE botm bottom or lowest part of a valley or alluvial hollow, a broad river-valley
  1. Blue Bank Bottom Farm [NZ 86686 06694]
  2. Hawsker Bottoms [NZ 94147 07800]
  3. Thirlsey Bottoms [SE 97763 90719]
  4. Bottom House [NZ 94450 07150]
  5. Bottoms Lane [NZ 93550 07950]
5
bratta, bretta brattr OE brant, bront very steep cliff, near vertical, precipice    
breck, brick, brack brekka OD brink
OE bræc, brec
hill, slope
(OE strip of uncultivated land)
  1. Breckon Hill [NZ 86451 06260]
  2. Brecken Howe [SE 90872 95991]
  3. Breckenhurst [SE 96078 94863]
3
brei, brai, bra, bræ breiðr OE brad broad
  1. Breaday Gill [SE 96545 92785]
  2. Breaday Heights [SE 96050 92650]
  3. Broad Ings Farm [NZ 88150 10167]
3
brae, brow brá   hillside, slope, edge of a hill
  1. Brae Side [NZ 86726 07489]
  2. Brow Alum Quarry [NZ 95950 02350]
  3. Brow Top [NZ 92950 04650]
  4. Brow Wood [NZ 81717 04898]
  5. Doubrow Well [NZ 95293 06173]
  6. Hay Brow [SE 99273 90490]
  7. Red Brow [SE 94350 90850]
  8. Redbrow Plantation [SE 94612 90938]
  9. Silpho Brow [SE 97805 93242]
  10. Silpho Brow Farm [SE 98155 93310]
  11. Stoupe Brow [NZ 96387 01930]
  12. Stoupe Brow Bank [NZ 95750 03450]
  13. Stoupe Brow Beacon [NZ 97095 01200]
  14. Stoupe Brow Cottage Farm [NZ 95774 03360]
  15. Stoupe Brow Farm [NZ 96652 02195]
  16. Surgate Brow [SE 97322 93864]
  17. Surgate Brow Farm [SE 97560 93840]
  18. Surgate Brow Plantation [SE 98369 94359]
  19. Surgate Brow Wood [SE 97599 93554]
  20. Thorney Brow Farm [NZ 94690 01687]
20
brigg, thel bryggia, bryggja OE þelbrycg plank or wooden bridge, jetty, quay
  1. Brigholme (olim Brigholm and Brygholm) [53] [NZ 95249 04957]
  2. Bridge Holm Lane [NZ 94604 02954]
  3. Briggswath [23] [NZ 87348 08475]
3
brim brim   surf    
broat(e)s broti   (1) break, breach, (2) brot, 'small piece of land', (3) land cleared for cultivation by burning, (4) heap of felled trees in a wood, a clearing in a wood    
  brú bridge    
burra, borrow borg borg (OD burgh)
OE burh, byrig
fort, fortified hill or place
  1. Low Burrows [12] [NZ 81622 04377]
  2. High Burrows [NZ 81346 04005]
2
by bœr, býr, bö, bÿ, bu -by (OD larger villages or settlements),
-bøl, -bølle (OD bøli, bølik)
OE bi(g)
ON farmstead, homestead
OD village
  1. Aislaby (Hesselby, Assuluesbi, 'Asulf's by' DB) [16] [NZ 85802 08756]
  2. Aislaby Moor [NZ 85183 08936]
  3. Baldby (Fields)
  4. Barnby [54] [NZ 82266 13757]
  5. Barnby Howe and Barnby Howes [NZ 83139 13682]
  6. Barnby Tofts Farm [NZ 82142 13937]
  7. Boltby (Boltebi DB) [SE 49255 86455]
  8. Dalby Beck [SE 85611 87099]
  9. Dalby Forest [SE 90763 90870]
  10. Dalby Meadow [SE 85630 86458]
  11. Dalby Snout [SE 90964 93542]
  12. Dalby Warren [SE 86519 87585]
  13. Dalby Wood [SE 85350 86850]
  14. Danby [55] [NZ 70858 08548]
  15. East Barnby [NZ 82847 12812]
  16. Haxby Plantation (Haxebi DB) [NZ 89817 04893]
  17. High Dalby House [SE 85277 88646]
  18. High Normanby [NZ 93582 06020]
  19. High Mormanby Farm [NZ 93208 06026]
  20. High Stakesby (Stachesbi 1160) [NZ 88845 10712]
  21. Jingleby Thorn [SE 89419 89600]
  22. Jingleby Thorn Plantation [SE 89612 89645]
  23. Low Dalby (House) [SE 86017 87333]
  24. Low Dalby Wood [SE 85354 86783]
  25. Low Stakesby [NZ 89150 10750]
  26. Normanby (Normanebi DB) [NZ 92611 06131]
  27. Normanby Hill Top [NZ 92379 05605]
  28. Normanby Stye Batts [NZ 95120 07520]
  29. Scalby (Scalebi, Scallebi DB) [TA 01495 90951]
  30. Scalby Hayes [SE 99874 91671]
  31. Scalby Nab [SE 99537 90193]
  32. Scalby Nabs [SE 99815 90067]
  33. Stakesby Vale [NZ 88550 10350]
  34. Stakesby Vale Farm [NZ 88550 10250]
  35. Ugglebarnby [6] [NZ 88230 07195]
  36. Ugglebarnby Moor [NZ 89019 05140]
  37. Upper Dalby Wood [SE 85379 86963]
  38. West Barnby [NZ 82070 12623]
  39. Whitby [3] (Witebi DB)
  40. Wragby [40] [NZ 93650 00350]
  41. Wragby Farm [NZ 93604 00395]
  42. Wragby Wood [SE 93325 99923]
42
cald kaldr OE cald, ceald cold
  1. Coldgill Spring [SE 99642 91077]
1
calf, caw, kell, call kalfr OE calf, cealf, celf calf
  1. Calfthwaite (olim Calf Thwaite) Farm [35] [SE 99220 97737]
1
carl karl   freeman, son of the common folk
  1. Carlin Bank Wood [NZ 94244 03894]
1
carr, -ker, -brook kjarr, kiarr   brushwood
bog, marsh, marshy land overgrown with brushwood
  1. Barley Carr Dike [SE 92722 96028]
  2. Barley Carr Rigg [SE 91358 96228]
  3. Barley Carr Slack [SE 92239 96138]
  4. Barley Carr Tongue [SE 92546 96503]
  5. Carr End [NZ 78124 05416]
  6. Carr Lands [SE 95776 92514]
  7. Carr Mount [NZ 87792 08818]
  8. Carr Wood [NZ 92697 03201]
  9. Far Carr Wood [NZ 81232 05376]
  10. Ruswarp Carrs [NZ 87663 08542]
  11. Struntry Carr [NZ 81049 02605]
  12. The Carr [SE 94514 90299]
12
cliff, clett kleif, klif, klettr OE clif cliff, steep face of rock
(OE - any steep sloping ground or cultivated escarpment)
  1. Barns Cliff [SE 93740 93326]
  2. Barns Cliff End [SE 94015 94605]
  3. Beast Cliff [SE 99887 99762]
  4. Common Cliff [NZ 99370 00830]
  5. Old Lance Cliff [NZ 95472 05661]
  6. Peter White Cliff [NZ 96209 03026]
  7. Raincliffe Woods [25] [SE 98611 87653]
  8. Wait Cliff [SE 91622 91347]
  9. Waitcliffe Howe [SE 91207 91062]
  10. West Cliff [NZ 88850 11650]
  11. White Cliff (Whitecliff) Beck [NZ 71422 18310]
  12. Whitecliff (White Cliff) Wood [NZ 71215 18400]
12
cock kokkr OE cocc cock
  1. Cock(h)am Gill [SE 99108 90828]
  2. Cock Lake Side [NZ 89851 00431]
  3. Cockley Head [SE 95990 93933]
  4. Cock Mill Beck [NZ 89728 09114]
  5. Cockrah Foot [SE 96838 88920]
  6. Cockrah House [SE 96650 89050]
  7. Cockrah Wood [SE 96631 88515]
7
con, coney, cun konungr   king
  1. Coneygarth Nab [SE 86284 89917]
  2. Coney Well Spring [NZ 97443 01040]
2
cote kytja OE cote cote, small shelter for sheep, pigs etc
  1. Cote Bank Farm [NZ 82613 06884]
  2. Cote Bank Woods [NZ 82748 06719]
  3. Ewe Cote [NZ 87963 10801]
  4. Ewe Cote Farm [NZ 87684 10832]
  5. Ewe Cote Hall [NZ 87929 10831]
  6. Thirley Cotes (Farm) [SE 97594 95070]
  7. Washy Cote Beck [TA 00624 91981]
7
cra, crag krákr OE crawe crow
  1. Blawath Crag [SE 81208 97677]
  2. Burtree Cragg [NZ 89950 11250]
  3. Crag Farm [NZ 84607 06154]
  4. Crag Hole [SE 94850 97750]
  5. Jopling Crag [NZ 87853 03828]
  6. Skivick Crag [SE 80952 97971]
6
cringle, crindle kringla   circle    
crook krókr   crook, bend
  1. Crook Beck [SE 74892 97762]
  2. Crook Beck Rigg [SE 74766 98147]
  3. Crook Beck Slack [SE 74899 98127]
  4. Crook Ness [TA 02747 93385]
4
coupe, cop, cope kaupa-land   purchased land
  1. Cop Keld Beck [SE 98165 92902]
1
coupe, cop, copp, cape kaupmaðr, kaupmanna   merchant(s)    
cros, cross kross OE cros cross, junction
  1. Ann's Cross (on Tumulus) [NZ 87648 00156]
  2. Cross Dales [SE 97781 90450]
  3. Crossdales Beck [SE 97443 90622]
  4. Crossdales Wood [SE 97971 90487]
  5. Cross Dyke [SE 84350 87750]
  6. Cross Dike [SE 84350 87750]
  7. Cross Dyke [NZ 90382 02258]
  8. Crosses Farm [SE 95484 95879]
  9. Stoupe Cross Farm [NZ 90992 10791]
  10. Tom Cross Rigg [SE 85662 97282]
10
dale dalr OE dæl valley
  1. Bellsdale Slack [SE 97479 91109]
  2. Bellsdale (East, West) Woods [SE 97413 91061]
  3. Biggersdale Hole [NZ 84050 11150]
  4. Biller Howe Dale [NZ 91567 01469]
  5. Coverdale Pasture Plantation [49] [NZ 93850 04450]
  6. Cross Dales [SE 97781 90450]
  7. Crossdales Beck [SE 97443 90622]
  8. Crossdales Wood [SE 97971 90487]
  9. Dalby Beck [SE 85611 87099]
  10. Daleside [SE 53398 88958]
  11. Danesdale [NZ 98693 00093]
  12. Danes Dale Farm [NZ 98550 00150]
  13. Deep Dale [SE 92125 90970]
  14. Deepdale Farm [SE 92255 91500]
  15. Dove Dale [SE 87121 90795]
  16. Dovedale Griff [SE 87136 91400]
  17. Dovedale Wood [SE 86981 90787]
  18. Esk Dale [NZ 81165 04945]
  19. Flax Dale [SE 86579 86790]
  20. Fylingdales Moor [SE 92465 99710]
  21. Goose Dale [TA 00544 94529]
  22. Gower Dale [SE 52615 89098]
  23. Gowerdale Wood [49] [SE 52360 88878]
  24. Gowerdale Windypits [49] [SE 51790 88950]
  25. Hard Dale [SE 94847 92397]
  26. Hard Dale Gill [SE 94462 92903]
  27. Harwood Dale [SE 96635 95580]
  28. Heck Dale [SE 87111 86315]
  29. Helredale (1160) (Spital Vale) [NZ 90650 10190]
  30. Helredale (Det) [NZ 89350 09750]
  31. High Dales [SE 95045 93050]
  32. Highdales Farm [SE 94965 93030]
  33. Highdales Beck [SE 95050 92427]
  34. High Langdale End [SE 93071 95238]
  35. House Dale [SE 86321 87554]
  36. Housedale Rigg [SE 86584 87787]
  37. How Dale [NZ 95007 01849]
  38. Howdale Beck [NZ 95041 02032]
  39. Howdale Farm [NZ 95256 01693]
  40. Howdale Moor [NZ 95693 01260]
  41. Howdale Wood [NZ 94849 02136]
  42. Hun Dale [TA 02279 94746]
  43. Hundale Point [TA 02682 94850]
  44. Hundale Scar [TA 02593 94963]
  45. Iburndale [NZ 87522 07130]
  46. Iburndale Beck [NZ 87227 07440]
  47. Langdale End [SE 94470 91230]
  48. Langdale Forest [SE 90997 95746]
  49. Langdale Rigg [SE 92988 94455]
  50. Langdale Rigg End [SE 92988 94650]
  51. Limperdale Gill [49] [SE 52656 86715]
  52. Limperdale Rigg [49] [SE 52003 86489]
  53. Low Dales [SE 95600 91970]
  54. Lowdales Beck [SE 96030 90900]
  55. Lowdales Farm [SE 95425 91590]
  56. Low Staindale [SE 86871 90511]
  57. Marnar Dale [NZ 95150 04750]
  58. Marnar Dale Beck [NZ 95152 04814]
  59. Oxdale Slack [SE 99622 94888]
  60. Rain Dale [25] [NZ 95289 06917]
  61. Raindale Slack [NZ 95233 07036]
  62. Ramsdale [NZ 92646 03762]
  63. Ramsdale Mill Farm [NZ 92655 03466]
  64. Ramsdale (Standing Stones) [NZ 92053 03777]
  65. Rumsdale Plantation [SE 69957 88779]
  66. Scugdale [SE 74737 93174]
  67. Seive Dale [SE 86201 88410]
  68. Snever Dale [SE 86338 87901]
  69. Sneverdale Rigg [49] [SE 86443 88134]
  70. Stain Dale [SE 87047 90332]
  71. Stainsacre Dale [NZ 91381 08155]
  72. Staintondale [43] [SE 98974 98408]
  73. Swair Dale [SE 86504 89220]
  74. Teydale Farm [SE 97389 97825]
  75. Teydale Well [SE 97554 97652]
  76. The Hundales [TA 02816 94401]
  77. Troutsdale Low [SE 93100 90130]
  78. Troutsdale Moor [SE 91695 88860]
  79. Whisper Dales [SE 95990 93170]
  80. Whisperdales [49] [SE 96261 93449]
  81. Whisperdales Beck [49] [SE 96124 93281]
  82. Whisperdales Farm [49] [SE 96088 93408]
82
-deil, -dail, -dale, -dole, -dayle deill OE dal share of land or common field (field name)    
deep djúpr OE deop deep
  1. Deep Dale [SE 92125 90970]
  2. Deepdale Farm [SE 92255 91500]
2
dike, dyke díki OE dic ditch, dike, barrier of stone or earth used to hold back water and prevent flooding
  1. Barley Carr Dike [SE 92722 96028]
  2. Crag Dike [NZ 82424 03958]
  3. Cross Dyke [NZ 90382 02258]
  4. Cross Dyke [SE 84350 87750]
  5. Cross Dike [SE 84350 87750]
  6. Green Dike [NZ 96941 00718]
  7. Kairn Dikes [NZ 90940 05601]
  8. Kepwick Dyke (Cleave Dyke) [SE 49456 90603]
  9. Kepwick Quarry [SE 48481 91427]
  10. Park Dyke [NZ 81216 01706]
  11. Skell Dykes [SE 99250 87450]
  12. Snainton Dikes [SE 90880 89305]
  13. Thieves Dikes [SE 97348 92509]
  14. War Dike [SE 99395 99938]
  15. War Dike Gate [NZ 99508 00024]
  16. War Dike Lane [SE 99535 99977]
16
draw, draugh
(OE dray)
drag OE dræg small hollow, glen    
dring, drink, droi drengr OE dreng young man, lad, servant holding by free tenure    
east, ow, aust austr OE east east
  1. East Ayton [SE 99675 85175]
  2. East Barnby [NZ 82847 12812]
  3. East End [NZ 81341 06460]
  4. East End Farm [NZ 81281 06543]
  5. East Grain [SE 90549 94809]
  6. East Side Farm [TA 00250 98250]
6
is eystri   easterly    
eller elri [42] OE elle(r)n elder tree, alder wood
  1. Eller Beck [SE 86924 98156]
  2. Eller Beck Bridge [SE 85802 98257]
  3. Eller Beck Head [SE 87123 96542]
  4. Little Eller Beck [SE 87595 98647]
4
end end OE ende the end of something - an estate, district or quarter of a village or town
  1. Barns Cliff End [SE 94015 94605]
  2. Carr End [NZ 78124 05416]
  3. Easington End Farm [NZ 73950 18050]
  4. High Langdale End [SE 93071 95238]
  5. Langdale End [SE 94470 91230]
  6. Langdale Rigg End [SE 92988 94650]
  7. Nab End [TA 00195 97177]
  8. Noddle End [SE 52603 88734]
  9. Noddle End Windypit [SE 52558 88564]
  10. Pye Rigg End [NZ 96624 00278]
10
-ergh, -er erg   shieling, hill or summer pasture
  1. Airy Hill [52] [NZ 89527 10337]
  2. Airy Hill Farm [52] [NZ 89750 10050]
  3. Cober [51] [TA 01173 95117]
  4. Cober Hill [51] [TA 01145 94904]
  5. Heater Plantation [NZ 92750 02750]
5
esk, esc, eas eski, (æsc skógr)   ash, (ash wood)
  1. Easington [NZ 74583 18306]
  2. Easington End Farm [NZ 73950 18050]
  3. Easington Farm [NZ 73950 17950]
  4. Easington Hall [NZ 74550 18050]
  5. Easington Hall Farm [NZ 74698 18140]
  6. Eskdale Gate [NZ 86233 06660]
  7. Eskdale Park (Whitby)
  8. Eskdaleside [NZ 84805 06304]
  9. Murk Esk [NZ 82459 04314]
  10. Murk Esk Cottage [NZ 81644 02740]
  11. River Esk [NZ 81991 02142]
11
ewe ær OE eowu ewe
  1. Ewe Cote [NZ 87963 10801]
  2. Ewe Cote Farm [NZ 87684 10832]
  3. Ewe Cote Hall [NZ 87929 10831]
3
ever(s), years jó, jöfur (hlið) OE eofor (leah) wild boar
(leah - clearing) (hlið - hillside)
  1. Everley [SE 97215 88890]
  2. Everley Bank Wood [SE 97395 89143]
  3. Everley Banks [SE 97075 89358]
  4. Everley Bridge (now Wrench Green Bridge) [SE 96798 89272]
4
fair, far fær   sheep
  1. Far Jetticks [NZ 95276 07287]
  2. Fair Plain [NZ 86436 05839]
  3. Farsyde House Farm [NZ 95130 04398]
3
fall fall -feld, -felt, -feldt forest clearing    
fell, field fell, fiall OE feld rough hill, mountain, fell
  1. Northfield Farm [SE 98674 90734]
  2. Northfield Wood [SE 98074 90797]
  3. Suffield [SE 98566 90557]
  4. Suffield Heights [SE 97550 89650]
  5. Suffield Hill [SE 98350 90450]
  6. Suffield Ings [SE 98187 89322]
  7. Suffield Mere [SE 98801 90784]
  8. Suffield Moor [SE 98245 92592]
8
ferry ferja   ferry    
firth, ford fjörðr   firth, fjord, sea-loch    
fiska, fiski fiskr   fish    
fit fit   grassland beside a river
  1. Fitt Steps [NZ 89205 09871]
1
flat flatha   flat meadow    
fladda, flat(t) flatr   flat, piece of level ground, division of the common field, furlong or shott
  1. Flat Howe (x2) [NZ 85480 04756]
  2. Marleflatte, Ryggeflatte and Wreckflatte (all 13th century) [13]
2
fors, forse, force fors, foss   waterfall
  1. Falling Foss [NZ 88659 03554]
  2. Foss Farm [NZ 88571 03169]
  3. Foss Lane [NZ 88538 02984]
  4. Foss Plantations [NZ 87831 02898]
  5. Nelly Ayre Foss [SE 81300 99600]
  6. Thomason Foss [NZ 82523 02107]
  7. Thomason Foss Wood [NZ 82548 02187]
7
foul fugl OE fugol fowl, bird    
foul fúll OE ful foul, stinking
  1. Foulsike Farm [NZ 91338 02394]
  2. Foulesike alias Wawe-myres (13th century)
  3. Foulsyke Bridge [NZ 73144 18203]
  4. Foulsyke Farm [TA 00973 91376]
  5. Far Foulsyke [NZ 73458 18230]
  6. Far Foul Syke [NZ 73775 18227]
  7. Near Foul Syke [NZ 73416 18327]
  8. Near Foulsyke [NZ 73288 18260]
8
gar geiri (and ON personal name Geir) OE gara triangular piece of land in corner of a field, isolated spot of tender grass    
gais, goose gás   goose
  1. Goose Dale [TA 00544 94529]
1
garth garðr -gaard, -gaarde (OD group of farms from which a village grew) garth, enclosure (apaldr-garthr, 'apple orchard')
  1. Bleach Garth [NZ 87295 04591]
  2. Chapel Garth [NZ 92397 02905]
  3. Coneygarth Nab [SE 86284 89917]
  4. Dowson Garth [NZ 81719 03660]
  5. Hogarth Hall [NZ 93202 01778]
  6. Hogarth Hill [15] [NZ 93350 01689]
  7. Hogarth Hill Farm [NZ 93101 01716]
  8. Hollin Garth [NZ 82297 02938]
  9. Hollin Garth Farm [NZ 82344 02966]
  10. Hawsker [17] [NZ 92256 07814]
  11. Hawsker Bottoms [NZ 94147 07800]
  12. Hawsker-cum-Stainsacre (Steinsecher or Nedhrebi 1160), [NZ 91192 08417]
  13. Hawsker Intake Road [NZ 91833 06751]
  14. High Hawsker [NZ 92827 07605]
  15. Low Hawsker [NZ 92375 07487]
  16. Old Hall Garth [NZ 94350 02650]
16
gate gata OE geat, (pl gatu) way, road, street, gate
  1. Bickley Gate [SE 91375 91352]
  2. Burgate Farm [SE 97095 95055]
  3. Cargate Nab [SE 86175 93760]
  4. Cargate Spring [SE 86350 93651]
  5. Church Street [NZ 90155 10820]
  6. Corngate Slack [SE 97945 88503]
  7. Cowgate Slack [SE 97065 96495]
  8. Cowgate Rigg [SE 96953 97153]
  9. Dargate Griff [SE 88419 91104]
  10. Eskdale Gate [NZ 86233 06660]
  11. Fewler Gate Wood [SE 94955 91900]
  12. Flowergate (Florum 1160) [NZ 89850 11050]
  13. Gatela Road (and Bridge) [SE 95196 95471]
  14. Godewynegate (13th century) [13]
  15. Greengate Slack [SE 97747 90215]
  16. Greengate Wood [SE 97551 90527]
  17. Holl Gate [SE 95050 91250]
  18. Hollgate Plantation [SE 95126 91115]
  19. Kirk Gate [SE 96627 91357]
  20. Kirk Moor Gate [NZ 91761 02800]
  21. Lang Gate [SE 96015 89312]
  22. Lang Gate Brow [SE 95937 89189]
  23. Latter Gate Hills [NZ 92501 04504]
  24. Little Cowgate Rigg [SE 97136 96986]
  25. Moorgate Lees [NZ 91150 10050]
  26. Moorgates [SE 84381 99429]
  27. Newgate Brow [SE 86718 93349]
  28. Newgate Foot [SE 86869 93376]
  29. Newgate Moor [SE 87048 92769]
  30. Newgate Wood [SE 87083 92884]
  31. Park Gate (Parkgate) [NZ 94052 04605]
  32. Sandy Gate Pike [SE 02471 70888]
  33. Shortgate Noddle [SE 96076 89128]
  34. Shortgate Hill [SE 95920 88981]
  35. Sledgate Farm [NZ 93536 04746]
  36. Sledgates [NZ 93871 04791]
  37. Span Gate [SE 95250 94750]
  38. Spangate Wood [SE 95450 94750]
  39. Stony Gate Slack [NZ 91756 05267]
  40. Surgate Brow [SE 97322 93864]
  41. Surgate Brow Farm [SE 97560 93840]
  42. Surgate Brow Plantation [SE 98369 94359]
  43. Surgate Brow Wood [SE 97599 93554]
  44. Waingate Beck [NZ 85138 09771]
  45. War Dike Gate [NZ 99508 00024]
  46. Watergate [NZ 81938 07211]
  47. Water Gate Ford [NZ 82865 07521]
  48. Waytail Gate [NZ 71590 16833]
48
gate, gay geit OE gat goat    
geo gjá (gjó)   chasm, rift, gully    
gerdi gerði   enclosure    
ghyll, gill geil   ravine, cleft, deep narrow gully (with a stream)
  1. Ash Haggs Gill [SE 95665 93359]
  2. Blow Gill [SE 52977 93777]
  3. Breaday Gill [SE 96545 92785]
  4. Busco Gill [NZ 87797 05875]
  5. Cock(h)am Gill [SE 99108 90828]
  6. Coldgill Spring [SE 99642 91077]
  7. Crow Gill [NZ 90567 10291]
  8. Flaxton Gill [SE 96298 88866]
  9. Folly Gill [SE 94868 93930]
  10. Freeze Gill [SE 92615 89855]
  11. Grime Gill [5] [SE 93135 90943]
  12. Haggett Gill [SE 98082 92730]
  13. Hard Dale Gill [SE 94462 92903]
  14. Holey Gill [NZ 84237 05926]
  15. Hollin Gill [NZ 91812 00070]
  16. Jenny Brewster's Gill [SE 48112 96505]
  17. King Spring Gill [SE 52303 87052]
  18. Limperdale Gill [SE 52656 86715]
  19. Little Gill [SE 90734 91073]
  20. Little Gill Noodle [SE 90541 91160]
  21. Long Gill [SE 86155 93979]
  22. Middle Gill [NZ 72120 17212]
  23. Newgate Gills [SE 95294 92625]
  24. Oak Rigg Gill [SE 94738 93541]
  25. Peak Scar Gill [SE 52641 88472]
  26. Raven Gill [SE 94442 98105]
  27. Sledhill Gill [SE 52491 87258]
  28. Stony Gill [SE 95888 93860]
  29. Swines Gill [SE 96415 93855]
  30. Swinesgill Rigg [SE 96289 93893]
  31. Worry Gill [SE 88939 89939]
31
grain, grane grain, grein   grain, division, fork, branch of a valley
  1. Broad Grain Head [SE 89287 95682]
  2. Cripple Grain Head [SE 98653 92516]
  3. East Grain [SE 90549 94809]
  4. Grain Beck [SE 88890 90535]
  5. Grain Slack [SE 88918 90653]
  6. Helwath Grains [NZ 95991 00248]
  7. Keldy Grain [SE 88500 93247]
  8. Little Grain [SE 89834 94659]
  9. Little Grain Head [SE 89147 95082]
  10. Little Grain Noddle [SE 89532 95202]
  11. Tinkler's Grain [SE 48114 90843]
  12. Tinkler's Grain Plantation [SE 48131 90676]
  13. Woof Howe Grain [SE 91272 96579]
13
gray, grey, gro grár, grá OE græg grey
  1. Graystone (Farm) [NZ 86980 10837]
  2. Greystone Farm [TA 01144 95744]
  3. Grey Stones [SE 86733 96102]
3
green, gren, grin, gran grœnn OE grene green
  1. Green Dike [NZ 96941 00718]
  2. Greengate Slack [SE 97747 90215]
  3. Greengate Wood [SE 97551 90527]
  4. Greenlands Farm [NZ 83789 03830]
  5. Greenland's Howe [NZ 86881 03559]
  6. Hilla Green Bridge [SE 94792 90046]
  7. Hilla Green Farm [SE 94911 90266]
  8. Hilda Wood [SE 97137 90971]
  9. Little Hilla Green [SE 94630 89973]
  10. Newholm Green [NZ 86550 10750]
  11. Thorpe Green [NZ 94136 04821]
  12. Whin Green [NZ 87006 07784]
12
griff, grove, grave, grief gryfja   hole, pit
  1. Bridestone Griff [SE 87381 91248]
  2. Dargate Griff [SE 88419 91104]
  3. Dovedale Griff [SE 87136 91400]
  4. Hutton Mulgrave (Mulegrif 1160, Hotone, Hotune DB) [21] [NZ 83874 10131]
  5. Nattley Griff [SE 88522 90894]
5
ground grund OE grund bottom, ground, outlying farm
  1. Ground Wyke Hole [NZ 95420 05057]
  2. Grundstone Wath [SE 77601 96881]
2
gruin, grunna grunnr   shallows, bottom    
grut, gret, greet, girt grjót OE greot gravel    
ha, haa, ho hár   high, upper
  1. Harwood Dale [SE 96635 95580]
  2. Harwood Dale Beck [SE 94440 95133]
  3. Harwood Dale Forest [SE 97075 97400]
3
hag, hagg hogg   right of cutting trees
  1. Ash Haggs Gill [SE 95665 93359]
  2. Ash Haggs Plantation [SE 95550 93450]
  3. Hagger Lythe [NZ 89950 11350]
  4. Hagg House [NZ 88090 08209]
  5. Haggit Howe [NZ 91850 10050]
  6. Haggland Wood [SE 95831 91977]
  7. Hag Wood [SE 50178 81211]
  8. Hagg Wood [SE 84822 89102]
  9. Middle Haggs [NZ 82381 06149]
9
ham höfn OE hæfen haven, harbour
  1. Wine Haven [NZ 97576 02408]
1
ham heim -hjem, -um, -m (from ON heimr) homestead
  1. Hamer Beck [SE 74516 97430]
  2. Hamer Bridge [SE 74263 97612]
  3. High Hamer [SE 74165 97703]
  4. Low Hamer [SE 74700 97325]
4
hamma, hammer hamarr   steep rock, rocky hillside    
haugh, heog, -how(e), -hoe, -oe [31] haugr OE hoh
OD -høj, -høje
barrow, sepulchral mound, cairn, tumulus
  1. Barnby Howe and Barnby Howes [NZ 83139 13682]
  2. Beacon Howes [NZ 97267 01120]
  3. Biller Howe [NZ 91265 01204]
  4. Biller How(e) Dale [NZ 91567 01469]
  5. Biller Howe Dale Slack [NZ 90677 01769]
  6. Biller Howe Nook [NZ 90815 00837]
  7. Biller Howe Nook Slack [NZ 90908 00677]
  8. Biller Howe Turf Rigg [NZ 91364 00465]
  9. Blea Hill Howe [NZ 89865 00246]
  10. Brecken Howe [SE 90872 95991]
  11. Breckon Howe [NZ 85254 03379]
  12. Brown Howes [SE 89864 90837]
  13. Burn Howe [SE 91215 99158]
  14. Burn Howe Dale [SE 93594 99758]
  15. Burn Howe Duck Pond [SE 89558 99130]
  16. Burn Howe Moor [SE 94399 98243]
  17. Burn Howe Rigg [SE 91675 98762]
  18. Burnt Howe [NZ 98647 01260]
  19. Cracoe [36] [SE 49311 89367]
  20. Cracoe Slack [SE 49228 89538]
  21. Dog Howe [NZ 77205 02915]
  22. Evan Howe [NZ 92150 01250]
  23. Evan Howe (tumulus) [NZ 92450 01650]
  24. Evan Howe Plantation [NZ 92401 01636]
  25. Evan Howe Pond [NZ 92576 01401]
  26. Flat Howe (x2) [NZ 85480 04756]
  27. Foster Howes [NZ 87469 00904]
  28. Foster Howes Rigg [NZ 87689 00559]
  29. Fox Howe [SE 90097 90972]
  30. Gnipe Howe (Gnip 1160; olim Nype Howe) [NZ 93583 08541]
  31. Greenland's Howe [NZ 86881 03559]
  32. Grey Heugh Head [NZ 91102 02561]
  33. Grey Heugh Slack [NZ 90855 02344]
  34. Haggit Howe [NZ 91850 10050]
  35. Highgate Howe [NZ 91717 10022]
  36. High Woof Howe [SE 89280 96830]
  37. Hilda's Howe [NZ 93842 07380]
  38. How Dale [NZ 95007 01849]
  39. Howdale Farm [NZ 95256 01693]
  40. Howdale Moor [NZ 95693 01260]
  41. Howdale Wood [NZ 94849 02136]
  42. Howden Hill [SE 93785 91620]
  43. Hunter Howe [SE 98679 97419]
  44. Jugger Howe [SE 94155 99817]
  45. Jugger Howe Moor [SE 94070 99508]
  46. Jugger Howes [NZ 94372 00173]
  47. Jugger Howe Slack [SE 94407 98367]
  48. Kettle Howe [SE 68693 97999]
  49. Lilla Howe [SE 88925 98725]
  50. Little Howe Wood [SE 94456 90889]
  51. Loose Howe Rigg [SE 86070 96497]
  52. Louven Howe [SE 88520 99165]
  53. Low Woof Howe [SE 89187 96187]
  54. Pen Howe [NZ 85636 03689]
  55. Pen Howe Slack [NZ 85718 03527]
  56. Penny Howe [SE 96418 99198]
  57. Pye Rigg Howe [NZ 96657 00053]
  58. Robbed Howe [NZ 86847 01962]
  59. Robber Howe Slacks [NZ 86824 01494]
  60. Silpho (olim Silfhou 1160) [2]) [SE 96764 92171]
  61. Silpho Brow [SE 97805 93242]
  62. Silpho Brow Farm [SE 98155 93310]
  63. Silpho Moor [SE 96275 94030]
  64. Silpho Well [SE 96462 92627]
  65. Stony Marl Howes [NZ 95618 00672]
  66. Swarth Howe [SE 96945 94082]
  67. Thirnhowe (13th century)
  68. Thorn Howe [SE 95691 97410]
  69. Thorn Key Howes [NZ 91488 03334]
  70. Three Howes [SE 96665 98055]
  71. Two Howes [SE 82582 99431]
  72. Two Howes Rigg [SE 83134 99296]
  73. Waitcliffe Howe [SE 91207 91062]
  74. Widow Howe [SE 85970 99988]
  75. Widow Howe Moor [NZ 86883 00101]
  76. Widow Howe Rigg [NZ 86403 00138]
  77. Woof Howe Grain [SE 91272 96579]
77
hause hals   neck, col, connecting ridge    
haver hafri   oats, haver    
head hofuð   head, projecting peak
  1. Allison Head Wood [5] [NZ 94750 02050]
  2. Bell Heads [SE 96824 91224]
  3. Bellheads Wood [SE 96889 90888]
  4. Berry Head [NZ 87359 07734]
  5. Cockley Head [SE 95990 93933]
  6. Derwent Head [SE 88797 97356]
  7. Derwent Head Rigg [SE 89237 96761]
  8. Dobbiner Head [NZ 86496 00680]
  9. Dry Heads [SE 95050 98150]
  10. Eller Beck Head [SE 87123 96542]
  11. Fisher Head [NZ 95187 04869]
  12. Grange Head [NZ 78468 02760]
  13. Great Marfit Head Slack [SE 85551 92281]
  14. Hackness Head [SE 96516 90340]
  15. Hackness Head Wood [SE 96306 90604]
  16. Hazel Head [SE 81011 99870]
  17. Hazel Head Farm [SE 80792 99529]
  18. Key Head [SE 92753 95707]
  19. Leas Head Farm [NZ 88058 03453]
  20. Lind Head [SE 99463 93954]
  21. Lindhead Beck [TA 00205 93776]
  22. Lindhead Bridge [SE 99322 93808]
  23. Lindhead Gorse [SE 99667 93803]
  24. Lindhead Lodge [SE 99666 94294]
  25. Little Marfit Head [SE 85425 92740]
  26. Little Marfit Head Slack [SE 85307 92603]
  27. Little Stubby Head [SE 91186 90097]
  28. Loffeyhead Heights [SE 96545 91145]
  29. Loffeyhead Wood [SE 96370 91043]
  30. Marfit Head [SE 85470 92518]
  31. Middle Heads [NZ 77997 01981]
  32. Morra Head Wood [SE 93615 95444]
  33. Murk Head [SE 95152 95683]
  34. Murk Head Wood [SE 94828 95641]
  35. Nettlehead [SE 95148 96646]
  36. Nettlehead Wood [SE 94903 96533]
  37. Rock Head Farm [NZ 84342 11217]
  38. Rustif Head [SE 85672 90304]
  39. Rustifhead Slack [SE 85284 89926]
  40. Stone Hill Heads [SE 88000 94360]
  41. Stray Head [NZ 87621 05279]
  42. Stubby Head [SE 91157 90499]
  43. Thorn Hill Head [SE 88962 94159]
  44. Thwaite Head [SE 85727 89622]
  45. Warsman Head [SE 92535 94429]
  46. Widdy Head [NZ 93359 09497]
  47. Wrea Head Farm [TA 00479 91361]
  48. Wreahead Rigg [TA 00174 91151]
  49. Yondhead Rigg [SE 88037 91023]
49
hest, hesk hestr OE hengest horse
  1. Hesketh Dike [SE 51546 87810]
  2. Hesketh Grange [29] [SE 50318 86955]
  3. Hesketh Hall [SE 49991 86999]
3
hevda hofði   headland    
hoff hof   temple    
hoga, hagg, haw, haigh, haugh hagi OE haga hedged field, pasture, part of an area of woodland, especially on a sloping bank
  1. Hagg Wood [SE 93895 95166]
  2. Hawthorns [SE 97979 88982]
  3. Hawthorn Wood [SE 98291 89092]
  4. Hogarth Hall [NZ 93202 01778]
  5. Hogarth Hill [15] [NZ 93350 01689]
  6. Hogarth Hill Farm [NZ 93101 01716]
6
-holm, -holme holmr, holmi -holm an islet, dry place in a marshy area, higher dry ground amidst marshes, water meadow
  1. Brigholme (olim Brigholm and Brygholm) [53] [NZ 95249 04957]
  2. Bridge Holm Lane [NZ 94604 02954]
  3. Darnholme (olim Darn Holm) [NZ 83351 01861]
  4. Fylingholm [NZ 94830 03250]
  5. Holm Hole [SE 50448 86444]
  6. Holm House [NZ 82206 04385]
  7. Holm Wood [SE 93672 95202]
  8. Holm Woods [SE 85535 89356]
  9. Newholm (Neuham 1160) [NZ 86764 10322]
  10. Newholm Beck [NZ 86572 11206]
  11. Newholm Green [NZ 86550 10750]
11
hol holr, hol OE holh, hol hole or low place, hollow
  1. Beck Hole Road [NZ 82204 02711]
  2. Beck Hole Scar [NZ 82314 02273]
  3. Biggersdale Hole [NZ 84050 11150]
  4. Boggle Hole [NZ 95572 04070]
  5. Crag Hole [SE 94850 97750]
  6. Dungeon Hole [NZ 95348 05476]
  7. Ground Wyke Hole [NZ 95420 05057]
  8. Hell Hole [SE 50427 87611]
  9. Herbert Hole [TA 01008 97818]
  10. Holl Gate [SE 95050 91250]
  11. Hollgate Plantation [SE 95126 91115]
  12. Homerell Hole [NZ 95837 07040]
  13. Jet Holes [NZ 95929 03214]
  14. Maw Wyke Hole [NZ 94132 08380]
  15. Mott's Hole [SE 51955 88944]
  16. Mucky Hole Slack [SE 91180 99837]
  17. Murk Hole [NZ 94903 01712]
  18. Rail Hole [NZ 91075 11388]
  19. White Stone Hole [NZ 94967 07785]
19
hope hóp, hópr   shallow bay, small land-locked bay or inlet connected to the sea
  1. Collier Hope [NZ 90050 11450]
1
houll hóll   hill    
hus, us, housa, house, hows, some hús OE hus house
  1. East Loftus [NZ 73005 18300]
  2. Loftus [NZ 72635 18385]
  3. Loftus Beck [NZ 73244 18154]
  4. Loftus Farm [NZ 72450 18350]
  5. Loftus Hall [NZ 72050 18050]
  6. Loftus Wood [NZ 72237 16992]
  7. Pretty House [NZ 94215 02632]
  8. South Loftus [NZ 72814 17862]
  9. South Loftus Farm [NZ 72202 17843] and [NZ 72705 17880]
9
icorn, icken ikorni   squirrel    
-ing, -ings OE ingas -ing, -ings people of, descendants, clan
  1. Easington [NZ 74583 18306]
  2. Easington End Farm [NZ 73950 18050]
  3. Easington Farm [NZ 73950 17950]
  4. Easington Hall [NZ 74550 18050]
  5. Easington Hall Farm [NZ 74698 18140]
  6. Fyling (Fielinga 1160, Figclinge, Figelinge, Figlinge DB), Fyling Hall (altera Fielinga 1160) [NZ 93815 04301]
6
-ing, -ings eng OE eng, hlinc water meadow, pasture (in marshy places) [46]
  1. Abbot Ings [SE 96935 88828]
  2. Broad Ings Farm [NZ 88150 10167]
  3. Moor Ings [SE 51549 88360]
  4. Moor Ings Bank [SE 52121 87560]
  5. Suffield Ings [SE 98187 89322]
5
intack, intak(e) intak   land taken in or enclosed
  1. Hawsker Intake Road [NZ 92115 06022]
  2. Intake Farm [NZ 87743 04156]
  3. Intake Wood [NZ 80452 04915]
3
keld, kel, kell, kill kelda [34] OE celde spring, deep water-hole, stream
  1. Cop Keld Beck [SE 98165 92902]
  2. East Keld Farm [NZ 94917 05586]
  3. Keld Runnels [SE 99150 89850]
  4. Keld Runnels Farm [SE 99252 89822]
  5. Keld Runnels Road [SE 99034 89597]
  6. Keldy Grain [SE 88500 93247]
  7. Skelder Cottage [NZ 84630 08940]
  8. Skelder Farm (olim Skelder New Inn) [NZ 84915 09011]
  9. West Skelder Farm [NZ 84207 10474]
9
kettle ketil [45] OE cietel kettle, cauldron
  1. Kettle Howe [SE 68693 97999]
  2. Kettle Well Cottage [NZ 93150 02250]
2
kirk kirkja OD kirk
OE cirice
church
  1. Church Street [NZ 90155 10820]
  2. Kirk Beck [SE 96932 90541]
  3. Kirk Field [NZ 83971 10451]
  4. Kirk Gate [SE 96627 91357]
  5. Kirkless (Farm) [SE 98629 93885]
  6. Kirkless Plantation [SE 98243 93742]
  7. Kirk Moor (Kirkmoor) [NZ 92209 02137]
  8. Kirk Moor Beck [NZ 91981 03027]
  9. Kirk Moor Gate [NZ 91761 02800]
  10. Kirk Moor Plantation [NZ 91929 02897]
10
knaggy nagga   rub, grumble, quarrel
  1. Knaggy House Farm [NZ 89720 06041]
1
knapp, knepp, neap knappr OE cnæpp, copp top, summit of a hill    
knipe, knip gnúpr, gnipa   steep hill, peak
  1. Gnipe Howe (Gnip 1160; olim Nype Howe) [NZ 93583 08541]
1
knott knott OE cnotta rocky hill or summit    
lama lamb OE lamb lamb    
land land OE land piece of ground
  1. Cloughton Newlands [TA 01294 95974]
  2. Goathland (Godeland, Gotheland, early 12th century probably OE Godan land) [NZ 82789 01364]
  3. Goathland Banks [NZ 87401 05592]
  4. Goathland Moor [NZ 84913 01749]
  5. Good Lands [SE 97001 92794]
  6. Gowland Farm [SE 99102 95895]
  7. Gowland Lane [SE 99103 96083]
  8. Greenlands Farm [NZ 83789 03830]
  9. Greenland's Howe [NZ 86881 03559]
  10. Lamplands [NZ 82044 06777]
  11. Linglands Cottage [SE 99036 96153]
  12. Linglands Farm [SE 98377 96061]
  13. Newlands Farm [TA 01049 96149]
  14. Stockland Beck [SE 91596 93693]
  15. Strickland Dump [NZ 95750 03850]
15
lang langr OE lang long, tall
  1. High Langdale End [SE 93071 95238]
  2. Langdale End [SE 94470 91230]
  3. Langdale Forest [SE 90997 95746]
  4. Langdale Rigg [SE 92988 94455]
  5. Langdale Rigg End [SE 92988 94650]
5
lask, lod lágr   low    
lax lax   salmon    
lee, lith hlið OE hliþ hillside, slope
  1. Dunsley [NZ 85985 11118]
  2. Dunsley Beck [NZ 86638 11513]
  3. Everley [SE 97215 88890]
  4. Everley Bank Wood [SE 97395 89143]
  5. Everley Banks [SE 97075 89358]
  6. Flock Leys [SE 97283 91130]
  7. Moorgate Lees [NZ 91150 10050]
  8. Selley Park [SE 97665 88710]
  9. Thirley Cotes (Farm) [SE 97594 95070]
9
leek, leake lœkr   brook    
ler, lar leir (leira) OE clæg (clægig) clay (clayey place)
  1. Fewler Gate Wood [SE 94955 91900]
  2. Larpool Hall (Leirpel 1160) [24] [NZ 89853 09318]
  3. Larpool Wood [NZ 89801 09145]
3
lin lin OE lin flax    
lind lind OE lin lime tree
  1. Lind Head [SE 99463 93954]
  2. Lindhead Beck [TA 00205 93776]
  3. Lindhead Bridge [SE 99322 93808]
  4. Lindhead Gorse [SE 99667 93803]
  5. Lindhead Lodge [SE 99666 94294]
5
ling lyng   ling, heather
  1. Ling Hill [NZ 92797 09974]
  2. Ling Hill Farm [NZ 92482 10037]
  3. Ling Hill Plantation [NZ 91368 01838]
  4. Linglands Cottage [SE 99036 96153]
  5. Linglands Farm [SE 98377 96061]
  6. Lingy Plantation [SE 90193 87064]
6
lythe hlíð   slope
  1. Hagger Lythe [NZ 89950 11350]
  2. Lythe Beck [NZ 83531 04404]
  3. Lythe Beck Plantation [NZ 83698 04639]
3
lowne, lound, lount, lunt, lum lundr   sacred grove, copse
  1. Lound House [NZ 89159 06582]
1
mar(r), marsh marr   a fen boggy ground
  1. Great Marfit Head Slack [SE 85551 92281]
  2. Little Marfit Head [SE 85425 92740]
  3. Little Marfit Head Slack [SE 85307 92603]
  4. Marfit Head [SE 85470 92518]
  5. Marnar Dale [NZ 95150 04750]
  6. Marnar Dale Beck [NZ 95152 04814]
6
meols, -mell, -mells melr   sandbank, sandhill    
mickle, michel, much mikill OE micel big, great, large    
mel, mid miðr, meðal OE middel middle
  1. Far Middle Sike [NZ 91143 03119]
  2. Middle Rigg [NZ 91153 03571]
  3. Middle Rigg [NZ 91524 06249]
  4. Middle Rigg [SE 79413 96989]
  5. Middlewood Farm [NZ 94745 04624]
  6. High Mitten Hill [NZ 92107 06830]
  7. Low Mitten Hill [NZ 92150 07250]
  8. Mitten Hill [NZ 92050 06950]
  9. Mitten Hill Beck [NZ 91958 06879]
  10. Mitten Hill Farm [NZ 92131 06954]
  11. Nigh Middle Sike [NZ 91185 03746]
11
mir, mire, myre mýrr   bog, swampy moorland, mire
  1. Arkilmire [38]
  2. Foulesike alias Wawe-myres (13th century), Tranmires [SE 95750 98604]
  3. Higher Row Mires [SE 75285 97050]
  4. Lower Row Mires [SE 75685 96863]
  5. Mires Lane [NZ 86689 10787]
  6. Mires Slack [NZ 91079 02785]
  7. Mires Well [NZ 86588 10806]
  8. Miry Sike Wood [SE 93362 91300]
  9. Murk Mire Moor [NZ 79826 02364]
  10. Row Mires Rigg [SE 75231 97619]
  11. White Mires [SE 77306 96861]
  12. White Mires Slack [SE 76690 96190]
12
mor(e), moor, mur mǫr OE mōr a marsh, barren upland, waste land
  1. Aislaby Moor [NZ 85183 08936]
  2. Allerston (High Moor) [SE 88250 93550]
  3. Blakey Moor [SE 87150 94150]
  4. Burn Howe Moor [SE 94399 98243]
  5. Fylingdales Moor [SE 92465 99710]
  6. Goathland Moor [NZ 84913 01749]
  7. Howdale Moor [NZ 95693 01260]
  8. Jugger Howe Moor [SE 94070 99508]
  9. Kirk Moor (Kirkmoor) [NZ 92209 02137]
  10. Kirk Moor Beck [NZ 91981 03027]
  11. Kirk Moor Gate [NZ 91761 02800]
  12. Kirk Moor Plantation [NZ 91929 02897]
  13. Little Moor Slack [TA 00654 95004]
  14. Moorgate Lees [NZ 91150 10050]
  15. Lockton Low Moor [SE 85627 92770]
  16. Moorgates [SE 84381 99429]
  17. Moor Ings [SE 51549 88360]
  18. Moor Ings Bank [SE 52121 87560]
  19. Moors Rigg [SE 86603 96207]
  20. Murk Mire Moor [NZ 79826 02364]
  21. Newgate Moor [SE 87048 92769]
  22. Silpho Moor [SE 96275 94030]
  23. Sneaton High Moor [NZ 87996 00876]
  24. Sneaton Low Moor [NZ 89771 03877]
  25. Staintondale Moor [SE 98766 99409]
  26. Stony Marl Moor [NZ 94878 00552]
  27. Suffield Moor [SE 98245 92592]
  28. Troutsdale Moor [SE 91695 88860]
  29. Ugglebarnby Moor [NZ 89019 05140]
  30. Widow Howe Moor [NZ 86883 00101]
  31. Wykeham High Moor [SE 91550 95850]
29
murk myrkr   darkness, murky, gloom, thick mist
  1. Low Hollins Farm (olim Murk Hollins) [NZ 80850 04450]
  2. Murk Beck Slack [NZ 82816 06859]
  3. Murk Esk [NZ 82459 04314]
  4. Murk Esk Cottage [NZ 81644 02740]
  5. Murk Head [SE 95152 95683]
  6. Murk Head Wood [SE 94828 95641]
  7. Murk Hole [NZ 94903 01712]
  8. Murk Mire Moor [NZ 79826 02364]
  9. Murk Side [NZ 81678 02629]
  10. Murkside House (olim Murk Side House) [NZ 81544 03062]
  11. Murk Side Wood [NZ 81699 03347]
11
-mine, -myn mynni   junction of two streams    
ne, new nyr OE niwe new
  1. Cloughton Newlands [TA 00627 95990]
  2. Low Newbiggin [NZ 85291 06872]
  3. Low Newbiggin North (Farm) [NZ 85309 07059]
  4. Low Newbiggin South [NZ 85021 06762]
  5. Maybecks New Plantation [NZ 89588 03071]
  6. Newbiggin Hall (Farm) [NZ 83991 06830]
  7. Newclose Rigg [SE 87211 89439]
  8. Newgate
  9. Newholm (Neuham 1160) [NZ 86764 10322]
  10. Newholm Beck [NZ 86572 11206]
  11. Newholm Green [NZ 86550 10750]
  12. New May Beck [NZ 89928 03311]
  13. Newton Farm [NZ 89079 03903]
  14. Newton House [NZ 88712 03927]
  15. Newton House Plantation [NZ 88943 01540]
  16. New Wath Scar [NZ 82115 00602]
16
nab nabbi OE cnoll knoll, rounded top of a larger hill    
-nes, -ness, nab nes OE næs headland, cape, promontory
  1. Ashness [NZ 87199 08107]
  2. Bay Ness [NZ 95179 06294]
  3. Bay Ness Farm [NZ 94832 06535]
  4. Black Nab [NZ 92238 10803]
  5. Clock Case Nab [NZ 95508 07088]
  6. Coneygarth Nab [SE 86284 89917]
  7. Crook Ness [TA 02747 93385]
  8. First Nab [NZ 89750 11550]
  9. Hackness (Hagenesse DB) [SE 97245 90255]
  10. Hackness Head [SE 96516 90340]
  11. Hackness Head Wood [SE 96306 90604]
  12. Lector Nab [NZ 88850 11750]
  13. Long Nab [TA 03132 94125]
  14. Nab End [TA 00195 97177]
  15. Ness Point [NZ 96012 06150]
  16. Ness Quarry [NZ 95509 06197]
  17. Ness Ruck [NZ 96042 06019]
  18. Miller's Nab [NZ 97071 02668]
  19. Saltwick Nab [41] [NZ 91505 11330]
  20. Scalby Nab [SE 99537 90193]
  21. Scalby Nabs [SE 99815 90067]
  22. Second Nab [NZ 89550 11550]
  23. The Nab [NZ 95645 04135]
23
nor, nar norðr OE norð north
  1. Marnar Dale [NZ 95150 04750]
  2. Marnar Dale Beck [NZ 95152 04814]
2
-od, -odd oddr, oddi   point, spit of land    
pap papi   priest, cleric    
peak pic OE pic a point, a pointed tool, pike (fish), pointed hill
  1. Low Peak [NZ 97203 02115]
  2. Old Peak [NZ 97997 02460]
  3. Peak Chapel
  4. Peak Scar [SE 53034 88393]
  5. Peak Scar Gill [SE 52641 88472]
  6. Peak Scar Road [SE 53096 88272]
  7. Peak Scar Top [SE 53459 88270]
  8. Peak Scar Wood [SE 52642 88391]
  9. Peakside [NZ 97829 01607]
  10. Peak Steel [NZ 97993 02627]
  11. Peak Windmill
11
pretty prettr (prettugr) OE prættig a trick (tricky)
  1. Pretty House [NZ 94215 02632]
1
pund pund   enclosure    
qui, quoy kví   pen, fold, enclosure    
ra, ro ra OE ra (roe, roe-buck) landmark, boundary
also a roe, roe-buck
   
raise, rose hreysi   cairn, heap of stones
  1. Raisbeck Farm [NZ 92139 07207]
1
ramna, raven hrafn OE hræfn raven
  1. Raven Hill [NZ 98192 01276]
  2. Ravenscar [NZ 98184 01341]
2
raw hrar, bráð   raw, raw flesh (varmar bráðir, the corpses of the newly slain)
  1. Raw (Fyling Rawe, 16th century) Rawe [NZ 93850 05520]
  2. Raw (Row) Beck [NZ 93890 05293]
  3. Raw Lane [NZ 93827 05792]
  4. Raw Pasture [NZ 94456 06759]
  5. Raw Pasture Bank [NZ 93983 06421]
  6. Raw Pasture Beck [NZ 93794 07220]
  7. Raw Pasture Lane [NZ 94361 06577]
7
raw, roe, rot, rop, rath rauðr OE read red
  1. Raw (Fyling Rawe, 16th century) Rawe [NZ 93850 05520]
  2. Raw (Row) Beck [NZ 93890 05293]
  3. Raw Lane [NZ 93827 05792]
  4. Raw Pasture [NZ 94456 06759]
  5. Raw Pasture Bank [NZ 93983 06421]
  6. Raw (Row) Pasture Beck [NZ 93794 07220]
  7. Raw Pasture Lane [NZ 94361 06577]
7
rea refr   fox
  1. Reasty Hill [SE 96325 94541]
  2. Reasty Hill Top [SE 96230 94385]
  3. Reasty Quarry [SE 96392 94471]
  4. Reasty Road [SE 96045 94757]
4
reans, reins, rand reinn OE rand land on a boundary    
rigg, ridge hryggr OE hrycg ridge, rigg
  1. Barley Carr Rigg [SE 91358 96228]
  2. Bent Rigg [NZ 99143 00410]
  3. Bent Rigg Farm [NZ 98442 00823]
  4. Bent Rigg Lane [NZ 99030 00337]
  5. Black Rigg [SE 78815 96746]
  6. Black Rigg Beck [SE 79188 96884]
  7. Blea Hill Rigg [NZ 90339 00761]
  8. Brown Rigg Beck [NZ 92206 00288]
  9. Brown Rigg Road [SE 98205 98430]
  10. Broxa Rigg [SE 95301 90859]
  11. Burn Howe Rigg [SE 91675 98762]
  12. Clenfield Rigg [SE 85585 88949]
  13. Cowgate Rigg [SE 96953 97153]
  14. Crook Beck Rigg [SE 74766 98147]
  15. Derwent Head Rigg [SE 89237 96761]
  16. East Rigg [NZ 94750 02950]
  17. Flainsey Rigg [SE 86891 86566]
  18. Foster Howes Rigg [NZ 87689 00559]
  19. Hallow Rigg
  20. Howth Rigg [SE 75920 97266]
  21. Gale Hill Rigg [SE 81217 96937]
  22. Hollin Rigg [SE 99617 91487]
  23. Langdale Rigg [SE 92988 94455]
  24. Langdale Rigg End [SE 92988 94650]
  25. Lease Rigg [NZ 81846 04594]
  26. Leith Rigg [NZ 92222 03363]
  27. Leith Rigg Wood [NZ 92127 03193]
  28. Lilla Rigg [SE 87717 98154]
  29. Limperdale Rigg [SE 52003 86489]
  30. Little Cowgate Rigg [SE 97136 96986]
  31. Long Rigg [NZ 91550 06150]
  32. Long Rigg Beck [NZ 91387 05840]
  33. Loose Howe Rigg [SE 86070 96497]
  34. Low Rigg (Farm) [NZ 91550 06350]
  35. Lun Rigg [SE 92104 95456]
  36. Maw Rigg [SE 91589 94224]
  37. Merricks Rigg [SE 98216 91373]
  38. Middle Rigg [NZ 91153 03571]
  39. Middle Rigg [NZ 91524 06249]
  40. Middle Rigg [SE 79413 96989]
  41. Moors Rigg [SE 86603 96207]
  42. Moss Rigg [NZ 82661 00263]
  43. Newclose Rigg [SE 87211 89439]
  44. Oak Rigg [SE 94628 93864]
  45. Oak Rigg Gill [SE 94738 93541]
  46. Oak Rigg Wood [SE 94850 93650]
  47. Parsley Beck Rigg [NZ 86288 03270]
  48. Peathead Rigg [SE 88979 90025]
  49. Pike Hill Rigg [NZ 85242 02254]
  50. Pike Rigg [SE 93553 97426]
  51. Pye Rigg [SE 96930 99813]
  52. Pye Rigg Howe [NZ 96657 00053]
  53. Pye Rigg End [NZ 96624 00278]
  54. Pye Rigg Slack [SE 97222 99541]
  55. Randy Rigg [NZ 81411 01774]
  56. Rigg End (Farm) [SE 75065 93379]
  57. Rigg Farm [NZ 91446 06186]
  58. Rigg Hall [NZ 91652 05825]
  59. Rigg Hall Farm [TA 00712 98490]
  60. Rigg Mill [NZ 90954 07477]
  61. Rigg Mill Beck [NZ 91202 06865]
  62. Rigg Mill Wood [NZ 90922 07380]
  63. Rigg Noodle [SE 90818 91482]
  64. Row Mires Rigg [SE 75231 97619]
  65. Shawn Riggs [NZ 89476 09052]
  66. Shawn Riggs Beck [NZ 89650 08851]
  67. Shooting House Rigg [NZ 90183 02592]
  68. Smeffell Rigg [SE 85443 91338]
  69. Standing Stones Rigg [NZ 92073 03959]
  70. Standingstones Rigg [SE 97719 96979]
  71. Stoneclose Rigg [SE 86232 88738]
  72. Stony Rigg [NZ 84163 03520]
  73. Sutherbruff Rigg [SE 86704 87333]
  74. Tom Cross Rigg [SE 85662 97282]
  75. Topping Riggs [NZ 90080 08081]
  76. Topping Riggs Wood [NZ 89575 08356]
  77. Two Howes Rigg [SE 83134 99296]
  78. White Cliff Rigg [SE 87152 86118]
  79. Worm Sike Rigg [SE 87769 96588]
  80. Wreahead Rigg [TA 00174 91151]
  81. Yondhead Rigg [SE 88037 91023]
  82. York Cross Rigg [NZ 87566 01535]
82
ring hring OE ring ring, circular    
ris, rys, rice hrís OE hris shrubs, brushwood
  1. Rice gate Wood [SE 95019 93754]
 
1
rod, rudda rudda   club, rod, pole
  1. Rudda Farm [SE 98059 99616]
  2. Rudda Road [SE 97770 99381]
2
roe rauðr   red    
ron, rona, roo, roonies hraun   rocky hill-ground
  1. Root Hill [SE 96656 92764]
1
ros, ross hross   horse    
rom, rum rum OE rum room, an open space, a forest clearing
  1. Rumsdale Plantation [SE 69957 88779]
1
sal, salt salt OE sealt salt
  1. Saltwick [NZ 91585 10820]
  2. Saltwick Bay [NZ 91997 10984]
  3. Saltwick Hole [NZ 91777 10946]
  4. Saltwick Nab [41] [NZ 91505 11330]
4
sand, sam, saun, soun sandr OE sand sand
  1. Sandybed Wood [SE 98893 99321]
  2. Sandy Gate (Pike)
  3. Stoupe Beck Sands [NZ 96032 03414]
3
scar, skerry sker   rock, scar, reef, skerry
  1. Beck Hole Scar [NZ 82314 02273]
  2. Billet Scar [NZ 97291 02456]
  3. Blue Scar [NZ 85596 06740]
  4. Boltby Scar [SE 50890 86095]
  5. Cat Scar Beck [NZ 82215 05981]
  6. Clarke Scars [SE 48653 90853]
  7. Cowling Scar [NZ 95784 04652]
  8. East Scar [NZ 95622 04950]
  9. Flat Scars [NZ 96368 03198]
  10. High Scar [NZ 95761 03889]
  11. Hundale Scar [TA 02593 94963]
  12. Landing Scar [NZ 95550 04985]
  13. Low Scar [NZ 95936 03846]
  14. Middle Scar [NZ 95829 03889]
  15. New Wath Scar [NZ 82115 00602]
  16. Peak Scar [SE 53034 88393]
  17. Peak Scar Gill [SE 52641 88472]
  18. Peak Scar Road [SE 53096 88272]
  19. Peak Scar Top [SE 53459 88270]
  20. Peak Scar Wood [SE 52642 88391]
  21. Ravenscar [NZ 98770 01673]
  22. Roulston Scar [SE 51346 81574]
  23. Scar Wood [SE 94824 97398]
  24. Scarry Wood [NZ 88375 04487]
  25. Skerry Hall [NZ 93552 05090]
  26. The Scar [NZ 90935 11407]
  27. Water Ark Scar [NZ 82950 02240]
  28. West Scar [NZ 95351 05164]
28
scarth, shar, garth, scar skarð, skarði (also personal name) OE sceard notch, hack, hare-lip, in the edge of a thing, gap hence mountain pass (also personal name Skarði)
  1. Ravenscar [NZ 98770 01673]
 
1
-scough, skew, -sco(e), shaw, shaugh skógr OE sceaga (small) wood, forest
  1. Scograinhowes (lost)
  2. Scugdale [SE 74737 93174]
2
satt, seat, sett, -side, -shead, -ster setr, sætr OE side shieling, summer mountain pasture
  1. Browside Farm [NZ 95763 02441]
  2. Cock Lake Side [NZ 89851 00431]
  3. East Side Farm [TA 00250 98250]
  4. Farsyde House Farm [NZ 95130 04398]
  5. High Seat [SE 93710 96504]
  6. Louven Howe Side [SE 89016 99948]
  7. Thackside Farm [NZ 81669 01735]
  8. Way Side Farm
8
sef sef OE secg (also a personal name) sedge, seave
  1. Seavey Sike [NZ 99055 01235]
  2. Seive Dale [SE 86201 88410]
2
sel, sile selja   willow    
sike, syke sïk OE sic (dialectal sitch, sike) small stream or gulley, gutter
  1. Black Sike [SE 95925 98212]
  2. Far Foulsyke [NZ 73458 18230]
  3. Far Foul Syke [NZ 73775 18227]
  4. Far Middle Sike [NZ 91143 03119]
  5. Foulesike alias Wawe-myres (13th century)
  6. Foul Sike [NZ 91250 02450]
  7. Foulsike Farm [TA 00820 91315]
  8. Foulsike Farm [NZ 91338 02394]
  9. Foulsyke Bridge [NZ 73144 18203]
  10. Foulsyke Farm [TA 00973 91376]
  11. Hempsyke Hall [NZ 88223 06089]
  12. Hempsyke Farm [NZ 88478 05879]
  13. Miry Sike Wood [SE 93362 91300]
  14. Near Foul Syke [NZ 73416 18327]
  15. Near Foulsyke [NZ 73288 18260]
  16. Nigh Middle Sike [NZ 91185 03746]
  17. Priest's Sike Slack [SE 76080 97366]
  18. Seavey Sike [NZ 99055 01235]
  19. Sliving Sike [SE 86706 99754]
  20. Sliving Sike Slack [SE 86883 99896]
  21. Worm Sike [SE 87646 96968]
  22. Worm Sike Rigg [SE 87769 96588]
22
sil sild   herring    
ska skagi   cape, low point of land    
scale, skill, gill, kill skáli [37] OE schele temporary hut, shieling, hovel
  1. Coldgill Spring [SE 99642 91077]
  2. Scalby (Scalebi, Scallebi DB) [TA 01495 90951]
  3. Scalby Hayes [SE 99874 91671]
  4. Scalby Nab [SE 99537 90193]
  5. Scalby Nabs [SE 99815 90067]
  6. Skell Dykes [SE 99250 87450]
  7. Skelton Bank Wood [NZ 94205 02329]
7
skeo skjá   hut for drying fish or meat    
skeith, sketh skeið   a course, track, race, especially a race-course; possibly also a boundary road, a boundary, shed as in watershed
  1. Hesketh Dike [SE 51546 87810]
  2. Hesketh Grange [29] [SE 50318 86955]
  3. Hesketh Hall [SE 49991 86999]
3
skir, shir-, sher- skirr OE scir pure, clear, bright
  1. Skivick Crag [SE 80952 97971]
1
slack slakki   slack, shallow valley, depression in a hillside or between two hills, hollow in the ground
  1. Barley Carr Slack [SE 92239 96138]
  2. Beck Slack [SE 83940 99161]
  3. Bellsdale Slack [SE 97479 91109]
  4. Biller Howe Dale Slack [NZ 90677 01769]
  5. Biller Howe Nook Slack [NZ 90908 00677]
  6. Birchwath Slack [NZ 78415 02011]
  7. Bridge Stone Slack [NZ 90652 01461]
  8. Broadlands Slack [SE 96700 97190]
  9. Corngate Slack [SE 97945 88503]
  10. Cowgate Slack [SE 97065 96495]
  11. Cracoe Slack [SE 49228 89538]
  12. Ewe Pond Slack [NZ 90676 00115]
  13. Galley Hill Slack [NZ 85652 08838]
  14. Grain Slack [SE 88918 90653]
  15. Great Marfit Head Slack [SE 85551 92281]
  16. Greengate Slack [SE 97744 90214]
  17. Grey Heugh Slack [NZ 90855 02344]
  18. Harding's Slack [NZ 90260 05956]
  19. Hardhurst Slack [SE 97467 97130]
  20. Haynes' Slack [SE 99141 95658]
  21. Howl Slack [SE 84169 90164]
  22. Howth Slack [SE 75693 97339]
  23. Jugger Howe Slack [SE 94407 98367]
  24. Lenfield Slack [SE 95933 91213]
  25. Leech Bog Slack [SE 89611 99778]
  26. Limekiln Slack [NZ 94450 07850]
  27. Little Marfit Head Slack [SE 85307 92603]
  28. Little Moor Slack [TA 00654 95004]
  29. Mires Slack [NZ 91079 02785]
  30. Moss Slack [NZ 82653 00110]
  31. Mucky Hole Slack [SE 91180 99837]
  32. Murk Beck Slack [NZ 82816 06859]
  33. Nun Slack [NZ 97517 00204]
  34. Oxdale Slack [SE 99622 94888]
  35. Pen Howe Slack [NZ 85718 03527]
  36. Priest's Sike Slack [SE 76080 97366]
  37. Pye Rigg Slack [SE 97226 99536]
  38. Raindale Slack [NZ 95233 07036]
  39. Robber Howe Slacks [NZ 86824 01494]
  40. Rustifhead Slack [SE 85284 89926]
  41. Seavy Slack [SE 90063 90416]
  42. Sliving Sike Slack [SE 86883 99896]
  43. Soulsgrave Slack [NZ 90667 04721]
  44. Spa Hill Slack [NZ 84434 04179]
  45. Stony Gate Slack [NZ 91756 05267]
  46. Thorn Hill Slack [SE 88827 93626]
  47. Tim Wash Slack [SE 90168 98055]
  48. White Mires Slack [SE 76690 96190]
  49. Wedland Slack [SE 84371 90391]
  50. Wood Slack [SE 87051 96830]
50
-slet, sleigh slétta   plain, level field, sleet
  1. Sleights [NZ 86484 07562]
  2. Sled Hill [SE 51915 87334]
2
slep, slap, sleap sleipr OE slæp slippery place
  1. Slape Stone Beck [SE 47375 97035]
1
smea smár OE smæl small, narrow    
snaith, snod, snade, sned, snead, snett, sneyd, snett sneið OE snad, snæd something which is cut off, isolated wood, clearing in a wood
  1. Snainton Dikes [SE 90880 89305]
  2. Sneaton (Sneton, Snetune 1160 and DB) [NZ 89500 07500]
  3. Sneaton Castle [NZ 87955 10621]
  4. Sneaton Corner [NZ 91509 03645]
  5. Sneaton High Moor [NZ 87996 00876]
  6. Sneaton Low Moor [NZ 89771 03877]
  7. Sneaton Thorpe [32] [NZ 90992 06135]
  8. Sneaton Thorpe Beck [NZ 90277 05635]
  9. Sneaton Thorpe Lane [NZ 90688 06304]
  10. Sneaton Thorpe Wood [NZ 90177 05713]
  11. Snod Hill [26] [SE 86471 97287]
11
so sauðr, sauðir OE sceap, scip sheep    
south, sut, sud, suff, son, sid, suð OE suth south
  1. Suffield [SE 98566 90557]
  2. Suffield Heights [SE 97550 89650]
  3. Suffield Hill [SE 98350 90450]
  4. Suffield Ings [SE 98187 89322]
  5. Suffield Mere [SE 98801 90784]
  6. Suffield Moor [SE 98245 92592]
  7. Sutherbruff Rigg [SE 86704 87333]
7
sow saurr   mud, dirt
  1. Sow Beck [SE 94547 89828]
1
spaun, spon spánn OE spon (see also scid, speld) chip, shaving, shingle    
-staffe staðr, staðir (pl) -sted site, position    
stack, stakk stakkr   hill, precipitous rock    
stain, stan, sten, stone steinn [20] OE stan stone, rock [47]
  1. Adder Stone [SE 87843 90136]
  2. Adderstone Rigg [SE 88254 90121]
  3. Adderstone Wood [SE 87963 90251]
  4. Bridestone Griff [SE 87381 91248]
  5. Bridge Stone Slack [NZ 90652 01461]
  6. Graystone (Farm) [NZ 86980 10837]
  7. Graystone Hills [NZ 91504 04199]
  8. Greystone Farm [TA 01144 95744]
  9. Grey Stones [SE 86733 96102]
  10. Grundstone Wath [SE 77601 96881]
  11. Hawsker-cum-Stainsacre CP [NZ 92477 08719]
  12. High Bride Stones [SE 87256 91478]
  13. High Staindale [SE 88604 90453]
  14. Low Bride Stones [SE 87474 91223]
  15. Low Staindale [SE 86871 90511]
  16. Slape Stone Beck [SE 47375 97035]
  17. Stain Dale [19] [SE 88149 90474]
  18. Staindale Beck [SE 86794 89999]
  19. Staindale Lake [SE 88114 90322]
  20. Stainsacre [20] [NZ 91574 08327]
  21. Stainsacre Dale [NZ 91381 08155]
  22. Stainsacre Bridge [NZ 91556 08076]
  23. Stainsacre Dale [NZ 91381 08155]
  24. Stainsacre Lane [NZ 91607 06655]
  25. Staintondale (Steintun DB) [SE 98974 98408]
  26. Staintondale Moor [SE 98766 99409]
  27. Stoneclose Rigg [SE 86232 88738]
  28. Stone Hill Heads [SE 88000 94360]
  29. Stone Hill Slack [SE 88207 94272]
  30. Stonesty Wood [SE 98150 90450]
  31. Stony Gill [SE 95888 93860]
  32. Stony Leas [SE 88811 99210]
  33. Stony Marl Howes [NZ 95618 00672]
  34. Stony Marl Moor [NZ 94878 00552]
  35. Stony Wood [SE 93162 95383]
  36. Tinkler's Stone [NZ 95838 03645]
  37. Whinstone Ridge [NZ 84626 03162]
37
stang, -stang stong   pole, stake, stang    
stath, -teth stoþ, staðr, stapir (pl) OE stæp bank, shore, landing place, berth, harbour    
stav stafr OE stæf staff, post, stick, stave    
steel, still stíge OE stigel stile, ladder, fence
  1. Blea Wyke Steel [NZ 99128 01535]
  2. Peak Steel [NZ 97993 02627]
2
stove, stew stofn OE stofn
(also stubb, styfic)
tree stump, stoven    
stour, storr stórr   big, great (also sedge, bent-grass)
  1. Storr Lane [SE 96768 90277]
1
storr storð   brushwood, young plantation
  1. Storr Lane [SE 96768 90277]
1
strait strait   strait    
strand, strant strönd OE strand shore, bank, strand    
strom straumr   stream, running water    
stoupe, stoop, stowp staup OE steap a steep declivity or slope, a pitch, precipice
  1. Stoupe Bank Farm [NZ 95747 03362]
  2. Stoupe Bank Lane [NZ 95350 03650]
  3. Stoupe Beck [NZ 95307 03200]
  4. Stoupe Beck Sands [NZ 96032 03414]
  5. Stoupe Brow [18] [NZ 96387 01930]
  6. Stoupe Brow Bank [NZ 95750 03450]
  7. Stoupe Brow Beacon [NZ 97095 01200]
  8. Stoupe Brow Cottage Farm [NZ 95774 03360]
  9. Stoupe Brow Farm [NZ 96652 02195]
  10. Stoupe Cross Farm [NZ 90992 10791]
10
sty stígr OE stig (stigu ?) path (especially an ascending path), narrow road
(sty ?)
  1. Normanby Stye Batts [NZ 95120 07520]
  2. Pursglove Stye [NZ 94450 08150]
  3. Pursglove Stye Batts [NZ 94450 08250]
  4. Reasty Hill [SE 96325 94541]
  5. Reasty Hill Top [SE 96230 94385]
  6. Reasty Quarry [SE 96392 94471]
  7. Reasty Road [SE 96045 94757]
  8. Stonesty Wood [SE 98150 90450]
8
swallow svelgr   whirlpool, devourer, swallower
  1. Swallow Head [NZ 93685 02979]
  2. Swallow Head Farm [NZ 93785 02742]
2
swart svartr OE blæc black, dark
  1. Swarthlands Farm [TA 00951 92161]
  2. Swarth Howe [SE 96945 94082]
2
sweinn, swin, swan, grise svín, griss OE swin (swan) pig, boar, swine (herd)
  1. Swanbeck Farm [SE 99350 90050]
  2. Swinesale [SE 99350 90050]
  3. Swines Gill [SE 96415 93855]
  4. Swinesgill Rigg [SE 96289 93893]
4
ta(i)ng, tong(e) tangi, tunga OE tang, twang cape, tongue of land
  1. Barley Carr Tongue [SE 92546 96503]
1
tarn tiorn, tjorn tarn, enclosed body of water
  1. The Tarn [NZ 82350 00152]
1
thorn(e), thurn, thean, -tron, -terne þorn [48], þynir OE þyrne thorn bush, thorny place
  1. Hawthorns [SE 97979 88982]
  2. Hawthorn Wood [SE 98291 89092]
  3. Jingleby Thorn [SE 89419 89600]
  4. Jingleby Thorn Plantation [SE 89612 89645]
  5. Thirley Beck [SE 98322 95206]
  6. Thirley Cotes (Farm) [SE 97594 95070]
  7. Thorn(e)y Browe (16th century [14]) [NZ 94597 01755]
  8. Thorney Brow Farm [NZ 94690 01687]
  9. Thornfields Farm [NZ 93285 04568]
  10. Thorn Hill [NZ 88625 04631]
  11. Thornhill Farm [NZ 83787 00104]
  12. Thorn Hill Head [SE 88962 94159]
  13. Thorn Hill Slack [SE 88827 93626]
  14. Thorn Key Howes [NZ 91488 03334]
  15. Thorn Key Wath [NZ 91296 03194]
  16. Thorn Park (Farm) [SE 98406 88115]
  17. Thorny Beck [SE 98536 97709]
  18. Whitethorn [SE 86203 90848]
18
thorpe þorp OE þorp, þrop small village, settlement "smaller village due to colonisation from a larger one e.g. Sneaton Thorp" (rare in Norway but common in Denmark)
  1. Fyling Thorpe or Fylingthorpe (Fielinga 1160, Prestethorpe, 13th century, Nortfigelinge DB) [NZ 94073 04713]
  2. Mowthorp(e) (Farm) [SE 98073 88278]
  3. Mowthorp Bridge [SE 97996 88233]
  4. Mowthorp Cottage [SE 98063 88207]
  5. Mowthorpe Road [SE 98191 87980]
  6. Sneaton Thorpe [32] [NZ 90992 06135]
  7. Sneaton Thorpe Beck [NZ 90277 05635]
  8. Sneaton Thorpe Lane [NZ 90688 06304]
  9. Sneaton Thorpe Wood [NZ 90177 05713]
  10. Thorpe Beck [NZ 93910 05081]
  11. Thorpe Green [NZ 94136 04821]
  12. Thorpe Hall [NZ 94594 04939]
12
threll, trail þræll   thrall, serf    
throstle throstr   song thrush
  1. Throstle Nest [NZ 87329 06132]
1
ting, thing þing, þingvollr OE þing assembly, court, meeting place of parliament
  1. Thingwall [7] [NZ 89886 11056]
1
tir tyri   dry, resinous wood    
toft topt, tupt [39] -toft, -tofte site of a single house, farm, homestead
(a mark of Danish settlement, as distinguished from Norwegian)
  1. Allan Tofts [39] [NZ 83050 02976]
  2. Barnby Tofts Farm [NZ 82142 13937]
  3. Hartoft Beck [SE 75757 94736]
  4. Hartoft Bridge [SE 74874 92566]
  5. Hartoft Bridge Farm [SE 74895 92766]
  6. Hartoft End [SE 74944 92951]
  7. Hartoft Rigg [SE 74651 95670]
  8. Hartoft Wood [SE 75792 93541]
  9. High Toft Hills [TA 00646 92441]
  10. Low Toft Hills [TA 00821 92604]
  11. Toft House (farm) [NZ 86350 08950]
  12. Tofta Farm [SE 98175 98448]
  13. Tofta Hill [SE 98476 98480]
  14. Tofta Road [SE 98358 98505]
14
ton, farm tún   farm, hedged enclosure, homestead
(in Norse deeds each farm is called a tún) [27]
  1. Allerston (High Moor) [SE 88250 93550]
  2. Burniston (Brinitun, Brinnistun DB) [TA 00806 92974]
  3. Cloughton [44] [TA 00551 94650]
  4. Easington [NZ 74583 18306]
  5. Easington End Farm [NZ 73950 18050]
  6. Easington Farm [NZ 73950 17950]
  7. Easington Hall [NZ 74550 18050]
  8. Easington Hall Farm [NZ 74698 18140]
  9. East Ayton [SE 99675 85175]
  10. Egton (Egetune DB) [NZ 81137 06477]
  11. Hamilton [NZ 92757 05313]
  12. Lockton [SE 83961 89856]
  13. Lockton Low Moor [SE 85627 92770]
  14. Newton Farm [NZ 89079 03903]
  15. Newton House [NZ 88722 03913]
  16. Newton House Plantation [NZ 88943 01540]
  17. Sneaton (Sneton, Snetune 1160 and DB) [NZ 89500 07500]
  18. Sneaton Castle [NZ 87955 10621]
  19. Sneaton Corner [NZ 91509 03645]
  20. Sneaton High Moor [NZ 87996 00876]
  21. Sneaton Low Moor [NZ 89771 03877]
  22. Sneaton Thorpe Beck [NZ 90277 05635]
  23. Sneaton Thorpe Wood [NZ 90177 05713]
  24. Staintondale (Steintun DB) [SE 98974 98408]
24
twatt, thwaite, waite þveit, þvait   "piece cut out or off", village, small settlement, paddock, meadow, forest clearing
  1. Agatwayt and Langthwayte Close (13th century)
  2. Bertwait and Setwait (1160) [30]
  3. Braithwaite Cottages [NZ 82624 03227]
  4. Calfthwaite (olim Calf Thwaite) Farm [35] [SE 99220 97737]
  5. Raithwaite [NZ 86915 11517]
  6. Raithwaite Gill [NZ 86662 11492]
  7. Raithwaite Hall [NZ 86896 11609]
  8. Raithwaite Lodge [NZ 87150 12050]
  9. Raithwaite Plantation [NZ 87045 11871]
  10. Southwaite House (17th century)
  11. Thwaite Head [SE 85485 89724]
  12. Thwaite Wood [SE 85160 89666]
12
vat, vatn vatn   water, enclosed body of water    
vird, virda, war varða, varðdi   heap of stones, cairn    
voe vágr   small sheltered bay    
wall, wix, wick veggr OE weall wall    
wed veiðr   place for fishing, hunting
  1. Wedland Slack [SE 84371 90391]
1
wall, well völlr   field, level ground, meadow
  1. Park Wall [NZ 93458 03064]
  2. Gaskel Well [NZ 72050 18050]
2
-wang vangr OE wang cultivated field, garden, in-field, piece of land near a house, enclosed land among open strips    
warp varpa   throw, cast
  1. Ruswarp (Risewarp 1160) [NZ 88418 09314]
  2. Ruswarp Bank [NZ 88767 09337]
  3. Ruswarp Carrs [NZ 87663 08542]
  4. Ruswarp Hall [NZ 88950 09350]
4
-wath, -with, -worth vað, vaða OD wæthil from ON vaðill)
OE wæd
ford, to wade through water
  1. Birchwath Slack [NZ 78415 02011]
  2. Blawath Beck [33] [SE 82104 96402]
  3. Blawath Crag [SE 81208 97677]
  4. Briggswath [23] [NZ 87348 08475]
  5. Cow Wath Bank [NZ 83631 01346]
  6. Cow Wath Beck [TA 02101 91235]
  7. Gainforth Wath [SE 97278 98670]
  8. Gainforth Wath Road [SE 97431 98624]
  9. Grundstone Wath [SE 77601 96881]
  10. Healwath Beck [SE 95547 99567]
  11. Helwath Beck [SE 95020 99089]
  12. Helwath Bridge [SE 95490 99520]
  13. Helwath Grains [NZ 95991 00248]
  14. Helwath Road [SE 95545 99369]
  15. Helwath Wash Fold [SE 94897 98599]
  16. Helwath Wood [SE 94884 98819]
  17. High Oxam Wath [SE 91641 93766]
  18. New Wath Scar [NZ 82115 00602]
  19. Prior Wath [SE 98778 97684]
  20. Prior Wath Road [SE 99089 98417]
  21. Thorn Key Wath [NZ 91296 03194]
21
-well vel   well
  1. Coney Well Spring [NZ 97443 01040]
  2. Hinderwell [22] [NZ 79615 16764]
  3. Holygill Well [NZ 71039 16479]
  4. Kettle Well Cottage [NZ 93150 02250]
  5. Teydale Well [SE 97554 97652]
5
west vestr OE west westerly
  1. West Beck [SE 81327 99667]
  2. West Lodge [NZ 93645 03943]
2
whin hvein   gorse, furze
  1. Whin Bank Plantation [NZ 93448 03965]
  2. Whin Covert [SE 99625 86869]
  3. Whin Green [NZ 87006 07784]
  4. Whin Hill [SE 99950 98850]
  5. Whinny Wood [NZ 89950 05350]
  6. Whinstone Ridge [NZ 84626 03162]
  7. Whinstone Cottages [NZ 82097 04031]
  8. Whinstone Quarries [NZ 81902 04217]
8
wick, wyke vík, wic   bay, cove, creek
  1. Blea Wyke [NZ 98796 01590]
  2. Blea Wyke Lodge [NZ 98938 00920]
  3. Blea Wyke Point [NZ 99258 01340]
  4. Blea Wyke Steel [NZ 99128 01535]
  5. Catwick (Farm) (House Farm) [NZ 90872 05941]
  6. Cloughton Wyke [TA 02617 95155]
  7. Ground Wyke [NZ 95633 05273]
  8. Ground Wyke Hole [NZ 95420 05057]
  9. Hardwick Farm [SE 95818 95636]
  10. Hayburn Wyke [TA 01507 97125]
  11. Hayburn Wyke Hotel [TA 01502 96980]
  12. Maw Wyke [NZ 94150 08306]
  13. Maw Wyke Hole [NZ 94132 08380]
  14. Saltwick [NZ 91585 10820]
  15. Saltwick Bay [NZ 91997 10984]
  16. Saltwick Hole [NZ 91777 10946]
  17. Saltwick Nab [NZ 91505 11330]
  18. Sandsend Wyke [NZ 86833 12754]
  19. Skivick Crag [SE 80952 97971]
  20. Wykeham High Moor [SE 91550 95850]
  21. Wyke Lodge [SE 99382 97602]
21
-with viðr -ved, -with wood    
wy, wig, weigh   sacred place    
wragby wraggi   Wraggi's village
  1. Wragby [40] [NZ 93650 00350]
  2. Wragby Farm [NZ 93604 00395]
  3. Wragby Wood [SE 93325 99923]
3
wreay, wray, wro(e), ray, -row, roe, -rea vrá OE sceat nook of land, corner, wray, outlying piece of land  

Notes

[1] '1160'. A place-name designated '1160' is one of the hamlets and places which existed circa 1160 in the manors and towns comprising the "lands, possessions, forests, churches, tithes and liberties" the corpus of the endowment of William de Percy (as augmented by Alan his son and William his grandson) in 1096 to his brother Serlo (the prior) and the monks of Whitby of the churches of St. Peter and St. Hilda as described in "Early Yorkshire Charters" (1914) William Farrer at page 200 as taken from the "Whitby Cartulary" (1879) J. C. Atkinson.

[2] Silpho, Silpho Brow, Silpho Brow Farm and Silpho Moor. Silpho 'Silpa's Barrow'. Possibly Danish female personal name Silpa (Latin spelling of a Hebrew name meaning 'drop, tear (of myrrh)' or 'intimacy'); alternatively Old Norse silfr, 'silver'. Silfow - Yorkshire Lay Subsidy R. 30 Edward I (1301) (Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 1897).

"Words and Places" Isaac Taylor (1936) at page 138

Chapter VIII

The Northmen

The Norse haugr, a sepulchral mound, is often found in the names of mountains crowned by conspicuous tumuli. The name of the old Viking who lies buried here is often preserved in the first portion of such local names. Thus, Silver How, Bull How, Scale How, and Butterlip How, are, probably, the burial-places of the forgotten heroes, Sölvar, Böll, Skall, and Buthar Lipr.


"The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names" Eilert Ekwall (1960) at pages 422 & 409

Silpho YN [Sifthou 1145-8, Silfhou 12, 1230 Whitby Silfho 1231 Ass]. Most probably an OE Scylf-hoh 'ridge with a peak or with a plateau', Scandinavianized. As the sound sh was unknown to early Scandinavian, an s might be substituted for it. The first element is really OE scylfe. See SCYLF.

O.E. scylf, scelf 'rock, crag', no doubt also 'ledge' and 'bank of a river', is a common element in place names. There was also O.E. scylfe, scilfe 'ledge, shelf', but probably used in other senses too. The two are not always easy to keep apart. The exact meaning of the elements in place names is often difficult to determine … O.E. scylfe, scilfe is the first element of … SILPHO …


"The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" A. H. Smith, Volume V (1979) at pages xxv and 115

Introduction (at page xxv)

"… Silpho in the south of the wapentake and Sneaton and Wragby contain Danish personal names …"

Whitby Strand Wapentake

4. SILPHO 23 C 4

Sifthou (sic) 1145-8 Whitby Cartulary (Surtees Society Publications 69, 72, MS 15th Century)
Silfhou, -how 1155-65, 1230, circa 1265-78, early 14 Whitby Cartulary (Surtees Society Publications 69, 72, MS 15th Century)
Silfho 1231 Yorkshire Assize Rolls, unpublished (Public Record Office)
Silfow(e) 1301 Yorkshire Lay Subsidy, 1301 (YAS 21), 1395 Whitby Cartulary (Surtees Society Publications 69, 72, MS 15th Century)
Silfey 1577 Saxton's Map of Yorkshire (1577)

vide haugr. The first element is probably the Old Danish personal name Sylve (Nielsen, Olddanske Personnavne, (1883). Compare Silton 201 infra.

[3] Whitby. Streanæshalc, Streneshalc, Streoneshalch, Streoneshalh, Streunes-Alae in Lindissi (7th and 8th centuries); Prestebi (11th century); Hwitebi, Witebi (12th century - Chartulary of Whitby); Whitebi (13th century); Qwiteby (14th century). According to the English Place-Name Society's "Key to English Place-Names" - ON hvítr, 'white' (M.E., O.E.) hwit 'white' and ON by 'farmstead or village' giving 'White farm/settlement' or 'Hviti's farm/settlement'. Alternatively, the first member could be derived from Old West Scandinavian viti 'a beacon, kindled as a warning signal'.

Prestebi from O.E. preost 'priest', (genitive plural preosta) per "The Chief Elements used in English Place-Names" (1924) Allen Mawer at page 49.

"The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names" Eilert Ekwall (1960) at page 513

Whitby Chs [Witebia circa 1100, -beria circa 1150, -bi circa 1190 Chester], W~ YN [Witebi DB, circa 1150 SD, Hwitebi 1104-8 SD, Quietby 1218 FF]. 'White village or town'. Whitby YN is recorded in its OScand form in a verse of the 12th century (Heimskringla) as Hvitaby (dat).


"The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" A. H. Smith, Volume V (1979) at pages xxv, 111 and 126

Introduction (at page xxv)

"… In Whitby Strand it is known traditionally that the Danes Ingwar and Ubba destroyed the monastery of Streonæshalch (Whitby Cartulary, 1), but the Danes do not seem to have settled there to any great extent … In Whitby Strand, therefore, the very high proportion of Scandinavian names must be due to Norwegian influence."


IV. WHITBY STRAND WAPENTAKE

Wytebistrand 1200-22 Guis, 1294 Ebor
Libertate de Whiteby 1231 Ass

'Whitby shore' v. Whitby 126 infra and strand. Whitby Strand was a liberty and at the time of the DB survey all its parishes were in the wapentake of Langbargh except Harkness which was in Pickering Lythe. As late as the end of the 13th century the lord of Aislaby manor (in Whitby parish) did suit at the wappentake court of Langbargh (compare Whitby 718). Whitby Strand (the older name of the district) was first called a wapentake in 1316 (Pat.R.).


7. WHITBY 16 F 11

Witebi, -by, Wytebi, -by 1086 DB et passim to 1298 YI
Wyttebeia, -beya 1138 Dugd iii. 545 passim

Aspirated forms appear in the 12th century and are practically the only forms found after the 13th:

Whitby 1138 Whitby et passim
Whi-, Whyteby circa 1150-60 YCh 828 et passim to 1361 FF

Over-aspirated forms are of sporadic appearance:

Quietby 1218 FF (p), 1267 Ebor
Qwyteby 1423 Baildon

The name appears also in the Heimskringla as Hvitabyr. 'Hviti's farmstead' from the ON by-name Hviti (gen. Hvita) and by.

Whitby was by early tradition identified with the Streonæshalch of Bede (compare Simeon of Durham, Hist. Dunelm. Eccles., Rolls Series, i. 111). Variant forms of the name in Bede are Streanshalh, Streonæshalch, Streaneshalh, Streneshælc. The OE Bede has Streonshalh, Strineshalg, whilst the ASC (sub anno 680) has Streonsheal. For this name v. Strensall 13 supra. Bede translates the name as sinus fari, which offers difficulty. The best explanation seems to be to look upon Bede's fari as a mistake for fare or farae, from Medieval Latin fara 'strain, descent' which is, of course, the meaning of OE streon, here used as a personal name, while healh is rendered by sinus.

[4] Broxa. Old Norse brokkr, 'badger' (OE brocc and brocc-hol 'badger hole') giving 'badger's island'.

"Notes and Queries" (22 January 1870) J. C. Atkinson (Danby in Cleveland) at page 105

As to Broxa and Silpho: the former, temp. Henry I., was written Brocesay; in the Abbot's Book (Whitby) Brocchesay, Broechesey, Brocehesei, &c.; in 1146, Brokesay; in 1316, Brokesey; &c.

This termination, varying through a, ay, ey, ei, eie, may be either Anglian or Old Danish. In Tordisa, Thordisa, other ancient forms of which are Tkordesay, Tordsay, Thordeisa (the old name of what is now East Row Beck, near Whitby), I have no doubt it is Old Norse á, river, stream. If Anglian, the a or ey will mean islet, the name for which, as formed by a stream whether constantly or only periodically, is in this district almost invariably holm. Thus, there must be some forty or fifty holms in Cleveland alone.

Brock (or Broch, in its more ancient form) is a prefix of frequent occurrence in the district Broxa lies in; and in some instances it would seem to be a personal name, as in Brotton, Broughton, both formerly Broctun. In Broch-hole Beck, Brock-rigg, &c, the animal probably supplies the name.

On the whole, I think that, as Thordisa is "Thord's stream" Brocchesay is fully as likely to be Brock's stream as Badger's island.

I may add that, in close vicinity to Broxa, the local names Thirley, Thirlsey, Hella, Cockrah occur. Silpho, in the Abbot's Book, and in a deed dated 1146, is written Silfhou; in 1316 it stands Silfou; in 1396 Silfhow. The suffix in this case is, beyond doubt, the 0ld Norse haugr, Norwegian haug, Swedish hög, Danish höj, Jutlandish hyv, &c. Silf may be the Old Danish Sölvi, or Anglian Sealf. The fact that the Scandinavian houe is suffixed in many instances, in the district in question, to Anglian names is both patent and interesting. I instance only in Glap Howe (Anglian Glappa or Clappa) near Skelton, Lil-houe (Anglian Lilla), Basin Howe (Anglian Basing or Besing), Sexhow (Anglian Saexa), Potto (anciently Pothow, Pottowe; Anglian Putta) - all in Cleveland. Gnipe Howe, Swart-houe or Swarth Howe (two or three of the name), Stanghow (two of the name), and many others, are 0ld Danish in both their elements. Naturally, out of the vast number of conspicuous objects which most of these "Celtic" burial-mounds or houes are, not a few would be specially named by the Anglian colonists, and many of these probably renamed by the Scandinavian settlers. I have been able to trace only three of the Anglian names of places with any certainty. The Anglian names of houes still surviving become, therefore, doubly interesting.


"The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names" Eilert Ekwall (1960) at page 422

Broxa YN [Brokesaye 1090-6 YCh 855, Brokesey 1316 FA]. First element perhaps Broc personal name. The second may be OE gehæg, 'enclosure'.


"The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" A. H. Smith, Volume V (1979) at page 111

Whitby Strand Wapentake

Hackness

1. Broxa 23 C 4

Brokesay(e), -eye 1090-6 (Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters, 3 volumes, 1914 ff 855) et passim to 1335 Pleas of the Forest, Public Record Office, Duchy of Lancashire, Miscellaneous Books, volume 1 (MS late 14th century)
Brochesei 1155-65 Whitby Cartulary (Surtees Society Publications 69, 72, MS 15th Century)
Broxhay 1335 Pleas of the Forest, Public Record Office, Duchy of Lancashire, Miscellaneous Books, volume 1 (MS late 14th century)
Brokessay 1395 Whitby Cartulary (Surtees Society Publications 69, 72, MS 15th Century)

'Broc's hunting enclosure' vide (ge)hæg. The position does not admit of a second element e.g. For the possibility of such a personal name, v. MLR xiv. 235.

[5] Allison Head Wood, Grime Gill and Grime Moor. Old Norse personal names: Allison, Grim.

"On the Danish Element in the Population of Cleveland, Yorkshire" J. C. Atkinson published in The Journal of the Ethnological Society of London (1869-1870) Vol. 2, No. 3 (1870) at page 352

"… we also meet with a very large proportion of personal names which are not only English in their origin, but most certainly Scandinavian. I take as types of this class of names (and only a few out of many) Milburn, Mewburn, Osburn, Allison, Jordison, Towlson, Lockson, Colson, Birkell, Horne, Horden, Gill, Keld, Rigg, Ness, Lax, Scarth, Scar … besides the manifold prefixes furnished by such personal names as Kell or Ketel, Dane, Norma, Ugelbard, Leising, Orm, Ingialld, Bergulf, Grim, Grimkell, Baldr … we find as a rule … the geographical or physical features of the country described … by such terms as gill, foss, scar, finkel, dale, rigg, bottom, head, brae, sike, houl, bank, nab, and the like; and this without dwelling on such words as garth, intak', houe &c"


"Scandinavian Settlement Names in Yorkshire" Gillian Fellows Jensen (1972) at page 203

VIII. The age of the settlements with Scandinavian and scandinavianised names and of the names themselves.

1. The evidence of situation.

Although the personal name Grímr was common in Scandinavia and is found quite frequently independently in Yorkshire, the number of Yorkshire place names, the majority of them nature names, which apparently contain the personal names as first element is greatly in excess of the number of independent instances. Whereas it is likely that place names such as Grimsby YN (q.v.) and Grimthorpe YE (q.v.) do in fact contain the Scandina­vian personal name, it would seem more reasonable to assume that the first element in the nature names is rather Grímr/Grim, a by-name for Óðinn/Woden. The by-name may have been used with some mythological signifi­cance but it seems preferable to accept the suggestion made by Margaret Gelling (in "Place-Names and Anglo-Saxon Heathenism", University of Birmingham Historical journal, Vol. VIII, no. 1, 1961, 7-25, particularly 14) that the name Grim may have survived the conversion of the Anglo-Saxons and the Danes to Christianity and have been used as a pseudonym for the Devil. Its survival may have been assisted by association with the OE adjective grim "sharp, savage, cruel". Margaret Gelling draws attention to the fact that Grim- is fairly common as the first element of place namess in south-eastern England, particularly combined with elements that denote some form of prehistoric monument. Examples are Grimsdyke or Grim's Ditch, Grimsbury, Grimspound and Grimes Graves. There are certain facts that suggest that it may be the mythological name used in a derogatory sense rather than the Scandinavian personal name that is found in some of the Yorkshire Grimstons. It has already been noticed that five of them have comparatively poor situations. Four of them are so-called lost villages (cf. below pp. 231-36), while there are only three other lost villages among the 36 remaining Grimston hybrids. Note also that Grimston Nt and Grimston Sf are lost villages (4) and that there is a lost Grimston in Leicestershire (5), while another Grimston in Leicestershire and Grimston Nf enjoy favourable English-type situa­tions.

[6] Ugglebarnby.

"On the Danish Element in the Population of Cleveland, Yorkshire" J. C. Atkinson published in The Journal of the Ethnological Society of London (1869-1870) Vol. 2, No. 3 (1870) at page 354

Ugelbardby 1540, Ugleberdebi 1340, Hugelbardebi 1160, Ugleberdesbi DB). Uglebert and Ugelbard were owners of land in the district in 1066


"The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names" Eilert Ekwall (1960) at page 485

Ugglebarnby YN [Ugleberdesbi DB, Ugelbardeby 1100-15 YCh 857] 'Uglubarði's BY'. Uglubarði is an unrecorded ON byname, composed of ugla 'owl' and Barði personal name.


"The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" A. H. Smith, Volume V (1979) at page 121

Whitby Strand Wapentake

Whitby

Ugglebarnby

Uglebedesbi 1086 DB
Ugelbardebi, Ugle- 1100 - circa 1115 YCh 857, 1177-89, 1222-7 Whitby
Uggelbardebi, -by 1145-8 Whitby, 1301 Abbr
Ucchelbardebi 1155-65 Whitby
Vgulbardebi 1181 P
Uglebardby 1270 Whitby
W-, Ugelbardby 1310 Whitby, 1335 ForP
Oggelberdesby 1314 NRS
Ugglebarnby 1613 NR

'Farm of a man nicknamed "Owl-beard"' from ON Uglubarði (compare Lindkvist lxii, and NP, ZEN sine nomine) and vide by. The change of -bardby to -barnby is due to association of the name with Barnby across the river Esk.

[7] Thingwall: Tingwal, Thingwala 1160 (thought to have been located in the potato market area of Church Street).

"An account of the Danes and Norwegians in England, Scotland, and Ireland" (1852) Jens Jakob Asmussen Worsaae, page 70

Section VII

Danish-Norwegian Names of Places

… The name of the village of Thingwall (Wall, Dan., Vold, a bank or rampart) in Cheshire affords a remarkable memorial of the assizes, or Thing, which the Northmen generally held in conjunction with their sacrifices to the gods; it lies, surrounded with several other villages with Scandinavian names, on the small tongue of land that projects between the mouths of the rivers Dee and Mersey. At that time they generally chose for the holding of the thing, or assizes, a place in some degree safe from surprise. The chief ancient thing place for Iceland was called like this Thingwall, namely Thingvalla (originally "þingvöllr", "þingvellir" or the thing-fields).


"On the Danish Element in the Population of Cleveland, Yorkshire" J. C. Atkinson published in The Journal of the Ethnological Society of London (1869-1870) Vol. 2, No. 3 (1870) at pages 357 to 360

"… there is one other to which it will be well to direct special attention, and it seems strange that the local historians and antiquaries of Whitby should have left it to the present writer to do so … In the "Memorial of Benefactions" to Whitby Abbey, recapitulating the grants of land and other property made to that body by Wm de Perci and his son Alan, the list begins thus (translated from the Latin): … "The town and sea-port of Whitby (Witebi), "Overbi" and "Nedhrebi" that is Stainsacre (Steinsecher), Thingwall (Thingwala), Larpool Hall (Leirpel), Spital Vale (Helredale), "Gnip" that is Hawsker (Hauchesgard) &c". Young (Hist. of Whitby, ii page 912), after giving this memorial in extenso, proceeds to remark on some of the local names involved. "Overbi", he says, "is probably High Whitby, Thingwala, Highgate-houe," and so dismisses the name … and but for the remarkable dimness of vision besetting the Whitby historians, their local Thingwall would … have taken rank with those of Shetland, Orkney, Chester, Ross-shire, and demanded co-ordination in significance alike with them and with Norwegian "þing vellir", now Tingvala; and with Islandic "þingvöllir". The fact … that a Thing-place existed at Whitby would have amply justified the presumption that the entire district to which access is thence afforded by the sea must have been not only to a notable extent under the influence of, but occupied by, men of Northern or Old Danish origin; but coming as it does as a sort of practical commentary on the enumeration given above of local names, all bearing the impress of Scandinavian coinage, and prevailing to the extent of something like 9 out of 10 of the whole, it is difficult to overrate its importance."

"… Did the old Danes merely take up and occupy and name the parts of the districts hitherto unoccupied and unnamed, or did they enter on other men's possessions and rename as well as take possession ? … The materials for the answer of such a question are unhappily very scanty; but, as far as they go, they tend to the conclusion that these northern invaders and colonists overcame and killed or ousted the former possessors of the lands, which they then proceeded to rename. Certainly the name of Whitby itself, probably much the most important place at that time in the Cleveland district, was thus changed. In the times of Anglian possession it was Streoneshalh, or Streoneshalc; and it was reserved for its new northern masters, not only to replace that name by Whitby, but either to rename existing divisions of ancient Streoneshalc, or to create new local distinctions with the characteristic appellatives, Priestby, Overby, Netherby, Stakesby, Normanby, Gnipe, Berthwait, Sethwait, and Thingwall."


"Words and Places" Isaac Taylor (1936) at pages 138 & 139

Chapter VIII

The Northmen

In Cheshire, with one remarkable local exception, we find no vestiges of Norse colonists. But the spit of land called the Wirral, between the Dee and the Mersey, seems to have allured them by its excellent harbours, and the protection afforded by its almost insular character. Here, in fact, we fund geo­graphical conditions similar to those which gave rise to the two isolated Norse colonies at the mouths of the Stour and the Yare, and the result is no less remarkable. In this space of about twelve miles by six there is scarcely a single Anglo-Saxon name, while we find the Norse villages of Raby, Pensby, Irby, Frankby, Kirby, Whitby, and Greasby. We find also the Norse names of Shotwick, Holme, Dalpool, Howside, Bamston, Thornton, Thurstanston, Birkenhead, and the Back Brook; and in the centre of the district is the village of Thingwall, a name which indicates the position of the meeting-place of the Thing, the assembly in which the little colony of Northmen exercised their accustomed privileges of local self-government.


"The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" A. H. Smith, Volume V (1979) at page 128

Whitby Strand Wapentake

7. WHITBY 16 F 11

THINGWALL (lost)

Tingwall 1145-8 YCh 872
Thingwala 1155-65 Whitby

vide. þingvolir. The name is undoubtedly that of the moatstead of a very strong Scandinavian colony in Eskdale. There is no clue to the site. Compare Fingay Hill 213 infra.


"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at page 94

Chapter 2

Names containing Old West Scandinavian ei (Old East Scandinavian e)

… it is worthy of note that we are in perhaps the most Scandinavian part of Yorkshire, not far from the Thingwala of the Whitby district …

[8] Pricky Bank Wood. 'Pricky' possibly from ON prýði, 'an ornament; gallantry, bravery'.

[9] Hilda Spring. Possibly St. Hilda as Hilda Spring is opposite the "supposed site of monastic cell" at Hackness Hall [SE 97090 90503].

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 10 & 11

Chapter 1

Names containing distinctively Old Scandinavian inflexional forms

Hildreuuelle Ildreuuelle Yo. DoB.; … 1st member can be the genitive - normally Hildar - of the O.W.Scand female name Hildr, which, according to Lind (Lind, E. H. Norsk-isländska dopnamn ock fingerade namn fran medeltiden. Upsala 1905 f.), was in frequent use during the Viking Age. It is found in several O.Norw. place-names, e.g. Hildertun Diplomatarium Norwegicum 6 (1385), Hildarland (see further Lind, E. H. Norsk-isländska dopnamn ock fingerade namn fran medeltiden. Upsala 1905 f.) …

[10] Ramsdale Beck is named Kirk Moor Beck upstream [NZ 91981 03027] and [NZ 91802 02913] and Mill Beck downstream [NZ 95314 04049].

[11] Swanbeck Farm (olim Swinesale) [SE 99350 90050].

[12] Between Low and High Burrows is a Roman Camp at [NZ 81450 04150].

[13] Whitby Chartulary (Surtees Society) 520.

[14] Yorkshire Lay Subsidy R. 30 Edward I (1301) (Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 1897), 109. From the footnotes to "The Subsidy: Liberty of Whitby" at pages 107-111:

"This document adds enormously to our knowledge of the names of the inhabitants of Whitby Strand at the commencement of the fourteenth century. Whitby is not even mentioned in Kirkby's Inquest; and in the Nomina Villarum, which is printed with Kirkby (p. 327), the information given is very scanty. The names of the inhabitants also not only add to our knowledge of their callings (as in other places), but give us the information that, even at this early date, the woollen manufactures were beginning to be a home business. The fuller, the weaver, and the dyer are mentioned - all three in immediate sequence to one another in one place - Johannes le Fulur, Henricus le Teler, and Thomas Tinctor - and besides that, the name Johannes Fleming reveals the fact that the immigration of Flemish wool-workers had already commenced. Perhaps, however, the most noteworthy circumstance connected with the list of names of fifteenth-paying inhabitants of Whitby is that scarcely one of the names of the persons designated betokens any dependence upon, or connection with, the, by that time, important and influential abbey of Whitby. And another observation of the same nature may be made. No fisherman, or boatman, or merchant-man, is specified. A century later the case was different."

[15] Hogarth Hill.

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at page 144.

Chapter 4

Names containing Old West Scandinavian ou, au

Not far from Hawsker is a place called Hogarth (Hill), which name may be of the same origin (as Hawsker). It is stated to be identical with Haukesgarth 1299, 1344 Calendar of the Patent Rolls.

[16] Aislaby and place-names in .

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at page 175.

Chapter 5

Names containing Old Scandinavian a

Asuluesby, Asuluebi Yo. DoB.; Asulvebi ante 1180, Asolvebi early 13th century Whitby Chartulary; Ascilbi 1278 C. Inquisitions; Asselby, Haselby circa 1280 Whitby Chartulary; Asila-, Asillaby Kirkby; Aselby late 13th century Whitby Chartulary, Rotuli Hundredorum Henry III and Edward I, Testa de Nevill Henry III and Edward I, Nomina villarum for Yorkshire 9th Edward II, 1339 f. Calendar of the Patent Rolls, &c.; Assulby 1487 C. Inq. (Calendar of Inquisitions post mortem and other analgous documents, Henry III - Edward III, Henry VII); Asilby 1394, Aslaby, Aislaby circa 1540 Whitby Chartulary; now Aislaby, near Whitby.


"Scandinavian Settlement Names in Yorkshire" Gillian Fellows Jensen (1972) at pages 6, 8, 18 & 19.

II. Place-names in

1. The element in Scandinavia and Yorkshire

… In Norway, on the other hand, the term () seems to have been generally used of an isolated farmhouse, perhaps also originally of cultivated land. At all events, however, the element would seem to have acquired the meaning "village" before the period of the Scandinavian settlements in England (cf. PNEl i 66-72).

It is generally accepted that the village names in - in England were given by the Danish settlers but, as Kr. Hald points out in KLNM II 386, the use of the element by in the sense "village" would seem to have penetrated to the north and west from the areas of densest Danish settlement and there been adopted by the Norwegian settlers. Neither those places with names in in the areas of York­shire which are generally considered to have been settled by Norwegians nor those whose names contain a demonstrably WScand first element (e.g. an Irish or Norwegian personal name) can be shown to have been any smaller at the time of the compilation of DB than the villages in the demonstrably Danish areas. It is conceivable, however, that some of the names in the areas of predominantly Norwegian settlement and perhaps elsewhere, too, may originally have contained by in the sense "farmhouse". It is noticeable that several of the names indicate places that are now completely lost or whose site is marked by a solitary house or farm or in some cases merely by archaeological remains.

The spelling by is only found once in the Yorkshire place-names in DB, namely in Asuluesby 305r, also written Asuluebi 380v. Elsewhere it is always spelt bi. The survival of Scandinavian y in DB is very unusual. Feilitzen suggests (§§ 19. 20) that this is because there was a marked phonetic difference between OE and OScand y on the one hand and AN y on the other, whereas OFr i and OE and OScand y were phonetically similar. The one surviving y spelling probably indicates that the scribe of DB was here copying from a written source.

3. The material

Aislaby. Aislaby township, Whitby Strand W, N. Asuluesby 305r, Asuluebi 380v. The first element is the Scandinavian personal name Asulfr

Baldby. Baldby, lost village whose site is marked by Baldby Fields, Whitby, Whitby Strand W, N. Baldebi 305r, 380v. The first element is either the Scandinavian personal name Baldi or an OE personal name Balda


"Scandinavian Settlement Names in Yorkshire" Gillian Fellows Jensen (1972) at pages 5, 6 and 9 to 12.

II. Place-names in

1. The element in Scandinavia and Yorkshire

… Most Danish scholars agree, in fact, that the sense of in the majority of Danish place-names is "village" … In Norway, on the other hand, the term seems to have been generally used of an isolated farmhouse, perhaps also originally of cultivated land. At all events, however, the element would seem to have acquired the meaning "village" before the period of the Scandinavian settlements in England …

It is generally accepted that the village names in - in England were given by the Danish settlers but, as Kr. Hald points out in KLNM II 386, the use of the element in the sense "village" would seem to have penetrated to the north and west from the areas of densest Danish settlement and there been adopted by the Norwegian settlers. Neither those places with names in in the areas of York­shire which are generally considered to have been settled by Norwegians nor those whose names contain a demonstrably WScand first element (e.g. an Irish or Norwegian personal name) can be shown to have been any smaller at the time of the compilation of DB than the villages in the demonstrably Danish areas. It is conceivable, however, that some of the names in the areas of predominantly Norwegian settlement and perhaps elsewhere, too, may originally have contained by in the sense "farmhouse". It is noticeable that several of the names indicate places that are now completely lost or whose site is marked by a solitary house or farm or in some cases merely by archaeological remains.

2. The first elements in the place-names in

(i) Personal names

Altogether the survey includes 210 býs. A study has been made of the first elements in these names and this reveals that 119 býs or approximately 57% have either certainly or most probably a personal name as their first element. Of these personal names 108 or approximately 90% are Scandinavian, 7 English, 3 Irish, and one probably Continental Germanic.

a) Scandinavian personal names

… The possible reasons for the dominance of by-names in the Yorkshire place-names have been discussed in Scandinavian Personal Names in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire and the conclusion reached there is that by-names were chosen as the first element of place-names in preference to more common personal names either because the people in the immediate neighbourhood of the settlements in question wanted to avoid any possible doubt as to the identity of the tenant or owner or because these people were accustomed to call him by his by-name.

Altogether 81 different Scandinavian personal names are found in the Yorkshire býs and 23 of these do not appear in place-names of a younger type nor independently in Yorkshire. It is noticeable that 19 of these 23 names are by-names. It seems that by-names often died out with the men who bore them.

It is of interest to see how many of the personal names in Yorkshire place-names are also found in Danish place-names … In all, then, 24 out of 39 instances contain personal names that are also found in Danish place-names. Of the remaining 15 instances, 4 contain names which probably arose on English soil … 7 contain names which are much commoner in WScand sources than in EScand, namely Áslákr, Ásulfr, Eindriði (4), Róðmundr; the remaining 4 names, Bergulfr, Eymundr, Eysteinn, þormóðr, are found in both West and East Scandinavia.

The following by-names found in the Yorkshire place-names reappear in Danish place-names … In all, then, 29 out of 54 instances contain personal names that are also found in Danish place-names. Of the remaining 25 instances, 6 contain names that probably arose on English soil … 10 contain names that are typically WScand (i.e. not recorded in East Scandinavia or only seldom found there), Bak, Belgr, Boltr, Hákr, Halmi, Hjalp, Holti (2), Kausi, Mildi; the remaining 9 names are found both in West and East Scandinavia, Beli, Bol(l)i, Bragi, Farmann, Feitr, Hoggvandi, Káti, Moldr, Skorn(ir) or Skorri.

The following secondary formations are also found in Danish place-names … In all, then, 6 out of 12 instances contain personal names that are also found in Danish place-names … Altogether 62 or approximately 57% of the place-names in whose first element is a Scandinavian personal name contain personal names which also appear in Danish place-names, whereas only 17 or approximately 16% contain names which are typically WScand. The remaining 27% contain names that either are of Anglo-Scandinavian origin or can equally well be West or East Scandinavian. For further discussion of the place-names which seem to contain a WScand first element cf. below pp 190-93.

[17] Hawsker.

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 143 & 144.

Chapter 4

Names containing Old West Scandinavian ou, au

Hauchesgard; see p. 143: Houkesgarth, Houkesgard, Hauchesgard Yo. 12th century Whitby Chartulary; Houkasgart, Houkesgart, Okesgard, Haukesgard ibid.; Hokesgard 1166-67, Haukesgard 1175-76, Hokesgarth 1179-80 Pipe Rolls; Haukasgarth 12th century Guisbrough Chartulary; Hokesgarthe 1212 Rotuli Chartarum; Houkesgarth 1213 Whitby Chartulary; Haukesgarth 1298 Yorkshire Inquisitions, 1301 Yorkshire Lay Subsidy, 1299, 1308 f. Whitby Chartulary; Haugesgargh Nomina villarum for Yorkshire 9th Edward II; etc.; now Hawsker, near Whitby.

1st member is genitive of the O.W.Scand. man's name Haukr O.Swed. Høker, O.Dan. Høk), which appears as early as La. (Landnámabók 1900) and was in frequent use in Norway and Iceland; see Lind, E. H. Norsk-islæ‚ Ændska dopnamn ock fingerade namn fran medeltiden. Upsala 1905 f. The name is identical with the appellative haukr, etc. 'hawk' - There are in M.E. records not a few place-names that have Hauk- or Haukes- as 1st member. In almost every county in Scandinavian England, and outside it, we come across compounds such as Haukwell, Haukeswell, Haucherst (Kent), Haukedon, Haukhull etc. By far the largest percentage of these are without doubt of native origin and contain M.E. hauk < O.E. havoc, N.E. hawk. An O.E. man's name of the same form seems not to be known according to Björkmann (Personennamen p. 66). But it is most likely that such a name once did exist, although it may have early fallen into disuse, and, like several other O.E. personal names, has survived only in place-names. There can hardly be any doubt, that a name like O.E. Hauekestune Cambr. CD. 907 (Eadweard), Havochestun DoB., Haukestone 1316 F.A., now Hauxton, is composed with a personal name Havoc. The same applies to Havochesberie Glo. DoB., Hauekesbiri 1252 Ch. R., 1272 C. Inq., Haukesbery 1303 F.A., now Hawkesbury, and some other cases into which I cannot enter here. Kemble's index to CD. gives from the south of England some O.E. place-names beginning with Havoces-, of which at least two or three seem to contain the personal name. And in Stanmer, Sussex, there was in O.E. times a field-name hafocunga leahge CS. 197, the former member of which looks like a patronymic derived from the personal name just mentioned. Further it is to be noted that the genitive case of the O.E. appellative hafoc is not seldom found in place-names, as may be seen from the indexes of CD. and F.A. All this being so, it is clear that we can in no case assign Scandinavian origin to M.E. place-names beginning with Hauk(es), unless spellings with the diphthong written ou, o can be adduced in support. Forms of that kind reflect a very common development of the Scandinavian diphthong in England (cf. on this above p.136 f.), which is well evidenced from Scandinavian loan-words in M.E., and such forms may be regarded as doubtless of Scandinavian origin. Apart from Hawsker, this holds good of the following names: …

2nd member is O.W.Scand. garðr (O.Swed. garþer, O.Dan. garth) in the sense of 'a farm' Cf. above p.132, under Aistangarthes … 2nd member is M.E. garth (< O.W.Scand. garðr, O.Swed. garþer, O.Dan. garth) 'a small piece of enclosed ground, usually beside a house or other building, used as a yard, garden, or paddock; a fence or hedge' N.E.D. (A New English Dictionary on historical principles. Oxford 1888).

Not far from Hawsker is a place called Hogarth (Hill), which name may be of the same origin (as Hawsker). It is stated to be identical with Haukesgarth 1299, 1344 Calendar of the Patent Rolls.

[18] Stoupe Brow and Staupe.

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at page 165.

Chapter 4

Names containing Old West Scandinavian ou, au

Staupe Yo. tempore Henry I, Stoupe early 12th century feminine, Stowpe 1395, Stoope, Stowpe Browe 1540 Whitby Chartulary; now Stoupe Brow, hamlet and cliff in Whitby parish.

From O.W.Scand staup in the sense of 'a steep declivity or slope, a pitch, precipice'. Stoupe Brow is a cliff, according to Bartholomew's Gazetteer 893 ft. high, which towers aloft over the shore at Robin Hood's Bay, and commands a magnificent view. The word staup in the sense just mentioned is only evidenced from Norw. place-names; see e.g. Rygh N.G. (Norske Elvenavne. Kristiania (1904) [Elvenavne] & Gamle Personnavne i Norske Stedsnavne. Kristiania (1901) [Personnavne]") V, 444 and XV, 87. It is related by ablaut to the rare verb stúpa 'to stoop', O.Swed. stupa 'to fall, tumble headlong'. The primary sense of staup may have been that of a depression or hollow where one is apt to tumble down; compare the allied O.E. adjective steap 'high, lofty', N.E. steep. In Shetlandic local names staup is applied to a track beaten by the feet of cattle (Jakobsen); compare Norw. dialect, staup 'a hole in a road, deep rut, cup, goblet', O.E. steap 'a cup, flagon', OHG., MHG. stouf 'Becher, Felsen' (Schade), German Stauff, Stauffen, as names of mountains (see Schmeller, Bayerisches Worterbuch). Whether N.E. dialect stoup 'a deep and narrow vessel for holding liquids, pail for water', etc., is of Scand. introduction, is uncertain. Its local distribution - only in some northern counties and east Anglia - is in favour of it. On M.E. stope see Björkman (Erik, 'Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English' 1900-02) p.78, with references.

[19] Stain Dale, Staindale Beck and Staindale Lake.

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 83 & 84.

Chapter 2

Names containing Old West Scandinavian ei (Old East Scandinavian e)

A great many compounded M.E. place-names exhibit O.W.Scand steinn as 1st member. In not a few cases the remaining member, too, is a Scandinavian word; the Scandinavian origin of such names admits of no doubt whatever. But sometimes this latter member is either a native word or can be native as well as Scandinavian, when the word is found in exactly the same form in both languages. Now it should be noticed that in the local nomenclature of England previous to Domesday, as far as it is on record, compounds with O.E. Stan- seem to have been very frequent. Already in the earliest charters we repeatedly come across such names as - the following forms are normalized by me - Stanburh, Stanburne, Stanford, Stanclif, Stanleah, Stantun, etc.; see further the collections of Thorpe, Gray Birch, Kemble, and Dugdale. It is true that nearly all these names are known only from the southern counties to which the bulk of the O.E. charters relate. But it is more than probable that the local nomenclature of Northern England did not differ in this respect from that of the South. That being so, it is natural that in those districts of Northern England that were densely populated by Scandinavian settlers such and similar stan-names should be apt to be Scandinavianized, and that, in these parts, we should find Steinburh, Steinhurne, Steinford, etc.; see the list below. Still it is to be admitted that as long as no earlier native instances of those names can be given, we are not in a position to decide in each particular case whether a Scandinavian form found in Middle English represents a native formation in Scandinavian disguise, or whether the name was actually coined by the new settlers in the period when the amalgamation of the two races was in progress. I have deemed it appropriate to adduce here of such names only those of which the Scandinavian forms by far outnumber the native ones in my material. Some apparently native names of which Scandinavian spellings occasionally appear, are not included in the list below, as being of little or no value in the present investigation. They belong chiefly to Yorkshire, and their English origin is rendered likely by the fact that exact equivalents are as a rule to be found in counties out of Scandinavian England. If looked upon from these points of view, the following material may prove worthy of consideration … Steinegrif.

Steindal Yo. 1247 Ch. R. (Calendar of the Charter Rolls, 1226-1326), Steindale 1260 Rievaulx Chartulary; now Staindale, near Bilsdale. 2nd member O.W.Scand dalr (O.E.Scand dal 'valley' = O.E. dæl.

[20] Stainsacre, possibly 'stony or rocky field' or (per Lindkvist) 'Steinn's cultivated land (corn-field)' or 'Stein's field' (per Ekwall).

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 81, 82 & 83.

Chapter 2

Names containing Old West Scandinavian ei (Old East Scandinavian e)

Stainsecre Yo. 12th, 13th centuries, Stainsecher circa 1146 (Papal confirmation), Steinsecher, Stainsker 12th century Whitby Chartulary; Steinesacr 1175-76, Steinscker 1179-80 Pipe Rolls; Staynsyker 1301 Yorkshire Lay Subsidy; Staynseeker Nomina villarum; Staynsekir 1394-95, Staynsyker 1396, Staynseker, -ekerr, Steynsekerr 14th century Whitby Chartulary; now Stainsacre.

1st member is the O.W.Scand man's name Steinn (O.E.Scand Sten), which is of common occurrence in O.W.Scand place-names; see Rygh, Personnavne. The same name seems to enter into the following M.E. place-names … 2nd member probably O.W.Scand ekra 'a cultivated piece of land, corn-field'; Norwegian dialect, ækra, Swedish dialect ükra 'field that is left fallow'. The latter word is often found in place-names in the south of Sweden.

Staininghe … This looks like an O.W.Scand derivative in -ing, either a patronymic of the man's name Steinn (cf. preceding names), or developed from the concrete noun steinn (O.E. stan) 'stone'. With regard to the presumable original type of such names, see Hellqvist, p.137. As is stated by the same author (ibd. p.98) formations of this kind seem to have been rare in the local nomenclature of Old and Mediaeval Norway, although it is true they were far from being so in that of Sweden. Compare the O.Swed. place-name Steninge, Hellqvist, p.98. Staininghe may, of course, also be composed of steinn + O.E. ing 'meadow'.

Stein … From O.W.Scand steinn (O.E.Scand sten, O.E. 'stone, rock'. The word was in frequent use - uncompounded - as a place-name in ancient Norway. For examples see the indexes of E.J. (Biskop Eysteins Jordebog. Fortegnelse over det geistlige Gods i Oslo Bispedømme omkring Aar 1400; udgiven ved H. I. Huitfeldt. Christiania 1879.), and Rygh, N.G. (Norske Elvenavne. Kristiania (1904) [Elvenavne] & Gamle Personnavne i Norske Stedsnavne. Kristiania (1901) [Personnavne]).

A great many compounded M.E. place-names exhibit O.W.Scand steinn as 1st member. In not a few cases the remaining member, too, is a Scandinavian word; the Scandinavian origin of such names admits of no doubt whatever. But sometimes this latter member is either a native word or can be native as well as Scandinavian, when the word is found in exactly the same form in both languages. Now it should be noticed that in the local nomenclature of England previous to Domesday, as far as it is on record, compounds with O.E. Stan- seem to have been very frequent. Already in the earliest charters we repeatedly come across such names as - the following forms are normalized by me - Stanburh, Stanburne, Stanford, Stanclif, Stanleah, Stantun, etc.; see further the collections of Thorpe, Gray Birch, Kemble, and Dugdale. It is true that nearly all these names are known only from the southern counties to which the bulk of the O.E. charters relate. But it is more than probable that the local nomenclature of Northern England did not differ in this respect from that of the South. That being so, it is natural that in those districts of Northern England that were densely populated by Scandinavian settlers such and similar stan-names should be apt to be Scandinavianized, and that, in these parts, we should find Steinburh, Steinhurne, Steinford, etc.; see the list below. Still it is to be admitted that as long as no earlier native instances of those names can be given, we are not in a position to decide in each particular case whether a Scandinavian form found in Middle English represents a native formation in Scandinavian disguise, or whether the name was actually coined by the new settlers in the period when the amalgamation of the two races was in progress. I have deemed it appropriate to adduce here of such names only those of which the Scandinavian forms by far outnumber the native ones in my material. Some apparently native names of which Scandinavian spellings occasionally appear, are not included in the list below, as being of little or no value in the present investigation. They belong chiefly to Yorkshire, and their English origin is rendered likely by the fact that exact equivalents are as a rule to be found in counties out of Scandinavian England. If looked upon from these points of view, the following material may prove worthy of consideration … Steinegrif.


"The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names" Eilert Ekwall (1960) at pages 3 & 436

Stainsacre Yo. [Stainsaker 1090-6 YCh 855, Steinesacr 1176 P]. 'Stein's field'. First element ON Steinn personal name. See ÆCER.

O.E. æcer, 'field, ploughed land' = ON akr) is used alone in ACRE Nf and is the second element of some names … OScand akr is found in MUKER, ROSEACRE, STAINSACRE, TARNACRE.

[21] Stonegrave, Hutton Mulgrave & Souregryff.

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 85, 86 & 163.

Chapter 2

Names containing Old West Scandinavian ei (Old East Scandinavian e)

Steinegrif, Stanegrif Yo. DoB.; Steinegrive 12th century (?) Whitby Chartulary; Steingreua 1162-63 Pipe Rolls; Steyn-, Stayngreve, Steingrive circa 1267 Giffard's Reg. (The Register of Walter Giffard, Lord Archbishop of York 1266-79); Steingreve 1273 Calendar of the Patent Rolls, 1333 Cl. R. (Calendar of the Close Rolls (1227-1354) 1297; Steynegryve, Steyngrive 1277 Calendar of the Patent Rolls; Staingryfe, -grive, -gryf, -grif, -griff, Kirkby (The Survey of the County of York, taken by John de Kirkby, commonly called Kirkby's Inquest); Stayngrive Tax. eccl. (Taxatio ecclesiastica Angliæ et Walliæ auctoritate P. Nicholai IV. circa A.D. 1291); Steyngreve 1297 Ch. R. (Calendar of the Charter Rolls, 1226-1326); Stayngrife, Nomina villarum; Stenegriva, Stayngreve, Stangrive 1332 Rievaulx Chartulary; Stayngreve tempore Edward I Plac. Warr. (Placita de quo warranto, tempore Edward I - Edward III), 1300 Cl. R. (Calendar of the Close Rolls (1227-1354), I.N.; Stangreue 1441 Br.Mus. (Index to the Charters and Rolls in the Department of Manuscripts British Museum), etc.; now Stonegrave.

2nd member is M.E. grif, grive < O.W.Scand gryfja feminine 'a hole, pit, cavity.' The latter word is of frequent occurrence in O.Norw. place-names; compare Fritzner, and Rygh, NG (Norske Elvenavne. Kristiania (1904) [Elvenavne] & Gamle Personnavne i Norske Stedsnavne. Kristiania (1901) [Personnavne]") M.E. grif, grive are both recorded only in some place-names within the Scandinavian part of England; of these may be adduced, besides the name under notice: Sourgryff Yo. (see in Ch. 4); Grif Yo. 12th century, 1226 f., Griff, Griffe 1332 Rievaulx Chartulary, now Griff (near Rievaulx); Griva Warw. late Henry II, Gryff 1496 Br.Mus. (Index to the Charters and Rolls in the Department of Manuscripts British Museum), now Griff; Grif Derb. 1286 ibid., now Griff (in Bradborne); Hormesgrif (M.S. M. Ormesg[r]iue) Yo. 12th century Whitby Chartulary; Scineregrive ibid., now Skinningrove; Grif Yo. DoB.; Mulegrif after 1180, Mulegrive early 13th century Whitby Chartulary, now Mulgrave; etc. (further in Part II). M.E. grive must have been the earlier form of the two after the borrowing. From it was developed, by a sort of back-formation, M.E. grif with voiceless spirant, in conformity to the O.E. and M.E. sound-laws respecting the quality of medial and final f, and on the analogy of such cases as O.E. clif [-f-], dative singular, clife [-v-], N.E. cliff, in place-names Cliffe, and Clive (< M.E. clive); O.E. græf, M.E. grafe with the [-v-] of the inflected forms generalized, N.E. grave, but graff, graffe in the present Yorkshire and many other - also northern - dialects, with the voiceless sound of the old uninflected forms generalized (see E.D.D., gr. §279). In a similar way M.E. grif has come down in the Yorkshire and some other northern dialects as griff [f] 'a deep valley wdth a rocky, fissure-like chasm at the bottom; a deep, narrow glen, a small ravine' E.D.D. (The English Dialect Dictionary, ed. by J. Wright. 1-6. London 1898- 1905, Vol. 6 includes The English Dialect Grammar, by J. Wright; quoted as E.D.D. gr). The N.E.D. (A New English Dictionary on historical principles. Oxford 1888) gives griff with the sole comment 'origin obscure'; furthermore, the word has been dealt with by Wall (Scandinavian elements in the English dialects, Anglia XX), who confines himself to connecting it with O.W.Scand grof and some other Scandinavian words of more distant relationship. He includes it in his List B, which comprises words that can be either Scandinavian or English. In the face of the above material, the Scandinavian origin cannot be doubted.

Chapter 4

Names containing Old West Scandinavian ou, au

Sourgryff Yo. 14th century Whitby Chartulary … 2nd member is M.E. grif 'a hole, pit, cavity'. On its etymology see p.85, under Stonegrave.


Editor's note: it is unclear why M.E. grif is preferred by Lindkvist over ON gryfja 'hole, pit') unless the late (14th century) reference is thought to be the earliest.

[22] Hinderwell 'Hilda's well'.

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 10 & 11.

Chapter I

Names containing distinctively Old Scandinavian inflexional forms.

Hildreuuelle, Ildreuuelle Yo. DoB.; Hilderwelle circa 1146 (Papal confirmation), ante 1180 feminine Whitby Chartulary; Hilderwel 1202, Hilderwell, Hylderwell 13th century Guisbrough Chartulary; Hilderwell 1226 Gray's Reg. (The Register, or Rolls, of Walter Gray, Lord Archbishop of York 1225-1255), Kirkby (The Survey of the County of York, taken by John de Kirkby, commonly called Kirkby's Inquest), 1286 Patent Rolls, Tax. eccl. (Taxatio ecclesiastica Angliæ et Walliæ auctoritate P. Nicholai IV. circa A.D. 1291), 1314 C. Inq. (Calendar of Inquisitions post mortem and other analgous documents, Henry III - Edward III, Henry VII) Nomina villarum, 1332 f. Patent Rolls, 1339 f. C. Inq. (Calendar of Inquisitions post mortem and other analgous documents, Henry III - Edward III, Henry VII), 1475 Patent Rolls; Hilderwelle 1302 Feod. mil. Eb. (Feoda militum in Com. Ebor. (Knights' Fees in Yorkshire 31st Edward I); Hildrewell 1314 C. Inq. (Calendar of Inquisitions post mortem and other analgous documents, Henry III - Edward III, Henry VII), 1347 Patent Rolls; Hyldeswell I.N.; Hilierwell 1344 C. Inq. (Calendar of Inquisitions post mortem and other analgous documents, Henry III - Edward III, Henry VII); Hylderwella 1394/95 Whitby Chartulary; Hilderswell 1374, Hylderwell 1375 C. Inq. (Calendar of Inquisitions post mortem and other analgous documents, Henry III - Edward III, Henry VII); Hynderwell 1490 C. Inq. (Calendar of Inquisitions post mortem and other analgous documents, Henry III - Edward III, Henry VII); now Hinderswell.

1st member can be the genitive - normally Hildar - of the O.W.Scand female name Hildr, which, according to Lind (Lind, E. H. Norsk-isländska dopnamn ock fingerade namn fran medeltiden. Upsala 1905 f.), was in frequent use during the Viking Age. It is found in several Norw. place-names, e.g. Hilderton D. N. (Diplomatarium Norwegicum, I-XIX) 6 (1385), Hilldarland (see further Lind, E. H. Norsk-isländska dopnamn ock fingerade namn fran medeltiden. Upsala 1905 f.). A parallel to the former name, on English territory, is perhaps Hildertona, Hildreton Nhb.

2nd member M.E. welle 'a spring, fount' = N.E. well.

[23] Briggswath 'plank bridge ford'.

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at page 27

Chapter 2

Names containing Old West Scandinavian ei (Old East Scandinavian e)

Braythwath … 2nd member O.W.Scand vað, O.Swed. vaþ, O.Dan. vath 'a ford'. The place is situated on the Cod Beck, a tributary of the Swale. Compare N.E. dialect wath with the same meaning; the word occurs only in the Scandinavian counties of Northern England (see The English Dialect Dictionary 1898-1905) and is apparently Scandinavian loan.

[24] Larpool.

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at page 71

Chapter 2

Names containing Old West Scandinavian ei (Old East Scandinavian e)

Leirpel; see p.71: Leirpel Yo. early 12th century, Lairpel circa 1146, Leirpelle 1351, Lairpell, Layerpelle, Lairepell 1395, Larepoole circa 1540, Whitby Chartulary; now Larpool … 1st member being leir n. 'clay, loam; mud, especially on the beach' (O.E.Scand Ler), or leirr m. 'loamy soil' … Besides leir and leirr there was in O.W.Scand an allied formation leira (or leiri) which signified 'a loam-field, loamy or muddy shore'. Like leirr this latter word is found sporadically uncompounded as a place-name in Norway (see further Rygh, Indl.), and traces of the words occur, too, in Scandinavian England. A document of A.D. 1332 in the Chartulary of Rievaulx speaks of a plot of land in Nalton (Yo.) as 'una perticata terræ … quaelig; vocatur Leir'. It is by no means improbable that this field-name represents O.W.Scand leirr.

[25] Raincliffe and Rain Dale.

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at page 74

Chapter 2

Names containing Old West Scandinavian ei (Old East Scandinavian e)

Rancleiff [by Scarburgh] Yo. 1405 Pat.R.; Reynclyf 1461, Raynclyff 1475 Pat.R.; now Raincliff, near Scarborough. 1st member perhaps as in preceding name (Raynhull).

1st member may be O.W.Scand rein f. 'a strip of land which forms the boundary of a tilled field or an estate'. O.E.Scand ren; on M.E. rene 'border', see Björkman (Erik, 'Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English' 1900-02) p.63. This etymology goes well with the meaning of the 2nd member, M.E. hil, hul 'hill'. The former word appears to have been common to several Teutonic languages, and it may be appropriate to consider, in some measure, the sense-development it has undergone in them. In Norw. dialect (Aasen) rein has retained the meaning of the O.W.Scand word; moreover, it signifies a narrow ridge or elevation of the ground, a long bank of earth or gravel … we find rain used of a long slope, a slope descending towards a fen or river (Bavarian), the slope of a hill (Swiss) … 2nd member was originally O.W.Scand kleif 'a ridge of cliffs or shelves in a mountain side', subsequently replaced by the native M.E. clif, N.E. cliff, or O.W.Scand klif. …

[26] Snod Hill.

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 80 & 81

Chapter 2

Names containing Old West Scandinavian ei (Old East Scandinavian e)

Esneid Esnoid, Esnoit, Yo. DoB.; Snaid 1100-09 York Hist. (The Historians of the Church of York and its Archbishops); Snayth 1101-09 f., Snaith circa 1109-14 Selby Chartulary; Sneid 1154 ibid., 1168-69 f. Pipe R. (The Great Roll of the Pipe for the 5th year of Henry II, 1158-80), 12th century York Hist. (The Historians of the Church of York and its Archbishops); Sneit 1176-77 f. Pipe R. (The Great Roll of the Pipe for the 5th year of Henry II, 1158-80), 1210-12 Liber rub. (Liber rubeous de scaccario: the red book of the Exchequer); Sneyth 1189 Selby Chartulary, 1241 Rot. fin. exc (Excerpta e Rotulis Finium, 1216-72), 1242 Lanc. Inq. (Lancashire Inquests, Extents and Feudal aids, 1205-1333), 1151 f. Br. Mus. (Index to the Charters and Rolls in the Department of Manuscripts British Museum), 1270 Giffard's Reg. (The Register of Walter Giffard, Lord Archbishop of York 1266-79. Surtees Soc. 1904), 1267-76 N. Reg. (Historical papers and letters from the northern registers, 1216-1415), Tax. eccl. (Taxatio ecclesiastica Angliæ et Walliæ auctoritate P. Nicholai IV. circa A.D. 1291), 1291 Baildon (Notes on the Religious and Secular Houses of Yorkshire), 1255, 1300 f. Pat.R., 1343 Cl. R. (Calendar of the Close Rolls (1227-1354) 1297, etc.; Snay 1234 Cl. R. (Calendar of the Close Rolls (1227-1354) 1297; Snaith Ch. R. (Calendar of the Charter Rolls, 1226-1326); Snayth 1251 Ch. R. (Calendar of the Charter Rolls, 1226-1326), Rot. H. (Rotuli Hundredorum, tempore Henry III et Edward I), 1285 Baildon (Notes on the Religious and Secular Houses of Yorkshire), Tax. eccl. (Taxatio ecclesiastica Angliæ et Walliæ auctoritate P. Nicholai IV. circa A.D. 1291), 1292, 1304 Selby Register, Mon. III (Monasticon Anglicanum, I-VIII), Nomina villarum, 1318 f., 1427 Pat.R., 1378 Poll-tax (poll-tax 2 Richard II), etc.; now Snaith.

From O.W.Scand sneið f. 'a slice, piece', (sniða 'to slice, lop, cut'), here either used in a sense adopted from the O.E. equivalent snad, snæd, viz. 'a piece of land', or like the Norwegian dialect sneid and Danish sned (in local names, see Steenstrup, Da. Stednavne, p.103, and Indledende Studier, p.42) applied to a slope. The town of Snaith lies on a ridge of elevation, which slopes gently northwards to the so-called Snaith Marsh and the River Aire. On the southern side extend the Cowick Car and the Pollington Car. As applied to a piece of land, sneið is not recorded in the O.Scand. languages, to the best of my knowledge. Nor is any instance to be found among the Norwegian place-names hitherto dealt with in Rygh, N.G (Norske Elvenavne. Kristiania (1904) [Elvenavne] & Gamle Personnavne i Norske Stedsnavne. Kristiania (1901) [Personnavne]"). An allied word is MHG. sneite f. …

[27] Old Scandinavian tún.

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at page 7

Chapter 1

Names containing distinctively Old Scandinavian inflexional forms

Bernertone … 2nd member O.Scand. tún 'a hedged or fenced plot, enclosure within which a house is built, the farm-house with its buildings, a homestead', etc. = O.E. tun. Further details about this word when occurring in M.E. place-names of more or less certain Scandinavian origin, will be given in Part II. Cf. also Introd. Chapter V.

[28] Sneck Yate Bank from Old Norse snókr 'a snake' or snákr 'a snake' (only in poetry), gat 'hole, opening' and either banki 'earthen incline, bank of a river' or bakki 'bank of a river, earthen incline, slope'. See also Sneck Yate and Sneck Yate Plantation.

[29] Hesketh Hall and Grange.

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 29 & 64

Chapter 2

Names containing Old West Scandinavian ei (Old East Scandinavian e)

Bruneskayth … 2nd member O.W.Scand skeið, recorded in several meanings, of which the following may be quoted from Fritzner: (1) a race-course (2) a portion, piece (3) a ridge of earth or sand that forms a natural transit from one place to another (4) a cart-road between the corn-fields of a farm. Which of these meanings should be assigned to skeið in the present ease is uncertain. For further particulars see below under Hesketh …

Hesteskeith, Hestescaith Yo. tempore Henry II Rievaulx Chartulary; Hesteskeid, Hestechait, Hestelscaith, -sceit, Hescaid, 12th century ibid., Hestescheith 1160 (Papal confirmation), Heste(l)scarth 1189 (the copy in Pat.R., 3 Richard I, has Hestescaith) ibid., Hestscayth 13th century, Heskayth 1272 ibid.; Hestescarth 1252, Heyscayth 1268 Ch. R. (Calendar of the Charter Rolls, 1226-1326); Heskayth tempore Edward I. Plac. Warr.; Heskethe 1542 N.C. wills (North Country Wills 1383-1558); now Hesketh (Grange), near Boltby.

From O.W.Scand hestaskeið 'a race-course', the compound being made up of hestr (O.Swed. hæster, O.Dan. hæst) 'a horse', and skeið, on which see above p.29, under Brunstock. The name is of unmistakeably West Scandinavian origin; the same formation is represented by the O.Norw. place-name Hæsta skædi E.J. Other instances occur in Lancashire and Cumberland as … Heskaith …


"The Chief Elements used in English Place-Names" Allen Mawer (1924) at page 53

skeið, ON. Found in Norse place-names in more than one sense but all going back to the primary idea of 'separation', the word being allied to shed in watershed. Its exact sense in English place-names needs investigation … In Hesketh (2La, 2Y) it is compounded with hestr and denotes 'track marked off for or suitable for horse-racing'.


"The Origin of English Place Names" (1960) P. H. Reaney at page 163

Chapter Seven

The Scandinavian Element

Pure Scandinavian Place-Names

ON hestaskeið 'race-course' survives as Hesketh (La, NRY) and thrice as Hesket in Cumberland. Horse-racing was a favourite sport of the Scandinavians.

[30] Bertwait, Setwait and þveit place-names.

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 96 to 101, 102, 103 & 121

Chapter 2

Old West Scandinavian þveit in Middle English place-names

O.W.Scand. þveit f. properly meant 'a cut-off piece'; when occurring in place-names it seems to have been applied to an isolated parcel of land, a clearing, or an out-lying cottage with its paddock. Cf. Norwegian dialect tveit 'a clearing in the forest, a plot of grass-land in the forest or among cliffs', etc. Of cognate words should be noticed the collateral form þveiti 'a unit of weight or money', and þveitr 'incision, cut'; besides, representing other grades of ablaut, O.E. þwitan 'to cut, shave off', and geþivit 'what is shaved off, chip'. It is stated by Rygh (Indl. p.83) that þveit enters into about 600 Norwegian place-names, of which one third are uncompounded. With regard to the further distribution of the word as a place-name element Rygh adds that it is not found in Iceland, nor in the Norwegian colonies in the West, but that during the Viking Age it was introduced into northern England from Denmark. Yet, as has subsequently been pointed out by Jakobsen (Shetlands øernes Stednavne), the word actually occurs in some Shetlandic place-names; it is also found, sporadically, in Scotland, as may be learnt from Johnston, Place-names of Scotland, Introduction p.69. From the local nomenclature of the Isle of Man it seems to be missing. The statement of Rygh that þveit in North England place-names is to be attributed to Danish influence, which view is likewise put forward in Cleasby-Vigfusson's Dictionary, is altogether unfounded and untenable. See below.

In the E.Scand. languages we find O.Dan. tved(e): meadowland, a tongue of land, peninsula; often used in place-names, apparently with much the same meaning as the O.W.Scand equivalent (see Stenstrup, Da. Stednavne, p.105). Cf. Swedish dialect tvet 'chip', etc. (Rietz), also frequent in Swedish place-names in the sense of 'a detached plot of cultivated land' (see Sveriges Ortnamn). On the Norman place-names supposed to contain the same word see Fabricius p.317 f.

Passing on to the English territory we look in vain for the word in the M.E. vocabulary, as far as this is covered by the investigations of Björkman (Scandinavian Loan-words). That, however, it was in appellative use in Scandinavian England is evidenced by a passage in a charter signed by Henry II (1154-89) and relating to the Priory of Carlisle (Mon. VI, i), which specifies some pieces of land in Ireby, Cumb. as 'Langethweit, et Stalethweit, et alios Thweiter qui pertinent ad Langethwest'. Here we have before us the O.W.Scand accusative plural, normally þveitar - not recorded as appellative in O.W.Scand. literature? - with the inflexional -ar reduced, as usual, to -er in M.E. Moreover, the word still survives in N.E. dialect thwait (Lakel. Yo., Lanc.): (1) a forest clearing, a piece of land fenced off or unenclosed, a low meadow, (2) a fell, the shelving part of a mountain-side, (3) a single house, small hamlet.

O.W.Scand. þveit is preserved, lastly, in a great number of English place-names. Those marked on the modern maps have been enquired into by Worsaae (Minder) and Browne (Transact, of Philological Society 1880-81), who arrive at somewhat divergent results as to their frequency in the several counties. The instances considered by these two writers are by far outnumbered by those from the M.E. records adduced by myself below. This is illustrated by the following tabular view comprising the entire material:

New English thwaite-names according to Middle English þveit-names, dealt with below
  Worsaae Browne
Cumberland 43 6 52
Westmorland 14 4 23
Lancashire 14 2 43
Yorkshire 9 2 83
Lincolnshire - - 1 1
Nottinghamshire - - 5
Derbyshire - - 2
Leicestershire - - 3
Northamptonshire - - 1
Norfolk 2 2 7
Suffolk 1 1 2
  83 17 232

A glance at the Maps of the Ordnance Survey will show that in Yorkshire and the three north-western counties there are nowadays not a few other thwaite-names, in addition to those recorded in M.E. Such is particularly the case in Cumberland, where according to Taylor (Isaac, 'Names and their histories' 1898 at page 377), whose calculations I am for the present not in a position to verify, more than a hundred instances in all are to be found. It appears, then, that many of the present names of this kind came into existence only in the N.E. period. This fact holds good, even though due allowance has to be made for the possibility that some of those names did exist in M.E. times, though they happen not to be recorded in the sources of the present work. Now it should be remembered, for one thing, that a great percentage of the M.E. þveit-names dealt with below were field-names, that have, in progress of time, become obsolete, or at any rate have disappeared from the map. Furthermore, a considerable number of the modern thwaite-names had, during the M.E. period, quite different terminals, which in N.E. times were exchanged for -thwaite owing, to the influence exercised by the host of names composed with this terminal. A few examples may be adduced by way of illustration. The present Stangerthwaite in Wm. was in the 14th century Stangrewath (see above p.16). Ickenthwaite in North Lanc. - not given by Wyld & Hirst - was as late as A.D. 1534 Yccornewyth (see Furness Reg., Mon. V), from O.W.Scand. ikornaviðr = ikorna-skógr 'squirrels' wood'. Thornthwaite, near Boltons Cumb., on the river Waver, was Thoraldwath 1294 Cl. R. (Calendar of the Close Rolls (1227-1354), Thoraldewathie 1350 C. Inq. (Calendar of Inquisitions post mortem and other analgous documents, Henry III - Edward III, Henry VII), from O.W.Scand. póraldr or póraldi personal names, and vað 'a ford'. Considerations of space forbid me to treat of any more similar cases.

As may be seen from the tabular summary above, the M.E. þveit-names formed a characteristic feature of the local nomenclature in the northern, esp. north-western counties, whereas in those south of the Humber they were few and far between. Still more than thirty instances do occur in the Southumbrian counties, where the word þweit as a place-name element is by no means so rare as is asserted by Taylor (Isaac, 'Names and their histories' 1898) on the basis of the modern nomenclature.

With regard to the origin and age of the M.E. þveit-names some further remarks may be appropriate. Not one reliable instance seems to be on record in the O.E. period. Domesday has a very few, belonging to Yo. and Norf. Several others appear during the latter half of the 12th century in the monastic chartularies and registers, the Pipe rolls and in various other local documents. But the majority of these names are not met with until the 13th and 14th centuries, or even later. Their gradual appearance in literature reflects, to a certain extent, a progressive process of settlement, in the course of which a large proportion of them were coined, and the localities indicated by them were growing in importance. In many cases, when a þveit-name occurs for the first time in the records, it is expressly said to design a campus, or pastura, or cultura, or clausum, a meadow, vaccary, &c. It seems, in fact, that, as far as the earlier half of the M.E. period is concerned, the bulk of these names are to be regarded as mere field-names, mostly designations of reclaimed land, or of out-of-the-way places, which, as time went on, were built upon and permanently inhabited; many of them then formed some kind of dependencies of an old manor or demesne. In the same direction points the evidence that may be gathered from the quality of the 1st members of these names. For as 1st members we not seldom find the name of a township or a village, or else some other place-name, at times one that has not come down to our own times and, in consequence, cannot be precisely located. In other cases we find names of different varieties of corn, plants or trees, or words embodying some conspicuous natural feature of the spot.

It is a matter of special interest that in the case of a fairly great number of the names treated below, exact parallels can be adduced from O.Norw. territory, not nearly so often from O.E.Scand. This squares well with the fact that most M.E. þveit-names belong to counties, the local nomenclature of which is, in several other respects, demonstrably O.W.Scand. in form, as that of the three north-western counties (Lanc., Cumb., Wm.) and Yorkshire. On the other hand it is possible, or even probable, that at least in certain Southumbrian counties the þveit-names owed their origin to Danish settlers. The O.Dan., tved seems to have been of rather frequent occurrence in the oldest Danish place-nomenclature, as far as we can form an opinion on this with the aid of the LCD. and contemporary charters and deeds in SRD. compared with the material given by Steenstrup (l. c), and Madsen (Sjælandske Stednavne, p.251). But still the numerical superiority of the corresponding O.Norw. names is salient. Such facts go a long way to disprove the view held by Rygh and others (see above) that the occurrence of thwaite in North English place-names would be due to Danish influence.

As to the natural site of the places designated by thwaite it is true of nearly all north of the Humber that they belong to the most mountainous and rugged districts. Very often they are situated on mountain-sides sloping towards a lake, river or a valley. On the Cumberland thwaite-names an early 16th century writer, John Denton (see above p.30 n.), makes the following reflections:

But in several parts and pieces as they are marked by nature, differing in form and quality of soil or otherwise by the inhabitants inclosed from the barren wastes of the fells, such pieces of land are now and were of old called Thwaites in most places of the shire, sometimes with addition of their quality, as Brackenthwaite of fearns, Sivithwaite of rushes' etc.

The spelling of þveit in place-names seems to have presented great difficulties to the mediaeval scribes, to whom the proper form and meaning of the word must often have been unfamiiliar, if we may judge as much from the many corrupt spellings. This is also evident from the circumstance that þveit was occasionally mistaken for a different word, such as vað 'ford', wei 'way', &c, see below Langthwaite Yo., Braworth, Steinþveit. In the 13th and 14th centuries we not seldom come across the writing -weit, which seems to represent a continuation of the late O.E. tendency to drop the interdental spirant þ between consonants; examples are given by Kluge in Paul's Gr. (Paul, H. Grundriss der Germanischen Philologie, 1901-09) at page 1008, and, from Gaimar, by Rathmann, p.41, Anm. 3; cf. also the place-name Norwolde Norf. 1302 F.A. (Inquisitions and Assessments relating to Feudal Aids, etc. 1284-1431), but Northwolde 1316 f. ibid., now Northwold. The spirant must have been particularly subject to being lost, when it got into contact with a dental sound belonging to the 1st member; see, e.g. Gunthwaite, Geghestueit, Estweyt; cf. also Ruhwaith, Storthwayt, &c. On spontaneous dialectal development depends the loss of w in thweit, which is well instanced in North English local records, where spellings like -theit, -thait are to be found from the 12th century onwards. From the material brought together in Ellis, E.Engl. Pronunciation V, p.605 (cf. also in Hope's Glossary) may be learnt that in many place-names in Cumberland -thwaite is still in our days pronounced without the w. [th-at].

Here belongs the following M.E. material:

Thwayte, Thwaite Yo. 1372, Twayte 1424 Cal. Inq. (Calendarium Inquisitionum post Mortem sive Escaetarum (Henry III - Richard III); now (Hilla) Thwaite, near Hackness

Thwait sub Huglawe Yo. 1308 Whitby Chartulary; near Whitby

Bertwait Yo. ante 1180, Berthuait circa 1146 (Papal confirmation) Whitby Chartulary - In the Whitby district. Site unknown. From O.W.Scand berr, 'bare, naked', (O.Swed., Dan. bar, O.E. bær, M.E. bar); or perhaps rather O.E., M.E. bere 'barley', N.E. dialect bear, retained only in Scotland, Nhb., Yo., Li., Shrop. and Suff. Also O.W.Scand ber 'berry' might possibly be taken into consideration.

Setwait Yo. early 12th century, Whitby Chartulary. (cf. ibid. p.118 n.); near Whitby. Apparently from O.W.Scand sjár, sær (M.E. ) 'lake, sea'. An exact parallel is the O.Norw. Sæþuæit BK (Björgynjar Kálfskinn, 14th century).


"The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" A. H. Smith, Volume V (1979) at page 330

Field and other minor names

þveit is a common element in field-names. Usually the first element is descriptive of size, shape etc., … the name of a neighbouring feature as … Setwait (1155-65) in Hawsker near the sea (O.E. ) …

[31] haugr.

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 137 & 138

Chapter 4

Names containing Old West Scandinavian ou, au

Among my own material which is given below the reader will miss one category of names that he may have expected to find here. I am referring to the numerous names that contain O.W.Scand. haugr (O.Swed. högher, O.Dan. høgh) 'a hill, mound, cairn'. Of this word there occur in M.E. place-names several forms: hogh, hough, howe, hou, &c. They coincide in spelling with contemporary forms of O.E. hoh (ho) 'heel', M.E. hoge, howe, how (< O.E. hoge, dative singular) and - especially in the north - hogh, hough, which latter word was, too, very frequent in place-names almost everywhere in Scandinavian England. Having primarily meant 'heel', it was already in O.E. applied to 'a promontory, a projecting ridge of land, a height ending abruptly or steeply'; cf. North East dialect hoe. Now if we find a M.E. name terminating in -howe, &c. it is clearly impossible to determine, from a phonological point of view, which of the two words we have before us. In a few cases the character of the other member affords something in the nature of a clue to a plausible derivation, but as a rule we are left to what can be gathered by means of topographical investigations. Since I have not been in a position, for the present, to undertake any with the thoroughness and accuracy which would be desirable, I have preferred to give a survey of these names in the later, non-phonetical, part of the present work.

[32] Sneaton Thorpe and Sourebi.

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 162 & 163

Chapter 4

Names containing Old West Scandinavian ou, au

From O.W.Scand. saurar, nominative plural of saurr 'mud. dirt, excrements' (O.Swed. sör, O.Dan. sør), which word was frequently used - when simplex, in the plural - in place-names to design swampy soil … Cf. the O.Norw. place-name af Saurum B.J., and the Icelandic Saurar (Kålund). In England the word is found in M.E. as sowre, soore, and in N.E. dialect as saur 'liquid manure, dirt, black mud, soil', known only from some northern counties, especially Yo. - O.W.Scand. saurr occurs, besides, in the following M.E. place-names:

Sourebi Yo. ante 1180, Saurebi circa 1150, Soureby 1282, 1354 Whitby Chartulary; supposed to be identical with the present Sneaton Thorpe, see Whitby Chartulary p.398 n. … "and unto these had been added the lands of Sourebi (supposed to be Sneaton-Thorp), consisting of four carucates" - Whitby Chartulary at page lxvii

2nd member as in Aismunderby, p.3. Many places in Norway were called Saurby, see E.J. (Biskop Eysteins Jordebog. Fortegnelse over det geistlige Gods i Oslo Bispedømme omkring Aar 1400; udgiven ved H. I. Huitfeldt. Christiania 1879.) and N.G. (Norske Elvenavne. Kristiania (1904) [Elvenavne] & Gamle Personnavne i Norske Stedsnavne. Kristiania (1901) [Personnavne]") Cf. also the above-mentioned Icelandic Saurbœ La. (Landnámabók 1900) … 2nd member is O.W.Scand. boer, býr m. (O.Swed. byr, O.Dan. by) 'farm-buildings, a farm, abode, the farm-yard and buildings'. Cf. Fritzner. See also Introduction Ch. V.

[33] Blawath, Blawath Beck and Blawath Crag.

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at page 178

Chapter 5

Names containing Old Scandinavian a

Blawad, Blawat Yo. 12th century, Blawathgile 1200-01 Rievaulx Chartulary, now Bloworth? See ib. p.32 n. 2.

Blawath Yo. early 13th century, (passim) Guisbrough Chartulary; according to Cary's map now Blowith Beck in the south of Glaisdale (cf, Guisbrough Chartulary I p.103).

2nd member is O.W.Scand. vað = O.E. wœd 'a ford, shallow water' Bosw. Toller (Anglo-Saxon Dictionary 1882-98). Cf. further p.27 n. 1. … 2nd member O.W.Scand. vað, O.Swed. vaþ, O.Dan. vath 'a ford' … Cf. N.E. dialect wath with the same meaning; the word occurs only in the Scandinavian counties of Northern England (see The English Dialect Dictionary 1898-1905) and is apparently Scandinavian loan.

[34] Kelda.

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at page 28

Chapter 2

Names containing Old West Scandinavian ei (Old East Scandinavian e)

Braithekeld Yo. 1202 Ped. fin. Eb. (Pedes finium Ebor. tempore Ricardi I., 1191-99). A spring near Hutton Conyers.

2nd member M.E. keld (in place-names), N.E. dialect keld, kell (Nbh, Cumb., Yo., Lanc.) 'a fountain, spring', most probably from O.W.Scand. kelda (O.Swed. kälda, O.Dan. kyœldœ) with the same meaning. Frequent in North English place-names.

[35] Caltwayt.

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 113 & 183

Chapter 2

Old West Scandinavian þveit in Middle English place-names

Caltwayt Yo. 1227 Bracton. Not identifiable.

From O.W.Scand. kaldr 'cold'; cf. the O.Norw. place-name Kaldaþveit, postulated by Rygh, N.G. (Norske Elvenavne. Kristiania (1904) [Elvenavne] & Gamle Personnavne i Norske Stedsnavne. Kristiania (1901) [Personnavne]") VI, for the present Kaltvet. Kaldr may here have had the same application as kalinn in prec. name; noteworthy is, moreover, that M.E. cald, cold was employed of soil in the sense of 'slow to absorb heat, from its impervious clayey nature and retentiveness of moisture' N.E.D. (A New English Dictionary on historical principles. Oxford 1888) - Or perhaps from O.W.Scand. kál 'cabbage'; M.E. cale, cf. Björkman (Erik, 'Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English' 1900-02) p.106, and below Ch. 5.

Chapter 5

Names containing Old Scandinavian a

Kalegarth [cultura] Yo. tempore Edward I Plac. Warr. (Placita de quo warranto, tempore Edward I - Edward III); in Appletreewick. From O.W.Scand. kál-garðr 'a cabbage-garden', O.Swed. kalgarðer, O.Dan. kalgarth; to this word goes back New English dialect, kalegarth, quoted by E.D.D. (The English Dialect Dictionary 1898-1905) from Yo. and the northernmost comities. There are strong reasons in favour of the assumption that the M.E. northern cal, cale, kale 'cabbage', and its modern representative New English dialect kale, kail, depend on O.Scand. kal; so may the isolated O.E. cal in Æfric's Gloss. inasmuch as the current O.E. form was cawel, cawl (from Latin caulis; as for the further development see N.E.D. (A New English Dictionary on historical principles. Oxford 1888), and Björkman (Erik, 'Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English' 1900-02). In the same direction points the evidence afforded by the distribution of N.E. kale in the English dialects, where, with one exception, it is not found outside Scandinavian England. - M.E. kale resp. O.Scand. kal may further enter into … Caltwayt Yo., see above p.113.

[36] Cracoe and Crachou.

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 185 & 186

Chapter 5

Names containing Old Scandinavian a

Crachele Yo. DoB.; Crakehale 1269, Crachale 1282 C. Inq. (Calendar of Inquisitions post mortem and other analgous documents, Henry III - Edward III, Henry VII); Crakehall Kirkby; Crachall Nomine villarum; Crakhale 1331 C. Inq. (Calendar of Inquisitions post mortem and other analgous documents, Henry III - Edward III, Henry VII); now Crakehall, near Patrick Brompton.

Perhaps from the O.W.Scand. personal name Krákr or the feminine Kráka. But it may be more likely that we have here O.W.Scand. kráka (O.Swed. kraka, O.Swed. krakœ) 'a crow', or krákr 'a crow or raven', used as a surname. Both of them are recorded in literature in that application (F. Jonsson, Tilnavne; Kahle, Altwestnord. Beinamen), and are preserved in some O.Norw. place-names. Scandinavian loan is most probably the personal name Craca in LVD., and, likewise, M.E. crake, New English dialect (only in Scandinavian England, Shropshire and Scotland) crake 'a crow, rook' [cf. Björkman (Erik, 'Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English' 1900-02) p. 95). Kráka (and krákr ?) occurs in several other M.E. place-names; as a general rule it is impossible to decide, in each particular case, whether we have before us the appellative or the personal name. The latter seems to enter into a Yo. double of the name now under consideration, viz.

Crachou Yo. 1257 Ch. R. (Calendar of the Charter Rolls, 1226-1326); Crachhou Kirkby; Crakehowe 1302 Feod. mil. Eb. (Feoda militum in Com. Ebor. (Knights' Fees in Yorkshire 31st Edward I), 1334 C. Inq. (Calendar of Inquisitions post mortem and other analgous documents, Henry III - Edward III, Henry VII); Crakhowe Nomine villarum, 1378 Poll-tax (poll-tax 2 Richard II); now Crakoe.

2nd member perhaps M.E. hou < O.W.Scand. haugr 'a hill, mound, cairn'; see the comments on this word p.137. (see below)

Chapter 4 at page 137

Names containing Old West Scandinavian ou, au

Among my own material which is given below the reader will miss one category of names that he may have expected to find here. I am referring to the numerous names that contain O.W.Scand. haugr (O.Swed. högher, O.Dan. høgh) 'a hill, mound, cairn'. Of this word there occur in M.E. place-names several forms: hogh, hough, howe, hou, &c. They coincide in spelling with contemporary forms of O.E. hoh (ho) 'heel', M.E. hoge, howe, how (< O.E. hoge, dative singular) and - especially in the north - hogh, hough, which latter word was, too, very frequent in place-names almost everywhere in Scandinavian England. Having primarily meant 'heel', it was already in O.E. applied to 'a promontory, a projecting ridge of land, a height ending abruptly or steeply'; cf. North East dialect hoe. Now if we find a M.E. name terminating in -howe, &c. it is clearly impossible to determine, from a phonological point of view, which of the two words we have before us. In a few cases the character of the other member affords something in the nature of a clue to a plausible derivation, but as a rule we are left to what can be gathered by means of topographical investigations. Since I have not been in a position, for the present, to undertake any with the thoroughness and accuracy which would be desirable, I have preferred to give a survey of these names in the later, non-phonetical, part of the present work.

[37] Skáli, Scales, Scalby and Scalebec.

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 189, 190 & 191

Chapter 5

Names containing Old Scandinavian a

Scales … From O.W.Scand. skáli 'a hut, shed, put up for temporary use, sometimes at a considerable distance from the farm' (Norwegian dialect skaale: no O.E.Scand. equivalent recorded), which meaning is particularly obvious in compounds such as lauf-skáli, leik-skáli, fiski-skáli. On O.W.Scand. territory the term came soon to be employed chiefly of the house among the farm-buildings that was intended for sleeping in, svefn-skáli (cf. Guðmundsson, Privatboligen p. 206 &c.). In England there is as yet no evidence of a similar specialized application of the word, which appears in M.E. as scale 'shanty', the sole reference in Björkman (Erik, 'Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English' 1900-02), being from the northern Cursor Mundi. To the north is confined, too, its modern continuation, New English dialect (Cumb., Wm.) scale "a temporary hut or shelter, wooden shed'.

O.W.Scand. skáli occurs, moreover, in about 40 M.E. place-names, to be found almost exclusively in the northern counties of Yo., Lanc., Cumb., Wm., where they form a marked characteristic of the local nomenclature. The word seems to have been used here in the same sense as was stated above to have been the earliest on record, and in which it occurs in some O.Norw. place-names (see Rygh, Indl.). Of the greatest interest are those M.E. names of this kind into which it enters, generally in the plural, as last member; as first member we find, as a rule, a personal name, a place-name, or a descriptive word, referring either to the situation of the building, the purpose for which it was used, or to its form and structure. Several noteworthy and suggestive compounds of the two last-named categories are included in the list below.

… But to return to O.W.Scand. skáli: It is derived … from a Teutonic Skawalan. Although there are no phonetical difficulties in the way of such a derivation, it seems to me preferable to connect the word with O.W.Scand. skál (O.Swed. skal, O.Dan. skaal) 'a bowl, dish, scale of balance', as is suggested by Guðmundsson (o. c., p.207), who, in support of his view, calls attention to the compound skál-hús = skáli. Our skáli would then primarily have denoted a bowl-shaped hut. Buildings of such a form are proved to have existed since primeval times in Iceland, Shetland, the British Isles ('beehive houses'), and elsewhere in northern Europe (see ib. p.107 f.); in Iceland they are still to be found and especially used for confining sheep in. Again, the aforesaid O.W.Scand. skál (< Teutonic skæo) has several cognates in the Continental Teutonic languages, such as Old Saxon scâla, … When faced with such facts one might feel disposed to wonder if an O.E. equivalent to these words did not once exist; we should then expect an Anglian form scel or a weak scela, which would be precisely the ground-word presupposed by a native M.E. shele. In other words, the possibility is not out of the question that O.W.Scand. skáli and M.E. shele are - at any rate approximately - etymological equivalents, which have undergone the same development in meaning. It must be regretted that the material to go upon in O.E. is so very scanty and does not suffice for forming any definite conclusions, the nearest cognate here being scealu 'a shell, dish, cup &c' with short stem-vowel. Accordingly the whole problem remains, for the present, practically unsolved.

We now pass on to the other M.E. place-names containing O.W.Scand. skáli.

Scalebec Yo. 12th century Whitby Chartulary; near Liverton. 2nd member is O.W.Scand. bekkr (O.Swed. bäkker), or M.E. beck 'a stream'.


"The History of Whitby, and of Whitby Abbey, before the Conquest" Lionel Charlton (1779) Book II at pages 132 and 133

893. Grant by Robert de Livertun to the monks of Whitby of two bovates and a toft in Livertun and 18 acres of Land. 1170-1180

Chartulary of Whitby f. 59

… About the year 1163 the aforesaid Robert of Livertun gave, granted etc … Some time after this, the same Robert of Livertun gave, granted and by his charter confirmed to God and St Peter and St Hylda of Wyteby … the land which is between the water of Scineregrive and Scalebec, as far as the footway coming from Grenerig; and also the land on the other side of Scalebec, between the said footway and the tillage land of the countrymen, as far as the toft of the two aforesaid oxgangs …

at page 187 of the Chartulary of Whitby:

M. Scinnergriue. It seems to be impossible now, owing to the change of local names during recent times, to identify tlie streams here named, or indeed any of the places specified, with rare exceptions. There are two becks which meet at the northern limit of Liverton, one of which is now called Kilton Beck, and the other White Cliff Beck, and which with their united streams flow on to Skinningrove. Scalebeck is probably Kilton Beck, but it is impossible to decide. Grenerig is Gerrick.


"Early Yorkshire Charters; being a collection of documents anterior to the thirteenth century made from the public records, monastic chartularies, Roger Dodsworth's manuscripts and other available sources" William Farrer 1861-1924 (published 1914 in four volumes) at page 237

Volume II

At page 237

The Memorials of the abbey record the gifts of Robert de Liverton as consisting of ½ carucate quit of Danegeld with additions which William, dean (of Cleveland?), sold to them. In the confirmation of Henry II (1175-1180) the donor is described as Robert son of Nigel de Liverton. The additions, namely 18 acres and a toft in Liverton, were ostensibly given by Robert de Liverton, but the person from whom they were acquired may have been William de Herlesei, who attested the donation.

At a later date Robert de Liverton gave to the monks land and wood between the water of Schinnegrive and the water of Scalebec to the road of Grenerig, which runs from Schinnegrive to Scalebec; land of Lusekeldesic, from the sea road to Duncildehalc and from the tilled land, formerly the monks', to Scortebutes; and a toft of 2 acres in 2 parcels; attested by Henry de Percy, Peter de Bradelai, and two others.

[38] Arkilmire.

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 205 & 206

Chapter 6

Names containing Old Scandinavian y

The only place-name element which belongs to this chapter is M.E. mire < O.W.Scand. myrr f. 'moor, bog, swampy ground' … All the M.E. names that contain the Scandinavian word are to be found in northern England. I have noted the following instances:

Compare, however, next page, foot-note 6 … With regard to Mirefelt, Myrehage, Mireschogh and Mireton it is possible, from a formal point of view, that the 1st member is, instead, from M.E. mire 'an ant', borrowed from Scandinavia; cf. Björkman (Erik, 'Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English' 1900-02) p.115. In any case the names are to be included here.

Arkilmire Yo. 13th century Guisborough Chartulary; Arke(l)mire 13th century Rievaulx Chartulary; near Normanby

[39] -Toft place-names e.g. [39] Allan Tofts (Aleinetoften) and Hartoft Rigg (Haretoft).

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at pages 208 to 212 & 217

Chapter 7

Names containing Old Scandinavian o

From O.E., M.E. toft 'a piece of ground, a slightly elevated, exposed site, campus', an adoption of O.Dan. toft 'an enclosed home-field' (husætoft, see Lund; cf. O.Swed. tomt, topt, toft), or O.W.Scand. topt, tupt 'a piece of ground, messuage, homestead, a place marked out for a house or building' … The meaning of 'messuage', i.e. a portion of land, intended to be occupied, or actualty occupied, as a site for a dwelHng-house and its appurtenances, is to be assigned to the Latinized forms toftum, tofta, which are of constant occurrence in Old and Middle English records of various descriptions, especially in charters transferring landed property. In such documents the phrase cum tofto et crofto is met with, over and over again.

As a place-name element the O.Scand. toft, topt is frequently found in Norway and, more particularly, in Denmark and Sweden … Some instances exist, moreover, in Iceland (La.), in the Shetlands … in Scotland … in the Faroes … besides, there are a great number in Normandy, for examples of which see below. From Mediaeval England I have noted more than a hundred place-names containing the word, which are scattered nearly all over Scandinavian England, from Suffolk in the south up to Northumberland, Durham and Westmoreland in the north; the last three counties, together with Lancashire and Cumberland, have only one instance each. The scarceness of the word in the local nomenclature of the northern counties is noteworthy in view of the fact that New English dialect toft (tuft Yo.) is in general use even in that part of the country - see E.D.D. (The English Dialect Dictionary 1898-1905). Of the material given below about four fifths belong to Yo.), Li and Norf.

An examination of the compounded M.E. toft-names will show that comparatively many of them contain a native word as 1st member, either an appellative or a personal name. All things considered it is clear that toft was adopted in the native language at a very early period. [The word seems to have been introduced here in the form toft and prior to the O.W.Scand. transition ft > pt which … was in operation about A.D. 1000. When that is so, and the word occurs both in O.W.Scand. and O.E.Scand. local nomenclature, all attempts at deciding whether the English toft-names are of West or East Scandinavian extraction are doomed to failure from the outset, the more as the 1st members of the compound names are anything but suggestive on this point.] Furthermore it is interesting to notice that exact parallels to several of these names can be cited from the numerous toft-names of Normandy, the total number of which is put down by Taylor (Words and places, p. 123) at about one hundred. Among the early Norman instances adduced by Fabricius (p.312 f.) we find Breitot, Hotot, Esketot or Esquetot, Langetot, Wictot or Wigetot, &c., all of which re-appear in Scandinavian England. As may be seen from these spellings, the Norman form of toft was tot - with the f regularly dropped before the consonant t - which, indeed, occurs in all the names of the present kind given by Fabricius (1. c.) and Joret (p.52-54). Under such circumstances it is not surprising that the same tot is used repeatedly in the place-name spellings of Domesday, which is wholly in keeping with the Norman orthography of this record, while it is hardly ever found in our subsequent sources. We now pass on to the remaining material:

Tofthous Yo. 1291 A. Plac. (Placitorum in domo capit. Westmonast. asservatorum abbreviatio. Tempore regum Richard I - Edward II); Tofthouse, Thouhouse Kirkby now lost. Near Harewood. This name is etymologically identical with New English dialect toft-house 'the house attached to a toft' (E.D.D. 'The English Dialect Dictionary' 1898-1905).

Ailwintoft Yo. 1310 Ch. R. (Calendar of the Charter Rolls, 1226-1326); in Scaling near Easington, N. Riding. 1st member is the M.E. personal name Aylwine for which cf. above p.192 n. 6.

Aldwinetoftes, Aldenetoftes Yo. 13th century, Aldenetoftes 1332 Rievaulx Chartulary; now Antofts. 1st member is O.E. Ealdwine, Aldwini, personal name. From this is, perhaps, Aldene in DoB. (cf. Aldenescheles p.190). M.E. Aldewyn, Aldyn, &c.; cf. Bardsley, under Alden.

Aleinetoften Yo. 1204 Rot. Ch. (Rotuli Chartarum in Turri Londinensi asservati, 1199-1216); Aleinstoftes Rot. H. (Rotuli Hundredorum, tempore Henry III et Edward I); Aleintoftes 1297 Yo. inq. (Yorkshire inquisitions 1241-95), 1372 Cal. Inq. (Calendarium Inquisitionum post Mortem sive Escaetarum (Henry III - Richard III); near Scalby and Scarborough. 1st member is the common M.E. personal name Aleyn, Alayn, of which numerous instances are to be found in early M.E. records. Cf. Aleynscheles p.190. Bardsley (q.v.) states it to be of Norman introduction.

Alwaldtoftes Yo. 1292 Pat. R. (Calendar of the Patent Rolls, 1216-1485); Alwaldetoftes 1295, Allewartoftes 1296 Yo. inq. (Yorkshire inquisitions 1241-95); near Liglethwaite? From O.W.Scand. Olvaldi, O.Dan. Alwaldi, personal name; or, possibly, O.E. &ARlig;lfweald. Cf. Alwaldeby, p.175 n.3.

Arnaldetoftes Yo. 12th century f. Whitby Chartulary; near Ayresome. From O.W.Scand. Arnaldr O.E.Scand. Arnald, personal name; or M.E. Arnald < O.E. Earnweald (on record?) ?

Haretoft Yo. Nomine villarum, 1349 Cal. Inq. (Calendarium Inquisitionum post Mortem sive Escaetarum (Henry III - Richard III); now Hartoft. From M.E. hare (O.E. hara) or (O.N. hari 'a hare') O.Swed. hari, Danish hare 'a hare'.

(More -toft place-names from Beltot to Werkhustoft on pages 213 to 225

[40] Wragby.

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at page 208

Chapter 6

Names containing Old Scandinavian y

Wragmire Cumb. 1362 Test. Karl. Not identifiable … Perhaps from the O.W.Scand. man's name Ragi (< Wragi), O.Dan. Wraghi, which is found in the Lincolnshire place-name Wragheby (see above p.197 n.). Or Wrag- might possibly be an orthographical error for Wrang-, in which case it is to be explained as in Wrangeflat, see p.197 n. 1


"Scandinavian Settlement Names in Yorkshire" Gillian Fellows Jensen (1972) at pages 6 & 7

II. Place-names in

1. The element in Scandinavia and Yorkshire

… In Norway, on the other hand, the term () seems to have been generally used of an isolated farmhouse, perhaps also originally of cultivated land. At all events, however, the element would seem to have acquired the meaning "village" before the period of the Scandinavian settlements in England (cf. PNEl i 66-72).

It is generally accepted that the village names in - in England were given by the Danish settlers but, as Kr. Hald points out in KLNM II 386, the use of the element by in the sense "village" would seem to have penetrated to the north and west from the areas of densest Danish settlement and there been adopted by the Norwegian settlers. Neither those places with names in in the areas of York­shire which are generally considered to have been settled by Norwegians nor those whose names contain a demonstrably WScand first element (e.g. an Irish or Norwegian personal name) can be shown to have been any smaller at the time of the compilation of DB than the villages in the demonstrably Danish areas. It is conceivable, however, that some of the names in the areas of predominantly Norwegian settlement and perhaps elsewhere, too, may originally have contained by in the sense "farmhouse". It is noticeable that several of the names indicate places that are now completely lost or whose site is marked by a solitary house or farm or in some cases merely by archaeological remains.

The volumes of the EPNS, however, record no less than 69 instances of place-names in in Yorkshire which are first recorded in post-DB sources. There are 25 in YN, 7 in YE, and 37 in YW. Only 12 of these names are borne by townships or parishes … Of these, 12 probably contain Scandinavian personal names, namely … Wragby YN (Wrauby 1344, Vragi, PNYN 118), and Wragby YW (Wraggebi 1160-70, Vragi, PNYW 2, 89) …

[41] Saltwick Nab (Whitby) 'salt bay headland' from ON salt 'salt', ON vík or wic 'bay, cove, creek' and ON nes 'headland, cape, promontory'.

[42] Eller, possibly from Ælla (Ella, Ille), the first certain king (560-588) of Deira, a kingdom (559-664) in Northern England which probably emerged when Anglian warriors conquered the Derwent Valley in the third quarter of the fifth century. It extended from the Humber to the Tees, and from the sea to the western edge of the Vale of York. The origin of all four place-names - Eller Beck, Eller Beck Bridge, Eller Beck Head and Little Eller Beck - is ON bekkr 'a brook, stream', and it was common for the ancient names of rivers to survive the place-name Scandinaviasisation during the Scandinavian colonisation which took place between circa 900 and 1086.

"Middle-English place-names of Scandinavian origin" Harald Lindkvist (1912) at page LIX

Chapter 5

Some general remarks on the Scandinavian place-nomenclature in England in Old and Middle English times

Of M.E. nature names which contain Scandinavian elements there is an almost endless host preserved in our charters and other records of a more local character. Among them we meet with names of woods and groves, hills and mountains, valleys, bays and inlets, fens and marshes, fords, &c. Relatively few in number are the names of lakes and rivers … Most of the river-names in England seem to be very ancient and of Celtic origin, and they were not discarded either by the Anglo-Saxon or the Scandinavian invaders … Many of the northern M.E. names of streams and brooks which terminate in -beck without doubt embody O.W.Scand. bekkr and not the native beck (cf. this word in Björkman (Erik, 'Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English' 1900-02) p.144), more particularly when the preceding member is a Scandinavian word, as in Stainbec p.89 … There is no reason for doubting the Scandinavian origin of such a name as a whole.


"The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names" Eilert Ekwall (1960) at pages 163 & 165

Ellerbeck YN [Elre, Alrebec, DB, Elrebeck 1243 FF], Ellerburn YN [Elreburne DB, -burn 1225 Ep, Alreburne circa 1160 YCh 380]. 'Alder brook'. See ALOR, Elri.

O.Scand elri 'alders, alder grove' is the first element of several names, as ELLERBECK, ELLERKER. Cf. ELLERS, ELLERTON.

[43] Staintondale.

"The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names" Eilert Ekwall (1960) at pages 436 & 438

Staintondale YN (Steintun DB … A Scandinavianized form of STANTON, O.E. Stantun.

O.E. Stan-tun, which probably as a rule means 'TUN on stony ground'. Sometimes a Stanton was named from some prominent stone or stones …


[44] Cloughton, Cloughton Beck, Cloughton Newlands and Cloughton Wyke.

"The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names" Eilert Ekwall (1960) at page 113

Cloughton YN [Cloctune DB, -ton 1191 ff, Clotton 1195 Pipe Rolls]. 'TUN in a ravine' Cf. CLOH

O.E. cloh, M.E. clo dialect 'ravine'. See … CLOUGHTON.

[45] ON Ketil, Kettle Howe and Kettle Well Cottage. Possibly also from ON personal name Ketill (OSwed Kœtil, ODan Ketil): 'Ketill's cairn' and 'Ketill's well' - see below "The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" A. H. Smith, Volume V (1979) at pages xxiv & 332:

"The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" A. H. Smith, Volume V (1979) at pages xxiv & 332

Introduction (at page xxiv)

Pickering Lythe Wapentake

Thornton Dale

KETTLETHORPE (lost)

  • Chetelestorp 1086 (Domesday Book), circa 1250 (Malton Cartulary) 118

'Ketill's village'; vide þorp. A common Scandinavian personal name.

[46] Place-names ending in -ing: Abbot Ings, Broad Ings Farm, Moor Ings, Moor Ings Bank and Suffield Ings.

"The Chief Elements used in English Place-Names" (1924) Allen Mawer at page 24

Much more common in field-names than place-names and it has been assumed in explanation of place-names in -ing far too frequently. Ekwall (English PN in -ing, 28-9) shows that it must not be assumed unless the early forms show eng rather than ing).

[47] Steinn and place-names ending in -stan and tun

"The Chief Elements used in English Place-Names" (1924) Allen Mawer at pages 55 & 56

There has been much confusion between place-names in stan and those in tun preceded by the genitive singular in -es of a personal name or common noun, for both alike in modern English naturally end in ston.

steinn, ON, 'stone, rock' cognate with O.E. stan. It is very common in place-names in numerous Staintons and Stainforths but is not always easily distinguished from the personal name Steinn. It is often replaced in the present-day form by English stan or stoneStonegrave Y.

[48] þorn, þyrne and þyrnir place-names

"The Chief Elements used in English Place-Names" (1924) Allen Mawer at pages 59 & 60

þorn, O.E., ON, 'thorn-bush'. Places whose name begins with Thorn- must, for the most part, have been so called owing to the presence of some thorn-bush close at hand, but some Thorntons and the like may denote enclosures actually made from thorn-bushes …

þyrne, O.E., 'thorn-bush' … In Scandinavian England it is impossible to distinguish it from ON þyrnir.

[49] Coverdale Pasture Plantation, Gowerdale Wood, Gowerdale Windypits, Limperdale Gill, Limperdale Rigg, Sneverdale Rigg, Whisperdales, Whisperdales Beck and Whisperdales Farm

"The Origin of English Place Names" (1960) P. H. Reaney at pages 163 & 164

Chapter Seven

The Scandinavian Element

Pure Scandinavian Place-Names

… Undoubted proof that a place-name was given by a Scandinavian-speaker is provided by the survival of Scandinavian inflexional forms. The OSc genitive in -ar survives in … Amotherby (NRY) … This ON inflexion is also used in compounds formed from older place-names: … Such compounds are usually found in areas known to have been at least partly colonised by Norwegians and are rare in preponderatingly Danish districts … In Norway this r of the genitive was normally preserved; in Danish and Swedish it was lost, particularly before a consonant, the normal ODa genitive becoming -a and later -e.

[50] Beck Hole, Beck Hole Road and Beck Hole Scar

"The Origin of English Place Names" (1960) P. H. Reaney at page 166

Chapter Seven

The Scandinavian Element

Scandinavianised Place-Names

Word-substituition

… Substitution of a Scandinavian word for an English synonym is common: … Holebec c1180 'stream in the hollow' (OE broc, ON bekkr 'stream') …

[51] Cober and Cober Hill.

"The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names" Eilert Ekwall (1960) at page 114

Cober River, Cornwall [Coffar 1284, 1286 Assize Rolls, Chohor 1336 Charter Rolls] Unexplained.

Derivation unknown but see Cobers Laithe [SD 86175 53599] and Cobers Laithe Camp (Nappa) [SD 86702 53404] (North Yorkshire) believed to be an Iron Age camp or settlement which has yet to be excavated. Derivation of first element 'cobers' unknown but second element is from ON hlaða 'a barn'.

[52] Airy Hill and Airy Hill Farm.

"The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" A. H. Smith, Volume V (1979) at pages 49 and 126

Ryedale Wapentake (at page 49)

Hovingham

1. Airyholme 22 J 9

  • Erghum 1138 (Dugdale's Monasticum vide 350)
  • Ergum 1218 (Yorkshire feet of Fines), 1236 (Calendar of Close Rolls)

'(At) the shielings' vide erg. The word is derived ultimately from OIr airgh 'a place for summer pastures in the mountains', and as Airholme stands on the top of a hill overlooking Wath Beck in the hilly district south of Hovingham, it seems probable that the meaning of the name is 'summer pastures'. The phonology of this word is of interest; the MIr form was airge but this does not indicate a diphthong; medial -i- is here used to indicate the palatial quality of OIr a, whilst gh represents a spirant consonant aspirated from original stopped g between vowels. The pronunciation, therefore, of OIr airgh would be [ærg]. This would normally develop into [erj(ɘm)] in Yorkshire.

Whitby Strand Wapentake (at page 126)

7. Whitby 16 F 11

Airy Hill

  • Ergum 1090-6 (YCh 855 et passim to 1314 North Riding Record Society Publications, 2nd Series)
  • Hergum 1155-65 (Whitby Cartulary)

vide erg and cf. Airyholme 49 supra.


"The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names" Eilert Ekwall (1960) at pages 4 and 168

Airyholme YN near Malton [Erghum 1138 Mon], YN in Ayrton [Ergun DB]. 'The shielings', the dative plural of erg.

ON erg, ærgi 'a shieling, i.e. a hill pasture, a hut on a pasture', from MIr airge 'a dairy, Ir airghe, Gaelic airidh 'a shieling', is common in place-names in Cumbria, Lancashire, Westmorland, Yorkshire. The element is usually combined with Scandinavian first elements, and the names must be looked upon as Scandinavian. The vowel of the word varies a good deal between e and a. This is due to various substitutions for the Irish sound. Erg is the second element of several names … It is often used alone as a place-name usually in the plural … The following go back to the dative plural ergum, ærgum: Airyholme …


"A Viking-Age Shieling in Skarðsvík, Fugloy, Faroe Islands" Anna Katrin Matras, Hákun Andreasen and Steffen Stummann Hansen (2003) at pages 207 to 211

How do we explain the occurrence of an originally Old Irish term for shieling sites in the Faroe Islands ? According to Matras, the term was brought here by Viking-Age settlers who had become acquainted with it in Scotland, where the Scots-Gaelic language derives from Old Irish. Dahl did not touch upon this question of origin either in his publication of the shieling site Ergidalur or in an article published the following year. The linguist Fellows-Jensen suggested in 1980 that the term œrgi/áirge referred to a specific type of shieling, which was unfamiliar to the Scandinavian settlers when they arrived in the Celtic-speaking world and, consequently, they adopted the local term. She suggested that the Isle of Man was the most likely place that this occurred. Mahler points out that the Faroese landscape is quite different from the homeland of its early settlers, which he assumes to have been Norway, and he proposes that this may have forced them to introduce a somewhat different shieling model than the one they were used to. He suggests that they found this in the Celtic-speaking regions to the south and hence the adoption of the term œrgi into Faroese.

Fellows-Jensen has recently re-stated her views on the origins of the term œrgi:

"Although the word is recorded in Old Irish sources … it would not seem to have been used there as a place-name element denoting a shieling and it is thus very unlikely that the Norse can have adopted the element from the Irish. It is probable then, that they became acquainted with the word in a sense such as 'summer grazing land' in the areas which are known to have had a Gaelic-speaking population in the period of the Norse settlement, that is the Western Isles, the western seaboard of Scotland or the Isle of Man … The Isle of Man might seem a likely place for the Norse form to have developed because the inhabitants were Gaelic-speaking before the arrival of the Norse".

In her 1980 paper she explained why she excluded Ireland as the source of the term:

"Although there are a few possible occurrences of the element áirge in place-names in Kerry, it seems hardly likely that the Vikings adopted the generic in the sense 'summer milking-place' in Ireland. The Viking settlements in that country were small and rather urbanised and practically restricted to the areas surrounding Dublin, Wexford, Waterford, Cork and Limerick".

In the authors' opinion it seems strange that Fellows-Jensen does not accept that the Old Irish term áirge, as it was used in Ireland in the Early Medieval period, was used in place-names to denote a shieling. It seems clear that it must have been used, to the extent that the Irish historical and literary sources indicate what the meaning of the term actually was. Kelly, for instance, based on his study of these sources, notes that: "In summer, cows were milked away from the farm at a contemporary milking-place (áirge)". Clearly, one can argue that if a term is used in literary and historical sources to describe a specific activity then this term is very likely to have been used as an element in the names of places connected to this type of activity. In the authors' view the opposite argument, which appears to form Fellows-Jensen's viewpoint, cannot be supported: if an activity-specific term does not exist as a place-name element, then this means that the concept behind the term was not practised. This is arguing on the basis of negative evidence.

The basis for Fellows-Jensen's belief, that the Scandinavian settlers did not adopt the term áirge in Ireland, is clear. She states:

"The Viking settlements in that country were small and rather urbanised and practically restricted to the areas surrounding Dublin, Wexford, Waterford, Cork and Limerick".

This statement does not stand up to examination, however, and is incorrect on several grounds. The traditional view of the character of Scandinavian settlement in Ireland and of the interaction of the Scandinavians with native Irish society has been transformed in recent decades. For instance, Bradley has demonstrated that there was a significant Scandinavian or Hiberno-Scandinavian presence in the rural areas surrounding the urban centres, and that some of these areas were very sizeable. For example, the total area of the hinterland of Scandinavian Dublin, Dyfflinarskiri, approximately matches that of Viking-Age Orkney. Recent work by Sheehan, Stummann Hansen and Ó Corráin has demonstrated, by means of archaeological, historical and onomastic evidence from the southwest coast of Ireland, that there is likely to have been a developed network of Scandinavian or Hiberno-Scandinavian settlements along this coastline serving as way-stations for shipping between the urban centres. Therefore, it is clear that there were significant amounts of Scandinavian settlement in rural environments in Ireland. In such contexts, there would have been many interchanges of knowledge and practices, including interchanges relating specifically to farming.

Fellows-Jensen's comment on the prevalence of the áirge element in Ireland, furthermore, is not correct. The element occurs, for instance, in the following place-name examples: … All of these names located in upland locations, though the elevation of those in County Limerick is slight. The latter locations, however, do contrast markedly with the rolling plains of the adjacent Golden Valley.

All authorities agree that the occurrence of the place-name element œrgi in the Faroe Islands derives from the Celtic-speaking world. However, there is disagreement about where specifically it derives from and about how it was transmitted to the Faroe Islands. It is the view of the authors that its adoption may well indicate that a sizeable section of the Viking-Age settlers of the Faroe Islands had their roots in Hiberno-Scandinavian communities, and there is further archaeological and linguistic evidence to support this hypothesis (see for instance Stummann Hansen and Sheehan, submitted). These settlers, probably bilingual, would already have been familiar with the term œrgi and it was only natural that they transplanted this term into the landscapes of their new homeland - the Faroe Islands.

[53] Bridge Holm Lane and Brigholm.

Brygholm (13th century) Whitby Chartulary [Surt. Soc.], 520). Brigholme (formerly listed under Brig Garth) is a Grade II listed building (English Heritage ID 327802) located at NZ 95249 04957 (54.4311, -0.5332 and YO22 4SF).

[54] Barnby.

"Scandinavian Settlement Names in Yorkshire" Gillian Fellows Jensen (1972) at page 19

II. Place-names in bý

2. The first elements in the place-names in bý

3. The material.

Barmby, Barnby, Bernebi

5. Barnby township, Langbargh E W, N. Barnebi 38ov.

The first element is probably the genitive plural of the appellative barn "child" … but possible alternative suggestions are the Scandinavian personal names Barn, Barni … or Bjǫrn, Bjarni … If the first element is barn or Barn(i), the spellings in e show Anglo-Norman interchange of a and e. If the first element is Bjǫrn or Bjarni, spellings in e represent the normal form the diphthongs ja and take in English sources and spellings in a show the Anglo-Norman interchange mentioned above.

[55] Danby.

"Scandinavian Settlement Names in Yorkshire" Gillian Fellows Jensen (1972) at page 25

II. Place-names in

3. The material

Danby, Denaby, Denby

1. Danby Parish, Langbargh East Wapentake, North (Riding) Danebi 327v, 328r, 380v, Danebia 333r … The first element is the genitive plural of the folk-name "Danes", presumably indicating isolated Danish settlements (DEPN; PNYN 131 etc) … In (Danby) the form is the Scandinavian genitive plural Dana suggesting that the names may have been given by Norwegians in Norwegian dominated areas …


"The Place-Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire" A. H. Smith, Volume V (1979) at pages xxv and 131

Introduction (at page xxv)

… Danby in Cleveland, the only other name pointing to Danish settlement, though in Langbargh East, belongs to the geographical district of Eskdale, and if the name Danby has any racial significance it suggests that the Danes were only present there in small numbers. In Whitby Strand, therefore, the very high proportion of Scandinavian names must be due to Norwegian influence. In the north of the Riding there are a few traces of Danish colonisation

Langbargh East Wapentake

1. DANBY 16 J 5

Danebi, Daneby 1086 DB et passim to 1328 Banco
Danby 1285 KI et passim
Danby Forest 1665 Visit

'Village of the Danes' vide by. For the significance of this name, vide Introduction xxv.


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